Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2022-07-25T08:34:00+00:00 Dr Hari Dahal Open Journal Systems <p>Articles available in full text. Published by the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Food Security and Environmental Division.</p> Determinants of Farmers' Participation in Banana Insurance in Chitwan District, Nepal 2022-07-20T09:28:51+00:00 S. Timilsina M. Khanal R. Pradhan A. Bhattarai M. Sapkota <p>This study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the adoption of banana insurance in Chitwan district of Nepal. A total of 160 samples (80 insurers and 80 non-insurers of banana producers) were selected randomly to collect primary data. Primary data were collected by conducting household survey using personal interview method in the month of September 2019. The logit model was used to identify the factors affecting the adoption of banana insurance policy among farmers. The result showed that the explanatory variables, area under banana cultivation, membership to cooperatives, and awareness about the agriculture insurance, perception of farmer about the necessity of crop insurance, agriculture extension services, and age of banana orchard were significantly contributing to the adoption of banana insurance policy. It also revealed that organization of awareness program, mobilization of groups and cooperatives were the important tools to promote banana insurance program. The findings would be helpful to make the insurance program more effective and hence increase the adoption of insurance policy and ultimately benefit farmers by enhancing their ability to manage risks in agriculture.&nbsp;</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Assessment of the Spatial Distribution and Mapping Soil Physico-Chemical Properties of Nalgad Municipality, Jajarkot, Nepal 2022-07-21T05:25:33+00:00 S. Timilsina A. Khanal R.P. Tandan C.R. Bam S. Devkota <p>A detailed soil inventory study using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) was conducted in Nalgad Municipality of Jajarkot, Nepal in 2019. A preliminary reconnaissance survey during pre–field activities and detail field work was carried out to study the soil type and physico-chemical properties based on the soil pit. A total of 51 soil pits were taken in the field representing varied micro topography. Soil Sample pits covering all the units were dug based on the interpreted soil map, topographical map, ZY-3 Satellite imagery for determination of soil profile. Soil classification of the area was done based on the USDA soil taxonomy and the dominant soil orders found in the region were Entisols (15.13 %) and Inceptisols (83.60%). A total of 51 geo-referenced composite soil samples from a depth of 0-20 cm was collected from each pit and analyzed in laboratory for texture, soil pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Majority of the soil are loam and loamy sand type. There is very low to high level of organic matter present in the study area with more proportion of land under high range of organic matter (64.98%). Total Nitrogen content in soil of the study area ranges from very low to very high level with high level of Nitrogen (65.51%) in major proportion. Low to very high level of available phosphorous content was found in the study area with the dominance of very high level of phosphorous (71.40%). Exchangeable Potassium level in the study area is very high to low. Around 42% land have very high level of potassium. From the soil test result, major nutrients status in soil were found to be good but integrated land management practices should be encouraged for improving land productivity. The generated soil maps may be helpful to stakeholders for planning, monitoring and evaluating the soil status for effective agricultural production.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Perceptive Study on Policy Interlinkage and Institutional Arrangement of Agrobiodiversity with Climate Change, Food And Nutrition 2022-07-21T06:02:42+00:00 S. Khanal B.K. Joshi R.K. Shrestha S. Shivakoti A. Bhusal S. Shrestha <p>A study was conducted to find out interlink, assessing the implementation status, challenges and opportunities in mainstreaming the nexus of agro biodiversity, food and nutrition and climate change in policies and programs. An online survey tool (mwater) was used to deploy the pretested questionnaire to different professionals of Nepal. Out of 500 deployment, 54 responses were obtained. In most of the questions farmers were unable to decide the extent of interlink and implementation status, however, other professional groups perceived the linkage to be weak to moderate. Moreover, the implementation status of these policies were discerned to be less satisfactory. The opportunities and challenges are to be considered while plotting the action. For doing so, institutional setup for implementation and monitoring need to strengthen &nbsp;with wide consultation from policy formulation to implementation, impact assessment and review for having greater impacts on farming communities.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Evaluation of Rapeseed Genotypes against Alternaria Blight under Field Conditions in Nawalparasi-West, Nepal 2022-07-21T06:23:49+00:00 S. Bhandari S.M. Shrestha H.K. Manandhar B. Bhattarai L. Aryal <p>Alternaria blight disease causes both yield and quality loss in Brassica crops. A field evaluation of ten rapeseed genotypes against Alternaria blight disease was conducted during November 2018 to February 2019 in Parasi, Nawalparasi-west district. Experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with individual plot size of 2.25 m<sup>2</sup> with three replications. Post-harvest in-vitro seed infection test was done in a completely randomized design with four replications. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area and pod infection on individual 15 sample plants per plot at seven days intervals. Genotype ICT 2001-35 was found moderately resistant based on categorization of mean leaf AUDPC (308.52) and mean pod infection AUDPC values (391.48) with low seed infection (12.50%). Preeti, Bikash and Pragati showed highly susceptible reactions to both leaf blight and pod infection. Therefore, genotype ICT 2001-35 could be used in a varietal improvement program for disease resistance against Alternaria blight.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Credit and Financial Access in Nepalese Agriculture: Prospects and Challenges 2022-07-21T06:59:51+00:00 A. Pandey <p>The credit and financial access are urgent needs for agricultural development. This paper has attempted to find out present status of agricultural credit and their prevalent challenges and problems. The study is fully based on the statistical data, reports and findings of MoALD, MoF, NPC, NRB, and other relevant publications. The Government has targeted to expand agricultural credit through banking and financial institutions (BFIs) by implementing several acts, policies, strategies and programs through NRB, MoALD and MoF. However, constraints like credit ceiling, high value collateral demand, limited redemption facilities, limited agriculture insurance, financial illiteracy, lack of farmer friendly technologies, and poor monitoring and regulation of BFIs are responsible for lower credit expansion. Thus to promote and motivate BFIs and farmers to invest in agriculture, government need to address these challenges. The study also suggests to segregate farmer according to demand of credit volume and expand the branchless banking.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 High Altitude Rangelands Invasion by Non-Palatable Plant Species in the Perception of Yak Herders 2022-07-21T07:12:20+00:00 S.R. Barsila <p>The biological and socio-ecological dimensions of alpine rangelands degradation by invasive species have been considered in a field survey conducted in two yaks (Bos grunniens) rearing areas i.e., Langtang National Park (LNP) and Kanchanjunga Conservation Area (KCA). Data were collected by herder’s interview using the well-prepared and pretested set of questionnaires (60), followed by a focus group discussion (FGD) and key informants survey (KIS) each five at each site by following a set of checklists.&nbsp; There was a common perception about the invasive species among the herders in the study sites. The Rumex nepalensis was the most invasive species reported (75% of the respondents) at altitudes up to 3000 m in the KCA, while it was additionally with Eupatorium adenophorum (60%) in the LNP, while the Lyonia and Juniperus were the common invasive species in both sites. Altogether, twelve plant species were reported as invasive and non-palatable species from various botanical groups were indifferent to the changes made by invasive species in rangelands soil characteristics but gave well insight into the declining productivity of grasslands and herbage productivity and quality. Herders established bush clearance and slash and burn agriculture in rangelands as traditional adaptation measures to control the invasive species. Mapping of risk zones of invasive and alien species in the alpine rangelands is necessary across the alpine rangelands of Nepal and a long-term monitoring framework is desirable to confirm the herder's information on invasive alpine species of Nepalese Himalayas.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Effect of Detasseling and Defoliation in the Yield of Sweetcorn in Khotang District of Nepal 2022-07-21T07:31:20+00:00 P. Bhandari S. Poudel M.R. Aryal S. Dhungana <p>As maize is a C4 plant it is expected to have greater productivity however, its production and productivity are not found to its potential. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of detasseling and defoliation to increase the productivity, a field experiment was conducted on sweetcorn at Khotang, Nepal in 2021. The study was executed in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and seven treatments. The results revealed that number of kernels (608.46), number of rows (15.20), 1000 grains weight (210.68gm) were recorded significantly higher in the plot where 50% plants were detasselled. It clearly shows that 50% detasseling is one of the best options to enhance the yield of sweetcorn followed by detasseling + defoliation of all leaves leaving three leaves below the ear.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Evaluation of Different Grafting Methods in Promising Kiwifruit Varieties at Lumle, Kaski, Nepal 2022-07-21T07:49:25+00:00 A. Khanal S. Timilsina N. Poudel A. Rijal S. Khanal <p>Kiwifruit is usually propagated by grafting and cutting. Suitable method of grafting in Kiwifruit should be identified to elaborate the commercial production. To evaluate the success rate of scion varieties with different grafting methods in Kiwifruit a study was conducted for two consecutive years 2018 and 2019 at Lumle, Kaski. Five different varieties of Kiwifruit as scion (Allison, Bruno, Hayward Oblong, Hayward Oval and Monty) and three different grafting methods (tongue, veneer and wedge) were used to identify successful method of grafting in Kiwifruit. Grafting was done on January 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> in both years. In the first year, shoot length was recorded highest in Hayward Oblong with veneer grafting (96.10cm) whereas shoot diameter was obtained highest in Monty with wedge grafting (6.61mm). Similarly in the second year shoot length was recorded highest in Hayward Oblong with veneer grafting (97.10 cm) and shoot diameter was observed highest in Monty with wedge grafting (6.71mm). In both years, the highest (100%) graft success was recorded in Allison with wedge grafting.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Impact of Microfinance in Agriculture and Livestock Production; Insights from Central Nepal 2022-07-24T06:12:57+00:00 D. Sapkota S. Subedi S.M. Dhungana <p>This paper examines the impact of microfinance in agriculture and livestock in Dhading and Chitwan districts of Nepal. &nbsp;Municipalities within the districts were selected purposefully, and 60 respondents from each district were selected by simple random sampling method to comprise 120 respondents. The study showed significantly higher percentage of people participating in microfinance had self-sufficient food production. Probit regression analysis was done to estimate the impact of different predictor variables on farmer’s participation in microfinance. Although the production, income and gross margin of rice and wheat and gross margin of livestock was found statistically higher among the farmers participating in microfinance, the expense for rice and wheat was also found significantly higher among the farmers participating in microfinance. The result of Probit regression analysis showed six variables namely age of household head, caste/ethnicity, education of household head, agricultural credit, livestock unit (LSU), and annual household income were statistically significant for farmer’s participation in microfinance.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Indian Mustard and Buckwheat as Trap Plants of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) in Cabbage Cultivation 2022-07-24T06:28:00+00:00 B. Sapkota R. Regmi R.B. Thapa S. Tiwari <p>Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is an important pest of crucifer crops. It greatly reduced both yield and crop quality on cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata). The field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two trap plants: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) from November 2018 to March 2019 in Chitwan, Nepal. Diamondback moths’ population were similar in trap plants but was significantly lower as compared to the control plot. Diamondback moth larvae population was lower during early vegetative growth stages whereas trapping efficacy of trap crops were gradually reduced with the development of maturity in trap plants. The lowest damage of wrapper leaves were obtained in Indian mustard deployed trap plant followed by buckwheat trap plant and control respectively; however, the yield was similar in all treatments. In addition, natural enemies were observed higher in traps crops deployed plots compared to the control plots. Therefore, trap plants can be used as an alternative sustainable pest management tool to manage diamondback moth as well as increase the abundance of natural enemies.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Effect of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) on Yield and Fruit Quality of Table Grape var. Himrod in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal 2022-07-24T06:38:32+00:00 P. Poudel P.N. Atreya K.C. Dahal <p>The experiment was conducted at Warm Temperate Horticulture Center, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal with an aim to improve the yield and fruit quality of seedless table grape var. Himrod. Different treatments of GA<sub>3 </sub>(0 ppm,10 ppm, 20 ppm, 30 ppm, 40 ppm) were applied for two times on grape bunches after berry set. The quantitative and qualitative attributes of bunch and berry were recorded. Berry size, berry weight, berry volume, bunch weight and berry color were improved significantly in GA<sub>3</sub> treated grape bunches whereas TA was significantly decreased. The effect of GA<sub>3</sub> on berry diameter had significant impact on berry weight and berry volume, and thus in yield. As the yield of a vine is the product of bunch number and bunch weight, GA<sub>3</sub> influenced the current season bunch weight by improving the berry attributes, and also affected quality attributes of grape berries in var. Himrod.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Precision Nitrogen Management in Wheat at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal 2022-07-24T06:51:19+00:00 P. Khanal S.K. Sah M. Acharya S. Marahatta M.P. Neupane <p>The application of blanket recommendation of nitrogen fertilizer leads to over or under fertilization. There is need to synchronize the N fertilizer application with plant demand.&nbsp; Field experiment was conducted during 2019 -2020 in Chitwan to assess the yield, nitrogen use efficiencies and economics of wheat production under precision N management compared with fixed time N management. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with sixteen treatments and three replications. The main plot treatments were varieties Vijay and Banganga and subplot treatments were three SPAD readings (≤35, ≤40, ≤45), two LCC readings (≤4, ≤5), Nutrient expert tool, fixed time nitrogen management(FTNM) with national recommended dose and control (zero N). The research result showed that varieties did not differ in yield and economics. Precision nitrogen management with SPAD≤45 and LCC≤5 consumed higher nitrogen doses and produced better yield attributes and yield (5585 and 5385 kgha<sup>-1 </sup>respectively) compared with FTNM. The agronomic use efficiency of nitrogen (AEN), recovery efficiency (REN), partial factor productivity (PFP were highest at LCC≤4 which consumed less nitrogen. SPAD≤35, LCC≤4 and NE treatments saved 15, 35 and 20 kgha<sup>-1 </sup>N respectively without compromising the yield obtained in FTNM. But, the benefit: cost ratio was highest at LCC≤5.Therefore, in terms of yield and profitability of wheat production, LCC≤5 is better than other treatments. The present national recommended dose of nitrogen to wheat crop is insufficient to achieve higher yield in Chitwan condition.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Field Screening of Arabica Coffee Genotypes against Coffee White Stem Borer (Xylotrechus quadripes) and Leaf Rust (Hemileia vastatrix) Infestation in Kaski, Nepal 2022-07-24T07:04:54+00:00 L.N. Aryal S. Basnet S. Aryal <p>Twenty-three coffee (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) genotypes were evaluated for relative resistance against coffee white stem borer (<em>Xylotrechus quadripes</em>) and coffee leaf rust (<em>Hemileia vastatrix</em>) at Horticulture Research Station, Malepatan, Pokhara during three consecutive years from 2016 to 2019. The monthly observation on the emergence of this borer showed that coffee genotypes "Yellow caturra" and “Tekisic” were highly infested with coffee white stem borer as compared to the other genotypes. However, no infestation was observed in genotypes Catimor, San Ramon, Indo Tim-Tim, Ketisic, Pacas, Syangja special and both Vermelo and Amarillo groups in Catui and Caturra acessions. Similarly, genotypes Catimor, Indo Tim-Tim and San Ramon were determined to be resistant to coffee leaf rust. While coffee germplasm- Ketisic was also recorded as relatively resistant against coffee leaf rust. These results have important implications for the development of coffee white stem borer and leaf rust resistant high yielding coffee variety in the future.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Use of Botanicals for Management of Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais motschulky) in Maize Storage 2022-07-24T07:19:47+00:00 K. Basyal R. Sapkota A.S.R. Bajryacharya S.S. Bhattarai <p>A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of evaluating efficacy of different botanical insecticides against weevil in storage with four replication in completely randomized design. Seven plant materials; <em>Acorus calamus</em> Linn., <em>Piper nigrum</em> Linn., <em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> DC., <em>Azedarachta indica</em> A. Juss., <em>Melia azedarach</em> Linn., <em>Justicia adhatoda</em> Linn., and <em>Artemisia vulgaris</em> Linn. were compared along with control. Maize samples were infested with <em>S. zeamais</em> at the rate of 4 pair adults/50 g. At 120 days of treatment, the highest and lowest number of weevil progeny (19.75 and 0.70), and grain damage % (19.50% and 0.21%) was recorded in control and <em>A. calamus</em>. Similarly, weight loss% was the highest on control (7.03%) and lowest on <em>A. calamus</em> (1.80%), followed by <em>A. indica</em> (2.79%) and <em>P. nigrum</em> (3.13%), respectively.100% weevil mortality was observed in <em>A. calamus</em> and P. nigrum treated grains within 14 and 21 days. <em>A. calamus</em> was found more effective for weevil management in storage.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Morphology and Cross Infectivity of Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. Isolated from Different Host Plants in Nepal 2022-07-24T07:33:27+00:00 P. Adhikari S.M. Shrestha H.K. Manandhar S. Marahatta <p><em>Sclerotium rolfsii</em> Sacc. is prevalent in leguminous and solanaceous crops but over the last five years, its severity has increased in several crops such as rice, onion and chilli in Nepal. A study on cross infectivity of <em>S. rolfsii</em> was carried out in March, 2019 at Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan. <em>S. rolfsii</em> were isolated from eight crop species viz. rice, lentil, rajma, onion, chickpea, rapeseed, soybean, and chilli. Cross infectivity of the eight isolates was done on the seven crop species in artificially inoculated soils in a screen house. Morphological characters such as mycelial growth rate, number of sclerotia formed, and size of sclerotia were studied. Morphological characters of the <em>S. rolfsii</em> varied among the isolates. All crop species tested were found to be susceptible to all isolates except onion isolate. Germination percentage was greatly reduced (80%) in rajma. Post emergence seedling mortality ranged between 10% in rice and chilli and 100% in chickpea, mustard lentil and rajma. The results of the present study indicate that management strategies of this pathogen should incorporate selection of non-host crops such as maize for crop rotation which helps to prevent build-up of inoculum.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Impact of Cooperative Membership on Adoption of Improved Goat Production Practices in Chitwan District of Nepal 2022-07-24T07:43:39+00:00 H. Neupane N. Joshi K. Kafle M. Adhikari S. Kharel <p>Lack of proper production practice is identified as constraint in production performance of goats. In this context, this study attempts to assess the impact of cooperative membership on adoption of improved production practices among smallholder goat farmers. The analysis is based on data obtained from &nbsp;in-person interview among 327 cooperative members and 334 non-members. The study employs Poisson regression model with endogenous treatment to address the endogeneity. The findings show that cooperatives strongly facilitate adopting improved production practices among goat farmers. Average treatment effect is 2.607, and the average treatment effect on treated is 2.11 and 1.447 in nearest neighbor matching and inverse probability weighted regression adjustment, respectively. The number of improved practices shows non-linear relation with livestock unit. The number of improved production practices increases with training and decreases with&nbsp; distance from tar road. The finding suggest scope to increase the adoption of improved production practices through cooperative membership.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment Farmers’ Perception on Pestilence and Management of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Citrus Orchards of Nepal 2022-07-24T07:57:26+00:00 D. Adhikari R.B. Thapa S.L. Joshi J.J. Du <p>This study, during period of 2018 and 2019, was conducted with an objective of assessing the farmers’ perspective on the pestilence of B. minax on their citrus orchards and following thereby its pest management measures in the selected eight citrus growing districts of Nepal. Respondent citrus growers were male dominated (75.8%) where Brahmin and Chhetri castes (54.3%) were dominantly involved in the citrus cultivation in the survey districts. Only 25.7% respondent citrus growers had above school level education. The highest reported land holding area, 2.35 ha, was in Sankhuwasabha district followed by Dhankuta (1.72 ha) and Syanjya (1.67 ha). According to the respondents, an average of 234.12 mandarin trees in Syanjya, 159.60 sweet orange trees in Sindhuli, 9.68 lemon trees in Sindhuli, and 11.83 lime trees in Gulmi were calculated maximum acreage of different citrus fruit trees by the each citrus grower. Among the cultivated Citrus spp., lemon fruit found to be extremely vulnerable to Chinese citrus fly infestation. Chinese citrus fly's maggot&nbsp;infestation peak in fruits in orchards was observed in October in the citrus crop cycle. Twenty citrus dominated&nbsp;districts in Nepal found to be regularly invaded of Chinese citrus fly in citrus particularly in lemon, sweet orange and mandarin.</p> 2022-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Agriculture and Environment