Journal of Agriculture and Environment <p>Articles available in full text. Published by the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Agricultural Development, Food Security and Environmental Division.</p> GON Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Gender Equity and Environment Division en-US Journal of Agriculture and Environment 2091-1009 Editorial Vol.18 No abstract available. Suresh Babu Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19883 Economics of orthodox tea production: a case of Ilam, Nepal <p>Research on economic analysis of conventional orthodox tea in Ilam district of Nepal was conducted by selecting Fikkal and Kanyam area of Suryodaya Municipality purposely. The average area under tea cultivation was 0.67 hectares per household in Fikkal area and 0.57 hectares per household in Kanyam area. The average productivity of green leaf in Fikkal area was found slightly higher than Kanyam area. The average cost of green leaf production per ropani in Fikkal area was found higher than Kanyam area. It was more in small category compared to large category in both study area. This signified the principle of economies of scale. Gross margin per hectares was positively correlated with increased farm size in both the study areas. Overall benefit-cost ratio was greater than one in both the study areas. The study revealed the scarcity of quality inputs and inadequate technical knowhow, quick perishability of green leaf, price instability, and unavailability of auction market, weak horizontal coordination and vertical coordination at the different stages of tea value chains were the major problems in the study area.</p> A. Tiwari K.B. Adhikari S.M. Dhungana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 1 5 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19884 Use of agrobiodiversity and crop management practices for climate change adaptation in high hill agriculture of Nepal <p>This paper highlights the effects of climate related hazards in crops and the existing adaptation practices in the high hills of Nepal. First, interaction meeting held in Kathmandu decided to select three districts: Humla, Kaski and Solukhumbhu as the representative districts. Second, stakeholder interaction meetings held in respective districts selected three villages: Chhipra from Humla district, Lumle from Kaski district and Takashindu from Solukhumbhu district. Information was acquired using Focus Group Discussion with the use of diversity analysis tools viz. four-cell analysis, noting traits of local crop genetic resources, and matrix ranking of crop varieties. The study found that climate hazards were increasing in recent years affecting farming adversely. Existing adaptation practices included change of crops and cropping pattern and use of alternate crop management strategies. Tourism, low social value attached to traditional crops, inadequate research, and food subsidy and other forms of external support have been identified as the threat to agrobiodiversity conservation in high hills of Nepal. Promotion of agro-tourism, identifying crop varieties tolerant to extreme weather events and their promotion through technology development and value addition have been suggested to combat climate change effects in high hill agriculture in the country.</p> Yuga N. Ghimire Ram B. Rana Shanti Ale Indra Poudel Bir B. Tamang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 6 14 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19885 Conservation and management practices of traditional crop genetic diversity by the farmers: a case from Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal <p>Crop genetic diversity has been an important source of subsistence livelihoods and nutrition in the remote Himalayan region for local communities. This study documents the crop diversity, their current status and farmer’s knowledge and practices. Study was based on analysis of one local crop diversity fair, 18 key informant surveys, nine focus group discussions and 195 individual household surveys with set questionnaires. The community structure in the study area has female dominance (52%) with average family size of 7.1. The study documents 78 species of various crops which were used as food, vegetables, fruits, medicine, and spices. Highest varietal diversity was recorded in Maize (15), Paddy (12), wheat (11), and beans (10). However, a number of crop varieties are being lost and threatened over the time. Both anthropogenic and natural drivers of changes were reported as the major reason of such loss. Despite loss of crop varieties farmers have been maintaining a wide range of crop and varietal diversity in situ on farm by their own initiatives and experiences. Our study showed that self-saved seed contributed as the major source of planting material through which they are maintaining the crop diversity. However, a detailed study on the seed supply system is needed to support easy access to the farmers. More awareness raising program as well as empowerment of farming communities is essential for the continuation of conservation and management practices.</p> Kamal Aryal Sushmita Poudel Ram Prasad Chaudary Nakul Chettri Wu Ning Yi Shaoliang Rajan Kotru ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 15 28 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19886 Competition among wild rice, landrace, improved cultivar and F1 hybrid rice <p>Four genotypes, namely Oryza rufipogon, F<sub>1</sub> of IR68888A/Chaite-6, Chaite-6 and Ratodhan were grown in crop and competition environment at Rampur, Nepal to study the effect of genotypes mixture on the characters. Univariate, multivariate and correlation methods of analysis were applied. Seven characters namely panicle length, panicle number, grain yield, harvest index, internode length and leaf width showed significantly different response in crop and competition environment. The performance of cultivar was poor in competition environment than hybrid and wild rice. Hybrid and wild rice showed longer panicle length in competition environment. Significant reduction in panicle number was found in cultivars. The pattern of tiller number over the growth period showed that the competition started after 50 days of seeding. Grain yield of cultivars was significantly reduced in competition environment. Considering the most important characters, hybrid was best competitor and local landrace (Ratodhan) was poorest competitor. Significant variations in culm characters were not found between two environments but leaf characters varied significantly. Highest increment in plant height was found in F<sub>1</sub> grown in competition than crop environment. Relationship between characters was affected by growing environment. Among 162 pairs of characters r-value of six and 36 pairs were highly significant different from zero in crop and competition environment respectively. Multivariate analysis indicates that growing environment does not suppress the genetic characters. Competition among the tested genotypes exists even in the recommended spacing. Competition should be studied in detail planting at different spacing.</p> Bal Krishna Joshi Sanjaya Gyawali Surya Narayan Sah Rewati Raman Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 29 40 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19887 Assessment of productivity and resource use efficiency of rice under different establishment methods and nutrient management in Chitwan condition, Nepal <p>A field experiment was conducted in sub humid climate of inner terai of Nepal to determine the productivity and economics of rice under direct seeded and transplanted methods under different nutrient management in strip plot design with three replications in 2013, rainy season. The treatment consisted of three tillage methods, conventional tillage direct seeded rice, unpuddled transplanted rice and Puddled transplanted rice and five nutrient management practices Recommended Nitrogen(N), Phosphorous(P) and Potassium(K), 100:30:30 Kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>; Leaf color chart based N + Recommended PK; Farmers’ Practice, 48.30:34.50:0.00 Kg NPK ha<sup>-1</sup>; 0N + Recommended PK and 150% of Recommended NPK. The result revealed that grain and straw yield were not significant due to crop establishment methods. LCC based N application yield was comparable with 150% of Rec. NPK and Rec. NPK. Saving N on LCC based N management with 41.56 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 9.44 Kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> over 150% of recommended NPK recommended NPK respectively. Adoption of CT-DSR reduced the total cost of cultivation by 30.13% and B:C ratio by 45.95% over P-TPR. The lower cost, higher benefit and the same production, revealed that LCC based N management under CT-DSR was the best management practices over the conventional P-TPR.</p> Chandika Lama Santosh Marahatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 41 50 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19888 Coverage and access of plant clinic in Nepal <p>Plant clinic is one of the extension approaches that deliver field level services to farmers. In Nepal, this service started in 2008. An assessment of the coverage and access of Plantwise plant clinic in Nepal was conducted from 2013 to 2016 with the view to assess the performance of this approach. The number of plant clinic sessions and queries by farmers increased from 2013 to 2014 whereas in 2015 the numbers of both sessions and queries decreased due to the earthquake that struck the country in April 2015 and disturbances throughout the year. The average number of clinic session run per year was 10.5 and the average number of queries per session was 12. The farmers’ gender ratio for female to male who visited the clinic was 45:55. The coverage and access of plant clinics is increasing, but plant clinics are not yet widespread across Nepal.</p> D. Adhikari D.R. Sharma V. Pandit U. Schaffner W. Jenner J. Dougoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 51 58 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19889 Farmers’ perception on climate change and ecological hazards in Riu and Rapti waterbasin, Chitwan, Nepal <p>A survey research was done to study the farmers’ perception on climate change and ecological hazards in Riu and Rapti water basin, Chitwan, Nepal. Altogether 120 households, 60 from each water basin in Riu and Rapti were selected randomly for the study. Pre-tested interview, direct observation, focus group discussion as well as secondary data from Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Kathmandu were used to collect the required information. Majority of the farmers’ perceived the change in climatic condition in their locality in terms of increase in hotter days, decrease in colder days, variability in the number of rainy days, decrease in rainfall duration, increase in amount and intensity of rainfall, late onset and shift of usual monsoon pattern, prolonged occurrences of dry spells, decrease water level in the river as compared to the past decades. Farmers prioritized the floods/riverbank cutting (61.7%) and drought (63.4%) hazards for obtaining immediate solution/adaptation strategies in Riu water basin; and for drought (60%) and loss of wetland and declining water source (45%) in Rapti water basin. Analysis of the climatic data (last 42 years for rainfall and last 30 years for temperature) showed the increasing trend of annual rainfall (6.83 mm per year) and those of both maximum and minimum temperature (0.019°C per year and 0.069°C per year, respectively). These analyses strongly support the farmers’ perception about the climate change and for which immediately effective adaptation mechanism is required.</p> H.P. Regmi P.P. Regmi J.P. Dutta D.R. Dangol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 59 66 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19890 Response of organic manures on post harvest and soil nutrient restoration on cauliflower production <p>This study was conducted at Ilam Municipality-2, Nepal to determine the response of organic manures on post harvest and nutrient restorative effect of cauliflower. Five manures, viz., bansoon, mustard oil cake, poultry manure, farmyard manure, and vermi-compost were evaluated. The postharvest losses, vitamin C content and soil nutrient restorative behavior were significantly highest with vermi-compost as compared to other manures. The maximum vitamin C content of 10.92 mg/100 gm was found with vermi-compost whereas the lowest of 9.66 mg/100 gm was found at farmyard manure. Moreover, the physiological losses were found to be least with vermi compost and the most with bansoon manure. Moreover, the restorative properties i.e. pH, N,P,K and organic %age were found to be significantly highest with vermi-compost as compared to other organic manures. This study concludes that vermi compost increases vitamin C content, postharvest longevity and improvement of physical and chemical properties of the soil.</p> Manoj Basnet Shanta Man Shakya Bandhu Raj Baral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 67 72 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19891 Food security in South Asia and self-reliance in paddy <p>South Asia is world most densely populated region and houses the largest population of undernourished people. It remains the world’s second poorest region with more than 500 million people living on less than US$1.25 per day. Firstly this paper attempts to show the general situation and production trend of paddy, secondly, scrutinizes the role paddy has been playing in the economy and food security so far and that it is still the most potential means to improve the food security situation and tackle severe under-nutrition as other sectors are, until now, far less furnished to address this issue. This paper probes into various economic and historical perspectives of rice economy and culture in this region, and shows that self-sufficiency in paddy production is paramount to its domestic food security, and thereby proposes that emphasis should be given on increased rice production which is decelerating amid expansion of modern economic sectors.</p> M Aryal M. Kandel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 73 82 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19892 Assessmentof tomato consumption and demand in Nepal <p>Tomato is also known as the poor man’s apple in Nepal. China is the largest producer of tomato in the world. Tomato is grown throughout the year in recent years in Nepal with the introduction of plastic house for off season production. Secondary information is used to assess the consumption pattern and national demand of tomato in 2015/16 for Nepal. The result showed the import from India is increasing compared to previous years. The reason behind this might be increase in consumption of tomato in recent years in Nepal. The central development region is the highest consumer of tomato compared to other regions of the country. The average national consumption of tomato was found 11.97Kg/person/year in Nepal.</p> N.P. Ghimire M. Kandel M. Aryal D. Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 83 94 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19893 An overview of pesticide management in Nepal <p>Agriculture is a wider sector where 54% people are engaged and one-third GDP contributed to the nation. Due to diverse climatic regions, farmers grow different types of agricultural commodities and presence of different pests reduces their production and thus need to apply pesticides. Pesticide Registration and Management Division under the Department of Agriculture is a legal authority to register as well as restrict or ban certain pesticides used in the agricultural sector in Nepal. The paper also emphasizes how Nepal has doing pesticide reduction for the pest management in agriculture considering the food safety, animal and human health and environment protection. And it also focuses on the legal aspects on pesticide management and status of registered, restricted and banned pesticides in the context of neighboring countries and addresses to fulfill the obligations of the international convention related to pesticides and industrial chemicals.</p> Parashu Ram Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 95 105 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19894 Effect of irrigation and potash levels on growth and yield of potato <p>The experiment comprising four levels of irrigation (25, 30, 35 and 40 mm CPE) and four levels of potash (0, 100, 125 and 150 kg/ha) was conducted in Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during winter season of 2010- 11 and 2011-12 to find out the optimum level of irrigation and potash for better growth and yield of potato. The potato variety used for the investigation was Kufri Bahar. The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications keeping a net plot size of 3.6x3.6 m. The plant height at 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after planting, number of leaves per stem, leaves weight per hill, stem weight per hill, leaf area index and total and marketable tuber yield were significantly high with irrigation level 35 mm CPE and potash @ 150 kg/ha. The two years results suggest that the irrigation level 35 mm CPE in combination with potash @ 150 kg/ha has shown the best treatment combination for potato production under semiarid conditions of Hisar (Haryna).</p> R.C. Adhikari M.K. Rana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 106 114 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19895 Performance of Bhote type garlic genotypes under Karnali region of Nepal <p>Advance Yield Trial on different Bhote type garlic genotypes collected from different districts of Nepal was carried out at Horticultural Research Station, Rajikot, Jumla for two consecutive years 2013/14 and 2014/15 to evaluate garlic genotypes suitable for the Karnali region of Nepal. Minimal work has been done in past on garlic, almost all of which centered at terai and mid hills that's why this study was carried out to select suitable bhote type garlic genotypes for high hill. Eleven different garlic genotypes were tested on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replication. Tested genotypes differed significantly for vegetative as well as yield parameters. During 2013, the highest bulb yield (47.41 t/ha) was recorded from ARM 01 followed by Mugu Local (47.01 t/ha), ARM 04 (46.98 t/ha), Kathmandu Local (45.41 t/ha), Chinese (37.91 t/ha) and the lowest from ARM 08 (20.1 t/ha). Similarly, during 2014/15, the highest bulb yield was observed from ARM 01 (50.32 t/ha) followed by Mugu Local (49.91 t/ha), Kathmandu Local (41.62 t/ha), Chinese (29.60 t/ha) and the lowest from ARM 05 (12.51 t/ha). Based on the average result of both years, ARM 01, Mugu Local, Kathmandu Local, ARM 04 and Chinese showed the better productivity ranged from 29.6 t/ha to 50.32 t/ha which are the promising garlic genotypes for the Karnali region of Nepal.</p> Raj Kumar Giri Basant Chalise Pragati Babu Paneru Giri Dari Subedi Bishwash Poudel Homan Regmi Lokendra Rana Dinesh Khadka B.D. Kathayat Chandra Budha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 115 119 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19896 Climate change related policy environment in agriculture and food security in Nepal <p>Agriculture is the main stay of Nepal's economy. This provides about one-third of national GDP and two-third of national employment. Agriculture is highly vulnerable to climate change due to more marginal farmers with small landholding, limited irrigation, low income level, limited institutional capacity, and greater dependency on climate-sensitive natural resources. The adverse effect of climate change on agriculture impacts on farm revenue, employment, income and GDP. Policy formulation in agriculture and food security sector concerning to climate change has become an imperative for poverty reduction, livelihood improvement and economic development. Compliance with global and national agreement, review of existing policy will provide an essential foundation to policy makers, planners and development workers to reform process. This paper intended to find the strength and weaknesses of existing plans, policies, strategies, acts which will support stakeholders in agricultural development.</p> Shree Bhagavan Thakur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 120 130 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19897 Government intervention on organic fertilizer promotion: a key to enhancing soil health and environment <p>Unilateral use of chemical fertilizers, devoid of organic sources, has led to gradual deterioration of soil health, exacerbating the agricultural productivity. This study focuses on the review the performance, effectiveness and modality of organic manure promotion programmes intervened by MoAD, using secondary datas. Major programmes intervened are: Vermi-compost production, cattle shed improvement, organic fertilizer industries establishment and price subsidy to farmers purchasing organic fertilizers. Study shows that these programs are effective to reduce soil health deterioration by making nutrient rich manure available at local level. Moreover, it has helped to reduce dependency of fertilizers on other countries and to promote sustainable agriculture. Altogether 1495 vermi-compost pits were constructed and 33746 cattle sheds were improved all over the country till FY 2072/73. Converting farm and household organic wastes into organic manure, improvement of the nutrient content of FYM, utilization of cattle urine for plant protection measures were the benefits of these programs. Furthermore, in long run it helps to create green economy by reducing pollution by keeping environment safe and clean.</p> Sujan Amgai Santosh Raj Paudel Diwas Raj Bista Salik Ram Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 131 139 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19898 Increasing productivity of an intensive rice based system through site specific nutrient management in Western Terai of Nepal <p>Improving nutrient management through site specific nutrient management (SSNM) can increase grain yield and maintain appropriate yield attributes per unit of fertilizer applied through harmonized uptake, utilization and metabolism of major nutrients. On-farm experiments were conducted from 2011-2013 at Sunawal, Nawalparasi. SSNM dose was calculated by accounting for indigenous nutrient supply, yield goal, nutrient demand and fertilizer efficiency. SSNM decreased nitrogen and phosphorus application by 4 and 28% while demanded 80% more potassium and increased grain yield by 6% over recommended practice. As compared to the farmers fertility management practice (FFP), SSNM increased grain yield by 35%. Reducing 25% of SSNM dose was equally effective as recommended practice of nutrient application. Only improving the potassium application (+32 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) on FFP, yield was increased by 17%. Leaf color charts (LCC) improve nitrogen management and proved as crucial component of SSNM as 0.3 t ha-1 more yield over three split nitrogen applications of SSNM dose.</p> Santosh Marahatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 140 150 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19899 Pollinators diversity and their effects on rapeseed (Brassica campestris L. var. toria) production and productivity in Chitwan, Nepal <p>Crop pollination is crucial for increasing yield, ensuring food security and improving livelihoods. To quantify the response of pollinators on rapeseed, an experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) at three agro-ecological sites: Semi-natural (Megauli), organic (Fulbari) and intensive agriculture (Jutpani) Village Development Committees of Chitwan district in 2012/013 and 20013/014. The treatments were: i) open pollination; ii) plants caged with honeybees (Apis melifera L.); iii) hand pollination; and iv) control (plots caged without pollinators) replicated four times. Pollinators visiting rapeseed flowers, plant height, branch number, siliqua/plant, pods weight/ siliqua, test weight, and seed yield/hectare were recorded. The dominant pollinators were Hymenopterans mostly honeybees. The impact of pollinators on each system resulted in significantly increased yield attributes compared to no-pollination, which clearly indicates the need of integrating managed pollination and pollinators' conservation to sustain rapeseed production in Chitwan through biodiversity-based ecosystem services.</p> Shiva P. Rijal Resam B. Thapa Moha D. Sharma Shrawan K. Sah Yubak Dhoj GC ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-12 2018-05-12 18 151 161 10.3126/aej.v18i0.19900