Asian Journal of Medical Sciences <p>The inaugural issue of the Asian Journal of Medical Sciences was published in May 2010. Full text articles available.</p> Asian Journal of Medical Sciences Pokhara en-US Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2467-9100 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol start="1"><li>The journal holds copyright and publishes the work under a Creative Commons <a title="CC-BY-NC" href="" target="_blank">CC-BY-NC license</a> that permits use, distribution and reprduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. The journal should be recognised as the original publisher of this work.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> The effect of synbiotics supplement on alcohol use disorders identification test and biochemical parameters, gamma glutamyl transferase, lipopolysaccharide and immunoglobulin a levels, in high risk alcoholics <p><strong>Background:</strong> Alcohol consumption does not result in dependence or abuse among most people. Nevertheless, a significant group of the population as a whole unavoidably is troubled by chronic alcoholism.Alcohol is involved in a number of diseases, disorders, and injuries, and several social problems.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> To investigate the possible effects of synbiotics supplement affecting to gut-brain axis in high risk alcohol drinkers through alterations between improving of gut related parameters and changes of alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT).</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Single group, pre- and post-test study. Participants: 24 male patients, alcohol use disorders identification test at 8 or above. Exclusions included clinical diagnosis of cirrhosis, immunodeficiency, autoimmune disorder, use of drugs other than alcohol, pregnancy and lactation, use of antibiotics and herbs during the course of study. Intervention: Synbiotics containing probiotics 7 species and prebiotic 3 types once a day before bedtime for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures: Primary outcome- the efficacy of synbiotics supplement improving subjective AUDIT score. Secondary outcome- changes on gut related biochemical parameters (lipopolysaccharide and immunoglobulin A levels).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twenty high risk alcoholic subjects (with an average age of 46.14 ± 18.34 years) were supplemented with synbiotics contained 25 billion cells of probiotics per day for 8 weeks. After the end of intervention, there was significantly improved total AUDIT score (<em>p=</em>0.001). The changes in gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lipopolysaccharide and immunoglobulin A level was calculated. GGT (from 90.62 ± 56.65 U/l to 67.67 ± 57.00 U/l), lipopolysaccharide (from 23.19 ± 9.57 to 16.67 ± 4.52 mg/ml) and immunoglobulin A (from 377.13 ± 229.88 to 484.16 ± 290.98 ng/ml) levels were significantly changed when compared to the baseline value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of the current study suggested that the consumption of synbiotics significantly improved subjective and objective parameters in high risk alcoholic patients, and further studies are mandatory to reveal the effects of synbiotics on gut health link to central neurological system.</p> Vachrintr Sirisapsombat Parama Pratummas Phuttharaksa Phucharoen Thamthiwat Nararatwanchai Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Sasithorn Sirilun Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 1 6 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26497 Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 on lipid profile and blood parameters in hypercholesterolemic patients: A preliminary study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Probiotics are live microbes that when administered in suitable amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics are considered as a complementary and supportive therapeutic agent for the treatment of several diseases and for the management of several disorders. Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for the incidence of cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Several pharmacological and dietary approaches are proposed and used to improve the cholesterol profile.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The objective of the current study was to study the effect of probiotic supplementation (<em>Lactobacillus paracasei </em>HII01) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in hypercholesterolemic patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Ten hypercholesterolemic subjects were supplemented with 12.5 × 10<sup>9</sup> CFU of HII01 per day for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention period. The LDL-C, HDL-C, LPS, and IgA content were assessed by outsourcing and ELISA methods.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After 12 weeks of intervention, HDL (from 61.14 ± 9.65 to 67.29 ± 7.99 mg/DL), LDL (from 141.57 ± 31.95 to 126.29 ± 36.23 mg/DL), IgA&nbsp; (446.31 ±262.00 to&nbsp; 939.62 ± 758.52 ng/ml), and LPS (113.53 ± 40.07 to&nbsp; 72.78 ± 32.39 pg/ml) levels were significantly changed in the probiotic-supplemented group when compared to the baseline value.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The supplementation of <em>L. paracasei </em>HII01 may help to improve the lipid profile, reduce the endotoxin level and have the impact of immune activation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Additional studies are mandatory to disclose the favorable effect of the probiotic strain <em>L. paracasei </em>HII01.</p> Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruth Sasithorn Sirilun Yaowalak Tirawat Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 7 11 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26498 The effect of supplementation of Lactobacillus paracasei HII01 on salivary cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels <p><strong>Background of the study:</strong> Fatigue is one of the serious health issues, and stress is the main factor that induces chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The dysregulation of stress management pathway may account for the development of CFS. The human body comprises several neurobiological networks to manage physical and emotional insults. Hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the important neuroendocrine networks involved in the neurophysiological activity of the host system. The response of HPA axis depends on the physical and psychological state of stress and other factors like time and duration of stress. The probiotic supplements are proved as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for several diseases. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of <em>Lactobacillus paracasei</em> HII01 supplementation on salivary cortisol and DHEA-S levels of fatigue subjects. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> After 12-weeks of probiotic intervention significantly reduced the salivary cortisol level, while DHEA-S level was not affected. The ratio of cortisol: DHEA-S was reduced after probiotic intervention. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results concluded that <em>L</em>. <em>paracasei</em> HII01 has the ability to reduce the stress level in fatigue subjects by reducing the salivary cortisol level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results evidently to recommend that the ingestion of 12.5 billion cells of <em>L. paracasei</em> HII01 per day for 12 weeks significantly amended HPA-Axis by lowering salivary cortisol and ratio cortisol: DHEA-S in fatigue subjects.</p> Ekasit Lalitsuradej Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Sasithorn Sirilun Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn Sartjin Peerajan Chaiyavat Chaiyasut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 12 15 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26500 Effects of synbiotic supplement on LPS level in Thai smokers: A preliminary study <p><strong>Background:</strong> The impacts of smoking on the intestinal microbiome piece and arranged assortment have been appeared in different arranged controlled and observational clinical trials in individuals. Synbiotics are utilized not fair for the progressed survival of beneficial microorganisms included to food, however in expansion for the prompting of the duplication of specific nearby bacterial strains display within the gastrointestinal tract.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> This research proposes the impact of synbiotic supplement on gut-brain axis in Thai smokers in the realm of gut-related biochemical parameters and cognition.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:&nbsp;</strong>We directed a single gathering, pre-and post-test study; 20 patients lived in Mahasarakham, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence at 4 or above, and no history of cerebrovascular diseases, brain and abdominal surgery, and not taking hormones or medications impacted brainwaves or utilizing antibiotics inside about fourteen days prior. Subjects were allocated to synbiotic supplement containing 3 kinds of prebiotics and 7 types of probiotics prior to sleep every day for about two months.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>Results were estimated in gut-related biochemical parameters change and alternation in cognition. The present outcomes have indicated essentially decline in the scores of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and also the scores of craving for smoke after intervention. In additions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in plasma significantly decreased after the intervention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Further researches are obligatory to lead in finding a propensity to improve in gut-related biochemical parameter and cognition after admission of synbiotic supplement.</p> Parama Pratummas Vachrintr Sirisapsombat Phuttharaksa Phucharoen Thamthiwat Nararatwanchai Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Sasithorn Sirilun Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 16 21 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26495 An introductory report on the effect of use of dextranase-containing mouthwash on oral health status of human volunteers <p><strong>Background:</strong> Dextran is a branched polysaccharide and one of the polymers, present in the biofilm matrix. The dextran plays a perilous role in dental plaque formation, which is involved in the development of some common oral diseases like dental caries. The dextran-hydrolyzing enzymes are under investigation to treat and manage the dental plaques.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:&nbsp;</strong>The present study reporting the preliminary observations on the effect of the use of dextranase-containing mouthwash (DMW) on dental plaque and oral health.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> DMW was prepared with food-grade dextranase, preservatives, gellingagents, and water as detailed. Four weeks of experimental design was employed in fourteen healthy volunteers. The selected volunteers were recommended to use DMW for at least twice a day. The plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) of the volunteer's teeth have been assessed before and after four weeks of DMW use.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The volunteers were insisted to use a DMW solution twice a day for four weeks. The PI, PD, GI, and BOP was measured before and after the treatment. The plaque index of the subject at baseline and after treatment was 2.22 ± 0.48, and 1.88 ± 0.50, respectively. PI was significantly reduced after the use of DMW solution for four weeks. The value of PD was 2.00 and 2.00 at baseline and after the use of DMW, respectively. The value of PD was not changed when compared to the baseline values. The sensory evaluation of DMW was performed using questionnaires.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The preliminary study results suggested that the use of DMW solution for four weeks (twice a day) notably reduced the PI without any change in PD. However, GI and BOP values were not affected after the use of DMW. The participants, based on the sensory evaluation, accepted the prepared DMW solution. Additional detailed research on the impact of DMW on oral hygiene is needed to confirm the beneficial effects of DMW.</p> Nucharee Juntarachot Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi Sasithorn Sirilun Piyachat Tongpong Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn Duangporn Kantachote Chaiyavat Chaiyasut ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 22 25 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26499 The effect of Plukenetia Volubilis residue on Omega-3 enriched eggs <p><strong>Background:</strong> Omega-3 DHA-enriched eggs provide the consumer with a value-added product that delivers a clear, functional benefit for an increasingly health conscious population. Human requires an omega-6: omega-3 ratio of 4:1. The typical Thai diet which use a lot of vegetable oil for cooking provides a dramatically high 20:1 ratio. Lowering this ratio may reduce the risk of many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and some cancers. A healthy omega-6:omega-3 ratio promotes the health benefits. The increased levels of DHA provides much needed nutrient essential to human brain functions e.g. brain activities.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to study the Omega-3,6,9 concentration in raw and boiled eggs feeding with Plukenetia Volubilis residue.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A sample was selected from raw and boiled eggs feeding with Plukenetia Volubilis residue.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that total level of Omega-3 with 37869.65 mg/100mL and Omega-6 with 38490.67 mg/100mL which was not much different in Plukenetia Volubilis oil. However total Omega-9 is only 8394.74 mg/100mL compared to 37869.65 (Omega-3) and 38490.67 (Omega-6) which is almost 5 times lower than Omega-3,6.In addition, the comparison of Omega-3,6,9 concentration between raw and boiled eggs from hen feeding by Plukenetia Volubilis Oil. The total level of Omega-3,6,9 in boiled eggs was higher than in raw eggs (Omega-3: 122.85 mg/100g (raw egg), 158.12 mg/100g (boiled eggs); Omega-6: 1479.18 mg/100g (raw egg), 1766.53 mg/100g (boiled eggs); Omega-9: 3009.16 mg/100g (raw egg), 3375.23 mg/100g (boiled eggs)).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is constantly growing demand from consumers for food products of superior health quality. We can increase the omega-3 content of eggs through the enrichment of the layers’ diet with Plukenetia Volubilis. However, the relationship of Plukenetia Volubilis residue in chicken egg is still needed for further study.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 26 32 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26525 Electroencephalographical investigation of drinking green tea to the human brain <p><strong>Background:</strong> Nowadays green tea has become one of the most popular drinks all over the world. Evidences suggest that green tea become second most consumer following regular drinking water. Green tea contains Theanine, an amino acid primarily found in green tea and black tea. The content is generally found 1-2% of dried tea or around 60 milligrams per 200 milliliters of tea drink. In particular, this substance is found in the form of L-theanine that can be absorbed to the blood system and then to the brain within 30 minutes, which causes relaxation and reducing stress.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The objective was to examine the effect of green tea consumption on electroencephalographic (EEG) activities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was an experimental design. The participants were twelve Thai healthy, aged between 21-55 years old. During the experiment, all participants were asked to drink green tea every 10 minutes.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The influence to brainwave and attentive process were tested by experimental design. The study indicated that alpha brainwave was shown after drinking green tea. Frequency of alpha brainwave along cumulative drinking of green tea was shown significantly since the 10th minute. However, spectrum of the alpha brainwave changed significantly after drinking green tea, after 30th minutes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The benefit of this study was to provide the guideline for planning and campaigning green tea consumption for the purpose of stress reduction resulting in relaxation.</p> Anjaly Srimanothip Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 33 36 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26530 How Gendhing Gamelan reduced anxiety in pregnancy <p><strong>Background:</strong> Listening to music will not only have a soothing and uplifting effects on someone but also a positive influence on the unborn baby. The positive vibes that will be acquired from listening to music will create a prenatal stimulation that will help pregnant mother to bond with their unborn baby. It will enable them to lower their stress and anxiety levels and also reduce any stress that the unborn baby may feel in the womb. Previous researches claimed the ability of music, especially western music, in reducing anxiety and stress toward pregnant woman.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:&nbsp;</strong>Instead of using western music, the present study investigated the effect of listening to gamelan music toward the reducing of anxiety on pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In a pilot experiment, 60 healthy volunteers (mean age = 29.0; SD = 5.0) evaluated their anxiety responses to a Javanese traditional musical piece using a Slendro Sanga scale.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>The research shows significant effect (p&lt;0.05; F=5.340) of Javanese traditional music to reduce anxiety in pregnant woman thus the hypotheses are accepted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Trust toward pregnant woman is important to be built because it can be the foundation of self-confidence and preventing stress. That is why, external situation is important since it has impact in internal situation.</p> Dr Djohan Fortuna Tyasrinestu Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 37 41 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26517 Mind mapping tool increased critical thinking through blended learning <p><strong>Background:</strong> The process of learning creates interaction and coordination and finding solution. Students who are engaged in that process will find themselves useful as they have shared ideas. Sharing ideas is a significant part.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:&nbsp;</strong>This study aims to describe the application of mind mapping in music learning as an effort to increase students' critical thinking. It has not been commonly applied in practical music learning processes.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:&nbsp;</strong>This research was conducted with a total of 75 students of music education who took violin subject. Initially, they discussed the issue that related with a song, and it was followed by mind mapping to find the ideas.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Through this process, students are expected to get a comprehensive understanding, and obtain effectively relevant guidelines regarding the material that must be trained.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Exceedingly students can generate critical thinking, which later give influence in song interpretation.</p> Yunike Juniarti Fitria Tri Wahyuni Floriasti Dr Djohan Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 42 50 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26516 Intellectual character of metacognition in thinking strategies <p><strong>Background:</strong> Metacognition is one aspect of intellectual character about a concept that has been used to refer to a variety of epistemological processes. Metacognition essentially means cognition about cognition; that is, it refers to second-order cognitions: thoughts about thoughts, knowledge about knowledge or reflections about actions. Previous research explained that metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:&nbsp;</strong>This study aims to reveal aspects of student metacognition as a strategy used in playing music.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this observational study, the spontaneous metacognitive behavior of students during guitar lessons in guitar classroom was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp;</strong>Data from interviews revealed that students were weak in metacognitive behavior, so that students do not use thinking ways of thinking. This is because the lecturer cannot promote metacognition by designing and implementing instructional strategies that encourage music students to engage in reflection, self-assessment, and thinking critically.Based on the results of research that has been obtained, it can be said that in playing music, especially in the guitar class, it is important to know what is known about the music that will be played.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lecturers need to promote metacognitive awareness in students, so that students are able to develop their thinking strategies well in playing music, especially in guitar classes.</p> Ayu Niza Machfauzia Dr Djohan Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 51 56 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26519 Cognitive skills improved by BrainWare SAFARI training program: Electroencephalographic study <p><strong>Background:</strong> Executive functions have been shown to be related to academic achievement and the ability to learn. Understanding the role of executive function may offer new learning opportunities for children. The 2018-2019 implementation of BrainWare SAFARI pilot study started with primary school students achieving an average improvement in cognitive skill development.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> This study was set to find spatial ability and cognitive skill abilities done by letting students who performed spatial ability tasks after BrainWare SAFARI training exercises and also investigated by using the effectiveness of commercially available lightweight EEG device.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Participants were selected to participate in the 2018-2019 pilot based on their average learning abilities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All participants were able to complete the targeted number of sessions of BrainWare SAFARI. All participants showed significantly mean improvement of cognitive skills such as speed, memory, spatial ability, and problem solving, respectively. The cognitive performance increased statistically significant implying that all participants gained experienced significant improvements in multiple areas of cognitive processing. The attention and mediation levels as well as cognitive performance or cognitive skill improvement were changed with statistically significant at 0.05 level. The findings also showed that all brainwaves were increased with statistically significant while performing cognitive skills ability tasks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is no doubt that all participants were able to complete all sessions of BrainWare SAFARI program. Practicing cognitive skills improvement games as BrainWare SAFARI could significantly increase alpha, theta and beta frequency bands. BrainWare SAFARI cognitive skills training could significantly improve cognitive performance in Thai children indexed by the electroencephalographic activities.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 57 62 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26526 Electroencephalographic changes as neuroscience-based cognitive skill training program <p><strong>Background:</strong> Brain is an organ that is easily affected by the physical changes.Abnormalities are known to occur with the brain in terms of memory, eyesight, intellect, and balance as the brain is an organ that is easily affected by the physical changes. Executive functions have been shown to be related to academicachievement and the ability to learn, as well as a range of a neurodevelopmental disorders. The failure of many traditional educational interventions for students with specific learning disabilities may be attributed to large deficits in executive functions, including working memory and inhibition.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:&nbsp;</strong>This study examined how BrainWare SAFARI, a computer-based training, aid students with specific learning disabilities in enhancing their executive functions and specific learning disabilities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:&nbsp;</strong>The present experimental study examined the effectiveness of a specific 12-week neuroscience-based, cognitive skills computer-training program, BrainWare SAFARI, on the cognitive processing of elementary students with specific learning disabilities.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The results of this study showed that all students Participants were able to complete a sufficient number of sessions in BrainWare SAFARI experienced significant improvements in multiple areas of cognitive processing. The results showed that the attention level changed with statistically significant while the meditation level was not changed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp;</strong>Thus, this neuroscience-based, cognitive skills computer-training program, BrainWare SAFARI, could result in increased academic performance.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 63 68 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26527 Brain exercise in elderly: NeuroSky smarter Kit investigation <p><strong>Background:</strong> The measurement analysis of the brainwaves can show whether or not human’s mental or cognitive status is in a sober state. The speed of the computer signal processing technology increased until it could sufficiently process the complex brainwave signals measured in real-time. Therefore, the information about the mental status thus gradually revealed a research in information science called affective computing.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The purpose of this study was to study the use of NeuroSky Smarter Kit in brain exercise training program by Brainwave Cloud Classroom (BCC) system, on both attention and meditation levels’ changes in elderly.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The sample of this study were fifteen participants, which were four men and ten women, aged 61-84 years old. All participants were measured their attention and meditation levels by NeuroSky Smarter Kit prior to the brain training program. During the brain exercise training program by Brainwave Cloud Classroom (BCC) system, should any participant could not proceed to the next session, he/she was measured their attention and meditation levels again. They were allowed to break for fifteen to thirty minutes or as much as they needed. Then, the second brain training was done and that participants were measured their attention and meditation levels again.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The result showed that attention and meditation levels were gradually increased with no statistically significant. Both theta and alpha brainwaves were increased statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The attention level increased while the meditation level was sustained similar to before brain exercise training. Some electroencephalographic activities including theta and alpha brainwaves were gradually increased with statistically significant while gamma brainwave did not change.</p> Tinnaphol Chaipakornwong Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 69 74 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26528 Electroencephalographic study of auditory system while listening to Ohm chanting <p><strong>Background:</strong> World Health Organization defined that we must have Physical, Mental, Social and Spiritual Well-Being. The methods of building a healthy body and develop a strong immune are food, exercising, walking, running, yoga, swimming, Tai Shi Shuan and all types of sports. In spiritual well-being, the implementations are practice the dharma, compassionate prayer and meditation. These will make our mental status always in good state, greed, anger and infatuation will be decreased.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> This study aimed to investigate the effect of listening to Om chanting on human brain waves.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The samples were twelve healthy Thai citizens with the age ranged between twenty-five and sixty years old. All participants listened to Ohm chanting for thirty minutes, with rest time in between. During the experiment, the participants were asked to open their eyes. In addition, their brain wave activities were recorded before, during and after listening to the Ohm chanting by the Electroencephalogram (EEG) at precise intervals. All data were tabulated to find mean and standard deviation. The changes in brain waves and subjective changes were also compared by applying paired t-test. People listening to Ohm chanting had subjective changes through electroencephalographic (EEG) fluctuations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The exposed participants displayed statistically significant increases in delta and theta brainwaves at 0.05 after listening to Ohm chanting. This study revealed that participants were trained with the listening to Ohm chanting causing probably the stress level went down. There was an increase in delta and theta brainwaves while listening to Ohm chanting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The result might be nominated for health promotion to be used in conjunction with conventional medicine.</p> Sasithorn Sachdev Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 75 79 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26529 The relationship between dextranase enzyme in mouthwash and dental caries <p><strong>Background:</strong> Several studies reported that Thai people have oral health problems as a major problem. Therefore, care and treatment of oral health is an issue to be attentive. At the present, there are many products for oral and dental health care in many forms such as toothpaste, mouthwash, spray, deodorizing and inhibiting bacteria etc.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> This study investigated the effect of mouthwash containing Dextranase enzyme which affected to the changes of dental plaque (Plague Index) in eighteen dental caries volunteers by two mouthwash formulas; Formula I contained only Dextranase enzyme whereas Formula II contained a mixture of Nisin and Dextranase enzymes.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was a single blind randomized clinical trial study. All participants were divided into two equal number of groups received mouthwash containing Dextranase enzyme or mouthwash containing a mixture of Nisin and Dextranase enzyme after using mouthwash. The study allowed participants to use mouthwash continuously for at least four weeks. The participants received oral examination, oral digital imaging and proximal radiographs using Bitewing oral Imaging method, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Both before and after using mouthwash were found to have dental caries. The study found that plague index in participants were decreased.Although the results of this study show that using mouthwash containing Dextranase enzymeeffect to decreased plaque accumulation on teeth volunteers were found to have dental caries but there are other factors besides the plaque on the teeththat causes dental cariese.g. susceptible tooth surface, Acidic product and pH change.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Using mouthwash containing Dextranase enzyme help to reduce plaque formation.</p> Piyachat Tongpong Sasithorn Sirilun Chaiyavat Chaiyasut Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 80 84 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26531 Preattentive detection of auditory memory representations in accumulative drinker <p><strong>Background:</strong> Chinese and English listeners did not show the same left-hemisphere (LH) lateralization as Thai listeners when making perceptual judgments of Thai tones. Although the left hemisphere is selectively employed for processing linguistic information irrespectively of acoustic cues or subtype of phonological unit, the right-hemisphere (RH) is employed for prosody-specific cues.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> As both hemispheres are lateralized for speech and language, the objective of this study is to extend the investigation of how the pre-attentive processing of contour tone changes of Thai monosyllabic words in alcoholic drinkers.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Forty healthy right-handed adults participated in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study found that both rising-to-falling and falling-to-rising tone changes perception elicited Mismatch Negativity (MMN) between 217-264 msec with reference to the standard-stimulus Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). The rising-to-falling and falling-to-rising tone changes elicited a strong MMN for both groups. Source localization was obtained in the Middle Temporal Gyrus (MTG) of the right hemisphere (RH) for both groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Automatic detection of changes in contour tones is a useful index of language universal auditory memory traces.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-01 2020-01-01 11 1 85 89 10.3126/ajms.v11i1.26579