Asian Journal of Medical Sciences https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS <p>The inaugural issue of the Asian Journal of Medical Sciences was published in May 2010. Full text articles available.</p> Asian Journal of Medical Sciences Pokhara en-US Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 2467-9100 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol start="1"><li>The journal holds copyright and publishes the work under a Creative Commons <a title="CC-BY-NC" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank">CC-BY-NC license</a> that permits use, distribution and reprduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. The journal should be recognised as the original publisher of this work.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata for Improving Functional Status in Osteoarthritis Patients: From Bench to Bedside Evidences https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24918 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The management of osteoarthritis (OA) represents a real challenge. Curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule with an excellent safety profile.Some previous studies showed the extract of Curcuma longa and Boswellia Serrata(CB extract) is a promising potential as therapeutic interventions against OA.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> This study aimed to measure the effectiveness and safety of CB extract for improving functional status in patients with OA.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A randomized controlled trial (RCT) in OA patients. The treatment used in this trial were CB extract (350 mg of Curcuma longa and 150 mg Boswellia Serrata) and NSAID (400 mg ibuprofen or 50 mg diclofenac sodium). Subjects were randomized to 3 different group (Group 1: CB extract and NSAID; group 2: CB extract; group 3: NSAID). Each subject would be followed up 3 times: baseline (visit I), 2 weeks after baseline (visit II), and 4 weeks after baseline (visit III). The measurement of functional status with WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthitis Index).</p> <p><strong> Results:</strong> There were 105 osteoarthritis patients. Seven subjects were lost to follow up and three subjects were excluded from the study due to medication side effect. Ninety-five subjects (group 1: 36; group 2: 29, group 3: 30) remained for complete analysis. Delta (Δ) WOMAC score defined as the result of subtraction between WOMAC score at visit I and WOMAC score at visit III. Group 1 showed the greatest reduction of WOMAC score after 4 weeks of treatment (ΔWOMAC = 12.08 ± 18.6). Group 3 has the least WOMAC score reduction (ΔWOMAC = 6.9 ± 16). There was no statistically different of ΔWOMAC score between groups (p = 0.367). There were no statistically different of the prevalence of AE between groups at the visit II (p: 0.119) and at the visit III (p: 0.767).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> CB extract is effective and safe for improving functional status in OA patients.</p> Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon Vincent Ongko Wijaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 1 5 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24918 The FIT therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal and neurological disorders related symptoms: A retrospective observational study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/21230 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Far Infrared Waves (FIW) with frequency range among few hundreds gigahertz (GHz) and few terahertz (THz) display some positive effects on neurological and musculoskeletal disorders.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> Our retrospective observational study describes the benefits observed by the administration of an infrared –trapping and focusing plaster (FIT-PATCH) in patients affected by different musculoskeletal and neurological symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> 100 patients were retrospectively reviewed through the Second Opinion Medical Network. Each patient sticked a FIT-PATCH every 5 days for 1 month upon the skin in the painful/inflamed area. Quality of life (QOL) assessment was evaluated by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire before starting the treatment and after the fourth week and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) completed the pre-post treatment subjective pain record.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> SF-36 showed significantly improvement of the pre-post treatment scores (P &lt; 0.03), pain score (P &lt; 0.02), general health score (P &lt; 0.03) and in the emotional component scores (P &lt; 0.03). The VAS pain score was either improved (P &lt; 0.02) after plaster administration. No side effects or allergenic skin reactions were reported along the study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The FIT patches improved the symptoms probably through a mechanism involving the sebaceous/sweat glands system spreading the fit irradiating infrared THz waves energy, to the surrounding tissues with both a thermal and electromagnetic putative effect.The occlusive mechanism of the patch on the skin surface increasing the local thermic gradient cannot be adequately supposed to be therapeutically effective, because the FIT patch locally applied induces haemodynamic microvascular modification, not only locally but also remote. Thus, the intrinsic chemical properties of the FIT formulation absorbs and concentrates the endogenous infrared waves amplifying and reverberating them into the underlying tissues near and far, through low-Q-factor helical antennas of the sweat glands spreading the energy all over the body. Hence, the claim is that fit basically absorbs and concentrates the endogenous infrared waves into the affected districts and accelerates symptoms recovery.</p> Beniamino Palmieri Maria Vadalà Carmen Laurino ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 6 12 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.21230 Assessment of thyroid dysfunction, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hypertensive end stage chronic renal disease patients in a teaching hospital in Western Uttar Pradesh https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24688 <p><strong>Background:</strong> CKD is a serious health problem in worldwide. In developing nation, CKD has severe implication on health and economic output. The rapid increase of common risk factors such as hypertension (HTN), obesity and type 2 diabetes will result in greater and more burdens to developing country. There are many complications associated with CKD including thyroid dysfunction, dyslipidemia,hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD).It is generally seen that patients suffering from CKD are at high risk of cardiovascular disease.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> The purpose of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic screening of thyroid dysfunction, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hypertensive end stage chronic renal disease patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Thyroid status, Lipid profile, serum Urea, serum Creatinine, serum Uric acid, serum electrolyte, Catalase,Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in 160 subjects in which 80 patients of CKD were having hypertension and 80 healthy controls.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In our study, we found statistical significantly increased level of (p&lt;0.001) of malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly decreased level (p&lt;0.001) of Catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD).There was found significantly increased level (p&lt;0.001) of TSH in CKD associated with hypertension patients.We also found deranged lipid profile and renal functions in CKD associated with hypertension patients as compared to controls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the present study, we arrived at conclusion that dyslipidemia and thyroid dysfunction is very common in CKD patients. Our study revealed that there was significant association between thyroid dysfunction and CKD progression and dyslipidemia. The antioxidant status is assessed through changes in antioxidant enzymatic activity in patients of CKD with hypertensive and data provide evidence of blood pressure modulation by measurable oxidative stress–related parameters.</p> Poonam Kachhawa Vivek Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 10 5 13 18 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24688 Stress reduction by Phochong chanting indexed by Thai Stress Test https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/22461 <p>&nbsp;<strong>Background: </strong>Stress is traditionally defined as either a bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium or the process of appraising events of assessing potential responses, and of responses which may include not just physiological but also cognitive and behavioural changes.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to examine the stress reduction after listening to Phochong chanting.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Forty participants were participated in this study. They were divided into two groups; the control group who saw a spot on computer screen while listening to Phochong chanting for 10 minutes, and the target group who saw the Buddha image while listening to Phochong chanting for 10 minutes. The Thai Stress Test was used as a tool to examine the stress reduction. Frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation were used for descriptive data analysis. Paired sample t-test was also used to compare between before and after listening to Phochong chanting.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The percentage of participants in the target group who felt ‘excellent mental health’ was 20.0% and only 10% for the control one. The 55.0% in the target group felt ‘normal mental health’ while 45.0% was for the control one. About 25.0% of the target group felt ‘mild stress’ while 45.0% was in the control one. However, no participant showed ‘sever stress (stressful)’ in this study. The Thai Stress Test has adequate reliability, adequate construct validity, and sufficient discriminant power.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>By listening to Phochong chanting would help the stress level reduction.</p> Jidapa Kerdsurivong Jarasphol Rintra Karnt Wongsuphasawat Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 19 26 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.22461 Dermatological manifestations and medico-social correlates among intellectually disabled students in Central India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24770 <p><strong>Background:&nbsp;</strong>People with intellectual disabilities (PwID) are particularly more vulnerable to dermatological manifestations due to their associated disabilities and hygiene negligence.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> To estimate the prevalence and pattern of skin diseases considering various medico-social correlates among PwID in two districts of Central India. To apply multinomial logistic regression analysis to examine the medico-social factors associated with no, one and more than one dermatological manifestations.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 204 PwID receiving rehabilitation services under a NGO serving two districts were examined for dermatological manifestations and various medico-social factors were studied. Descriptive analysis like chi-square and multinomial logistic regression analysis (MLR) was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found that 87.25% of study participants had one or more dermatological manifestations {infectious (64.7%) and non-infectious (84.3%)}. Among the various medico-social variables studied, socio-economic status, education of parents and associated co-morbidities were independently associated with increase in frequency of skin disorders. MLR analysis showed that Illiteracy of parents, lower socio-economic status and associated co-morbidities in PwID had higher odds of developing one and more than one dermatological manifestations when compared to literate and high income families and PwID with no associated co-morbidities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This study delineates the importance of additional attempts to be made by dermatologist while dealing with PwID while considering carefully their associated co-morbidities and various social factors. Strict hygiene measures, periodic skin examination and health education of persons caring for students with disabilities are recommended.</p> Harshal Gupta Vishal Agrawal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 10 5 27 32 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24770 ALBI and Child-Pugh score in predicting mortality in chronic liver disease patients secondary to alcohol - A retrospective comparative study https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/23171 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The severity of liver dysfunction in chronic liver disease is often estimated with Child-Pugh (CTP) classification or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) score is a new model for assessing the severity of liver dysfunction, which is simple and more objective.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> The present study was aimed to retrospectively compare the performance of ALBI score with Child-Pugh score for predicting the mortality in patients with chronic liver disease.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> Data of patients with chronic Liver disease irrespective of etiology were retrospectively reviewed. Child Pugh score and ALBI score were calculated for the patients and results from ROC curves were analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Study conducted on 299 patients of chronic liver disease, age distribution was between 20-85 years with mean age of patients being 45.7+/-10.94 years, sex ratio male: female is 265:34 with mortality rate of 19.73%.The area under curves of ROC of ALBI and Child pugh are 0.586 and 0.549 respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ability of ALBI score for predicting mortality was comparable with that of Child Pugh score but Child pugh score of more than 10 has got better performance of predicting mortality as compared to ALBI score.</p> B S Nagaraja R Madhumathi S B Sanjeet K J Umesh S Kumar Nandish ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 10 5 33 36 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.23171 Comparative ABO blood group and rhesus factor distribution between homogenous and heterogenous populations in South Eastern Nigeria https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/25013 <p><strong>Background:</strong> The ABO blood group and Rhesus (Rh) factor remain the most important blood group in transfusion medicine. Knowledge of ABO and rhesus blood group distribution within a population is indispensable for transfusion medicine, clinical and marriage counselling.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> The objectives of this study were to provide data and compare the pattern of ABO and rhesus blood group distribution between a homogenous and a heterogenous population.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Blood was collected from 352 University students representing a heterogenous population and 235 primary school pupils in a local community representing homogenous population. The ABO and rhesus blood groups were determined using white tile and agglutination methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 352 and 235 individuals studied in UNN and HFNP, blood groups O had the highest frequency with 54.80% and 51.06% respectively while blood group AB had the least frequency of 4.50% and 3.40% in UNN and HFNP respectively. Rhesus positive had the highest frequency of 88.63% and 95.33% while rhesus negative had the frequencies of 11.35% and 4.68% in UNN and HFNP respectively. Rhesus negative was highest among females in UNN 26 (7.37%) while males had the highest rhesus negative 7 (2.98%) in HFNP. In both study populations, there was no significant difference in ABO and rhesus blood group distribution between the males and females (P &gt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A homogenous population is associated with low prevalence of rhesus negative compared to a heterogenous population.</p> Ikechukwu Eugene Onah Ezinne Veronica Moses Ifeyinwa Esther Ugwuoke Sabina Chioma Eze Jude Ifeanyichukwu Okwor Patience Obiageli Ubachukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 10 5 37 42 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.25013 Excessive sleepiness of Thai night shift workers in medical circumstances indexed by Epworth Sleepiness Scale https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24987 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Excessive sleepiness is a cardinal symptom of many sleep disorders including shift work sleep disorder. As shift work sleep disorder is one type of the circadian rhythms sleep–wake disorders (CRSDs), it composes of symptoms of insomnia or excessive sleepiness associated with a recurring work schedule that intersections with the usual sleep timetable.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective: </strong>The objective was to study the sleep propensity (SPs) in Thai medical staffs who are working in the hospital in Thailand.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Ten participants included night shift workers with excessive sleepiness. Each participant was assessed by standardized measures of excessive sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale [ESS] ≥ 11). Exclusions included clinical major medical problem, psychiatric, neurological problem, use of drugs other than alcohol, uncorrected serious vision issue, pregnancy and lactation, use of antibiotics and herbs during this study. The ESS item scores in this study are all assessments of different situational SPs.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed that about 70% of the subjects answered slight chance of dozing, while 20% answered moderate chance of dozing for sitting and reading situation. Only 10% of the subjects would never doze. There were 60% of the subjects answered slight chance of dozing, while 10% answered moderate chance of dozing for as a passenger in a car for hour without a break of the ESS. There were 30% mentioned that they would never doze.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The situations can be described in general terms but not completely, for they depend on the subject’s perception of them. Although these preliminary findings represent a relatively information, it may not reflect all the SPs in Thai medical staffs who are working in hospital. It need further research to be done in the larger extended way.</p> Phuttharaksa Phucharoen Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 43 48 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24987 Screening of hearing ability and hearing threshold among traffic police https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24911 <p>Introduction: Traffic police are continually exposed to loud noise. The pure tone audiometric screening for hearing test has not been done in Biratnagar Nepal. So, we conducted a study to screen hearing ability and also to find out hearing thresholds among traffic police with normal hearing ability.</p> <p>Materials and methods: The study was conducted among 36 traffic police personnel. The 25dB sound was administered with audiometer (name) in different frequencies (1 kHz, 2 kHz, 3 kHz, 4 kHz and 8 kHz) for screening hearing loss in left and right ears. The threshold for hearing among normal hearing traffic personnel was compared with controls in all the frequencies.</p> <p>Result: Among 36 traffic police, 17(47.2%) had hearing loss. Maximum (n=8) hearing loss was seen in 4 kHz (4 - unilateral and 4 – bilateral) followed by 3 kHz (n=4, 3 unilateral and 1 bilateral) and mixed 3kHz and 4 kHz frequencies. The percentage of hearing loss in 2 kHz, 3 kHz and 4 kHz frequencies was more in left ear compared to right.&nbsp; The threshold for hearing loss was higher in traffic police compared to controls .In the left ear, it was only in 4kHz {(25.91+6.64 Vs 20.45±4.15,( p=.034)} whereas in right ear, the threshold was higher in 3 kHz {20.45±5.22 Vs 15.91±4.90, (p=0.04)}, 4 kHz {25.45±12.54 Vs 16.82±5.60, (p=0.05)} and 8000 kHz {18.64±17.62 Vs 6.36±3.23, (p=0.04) .</p> <p>Conclusion: The hearing loss was present in 47.2% of traffic policemen predominantly in 4 kHz. The threshold for hearing was also higher among traffic police compared to controls.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nisha Ghimire Sanjeev Kumar Thakur Abhisesa Kumar Jha Renu Yadav Soumitra Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 10 5 49 54 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24911 Classification of brain processing indicators in financial officers https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/25029 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Arthur F. Carmazzi discovered new way of identifying the human brain’s clarity based on the foundations of genetic neurosciences. The specific terminology of “Ambiguity Relief” was used to refer to the human brain’s processing that supports evaluating information to relate new context to existing knowledge, simplifying ideas, making decisions, and problem solving into actionable elements.</p> <p><strong>Aim and Objective: </strong>This study identified the relationship between brain processing indicator and communication of financial officers in Thailand by using the Colored Brain Communication Inventory.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Fifty participants were involved in this study. All participants were assessed by using the Colored Brain Communication Inventory developed by Arthur F. Carmazzi.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All participants were thirty-one males (62%) and nineteen females (38%). There were eleven persons worked as Manager, considered 25%. Nine participants worked as Director and seven participants worked as Deputy Director and Senior Manager were about 18%, 14%, and 14%, respectively. Five participants worked as Senior Director were in the amount of 10% of all the participants while two participants worked as Senior Officer and Officer were 4% and 4%, respectively. Of the fifty participants, the highest number of 28 participants (56%) were reported as Green Brain Processing while 12 participants (24%) were reported as Purple Brain Processing. The less of 7 participants (14%) were reported as Red Brain Processing while only 3 participants (6%) were reported as Blue Brain Processing, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study is the first study to explore the effects of brain processing indicator and communication on the leadership and working environment by using Colored Brain Communication Inventory tool in Thailand. By adopting conceptual and hypotheses of Colored Brain model, any awareness by participants might help their team members adopt a cooperation attitude instead of trying to change others beyond their own processes which creating frustration on both sides.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn Arthur F Carmazzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 55 62 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.25029 Seizure commonly associated with Neurocysticercosis are not linked with pork meat diet. A retrospective analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/24896 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease and common cause epilepsy in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong>The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of NCC and factor associated with the cause of NCC in Nepalese patients.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>All patient with complain of seizure admitted to the College of Medical Sciences, and Teaching Hospital (COMS-TH), Nepal for a period of 2016 were included in the study. All age group patients between 10-80 years old with confirmed diagnosed of NCC were considered for the retrospective analysis. The proportion distribution of NCC was categorized based on the etiology of seizures, demographic profile (gender and age) and dietary habit of patients.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;Among 142 patients with seizure, 54(38%) were computerized tomography (CT) scan confirmed NCC cases in which 29 (53.7) were male, and 25 (46.3%) were female. Almost 44 (81.5%) patients with NCC were below the age of 50 years, and high prevalence (31.5%) was observed at the age of 10-20 years old patients. All patients depend on the agricultural background, in which 35 (65%) were farmer and 19 (35%) with an agricultural background. Most of the patients lacked good hygienic habits. Additionally, 10 (18.5%) patients with NCC were vegetarian, 44 (81.5%) were non-vegetarian. Among non-vegetarian, only 2 (3.7%) were pork eaters. Most of the patients had poor hygienic habits and eating raw vegetables. All patients were managed with the single antiepileptic drug but, Albendazole plus steroid therapy was added in patients with active lesion observed in CT scan.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>This study showed a high prevalence of NCC and a common cause of the new onset of seizures in the patient of COMS-TH, Nepal. Also, our data showed that NCC is not associated with pork eaters because NCC was observed more number in vegetarian compared to patients who consume pork meat diet.</p> Nisha Khanal Reena Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-09 2019-08-09 10 5 63 67 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.24896 A new short version of the “Token Test” for Yawi native speakers https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/25044 <p><strong>Background: </strong>The Token Test as originally conceived by De Renzi and Vignol is a subtle test of receptive language functions. Although it has been employed in numerous clinical studies since 1962, no one has studied the linguistic properties of the commands in in Yawi-speaking aphasic patients.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>The study aimed to describe the development of the Yawi Token Test (YWTT) and to investigate the test performances of the normal Yawi-speaking participants before applying with the Yawi-Speaking aphasic patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>An adaptation of the Yawi Token Test (YWTT) was administered to one-hundred normal Yawi-speaking participants, ranging in age from 18-45 years, with minimal educational level of Prathom 4 who were living in Pattani Province, South of Thailand.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Performance on Part I-V and overall performance were reported. Overall, participants in the trial version performed not significantly on the Yawi Token Test (YWTT) overall composite score compared to final version. The mean Yawi Token Test (YWTT) score of the trail and final versions were 59.40 (S.D. = 1.29; range: 56 – 61) and 60.44 (S.D. = 1.39; range: 56 – 61), respectively. The mean Yawi Token Test (YWTT) score for overall (100 participants) was 60.42 (S.D. = 1.32; range score: 56 – 61). Comparing with the trial version, participants did obviously lower number of errors of all parts in the final version.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Yawi Token Test (YWTT) was applicable to the differential diagnosis of the communicative abilities of Yawi-speaking aphasic patients. This test will be helpful for assessing auditory language comprehension Yawi-speaking aphasic patients.</p> Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 68 74 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.25044 Morphological and morphometrical studies of the human foetal lung https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/22136 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Foetal lung is one of the organs of interest for researchers since a long time. Though, detailed study about adult lung is there in the literature but lungs at different stages in foetal period is less available.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> To find out the morphological and morphometrical features of the foetal lung in different gestational weeks.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> After ethical approval the study was carried out on 66 human foetal lungs aged between 16<sup>th</sup> to 40<sup>th</sup> gestational weeks in the Department of Anatomy, Manipal College of Medical Sciences. After the dissection of foetuses, the lungs were removed out and the presence of fissures and lobes for both lungs were noted. Weights of both lungs were calibrated by digital weighing machine. Dimensions of foetal lungs were recorded by vernier calliper. All the data were represented as mean then analyzed with MS excel 2007 software and represented graphically.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In the normally developing foetuses the dimensions of both lung increases with increase in gestational age with more or less difference between the dimension of right and left lung. There was number of variations seen in the fissures and lobes of the lungs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The fissures and lobes are needed for locating broncho-pulmonary segments hence, knowledge of their position is necessary both anatomically as well as clinically for planning lobectomies and surgical resections.</p> Rajeev Mukhia Dil Islam Mansur Sidharth Timsina Taneja BK ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 75 79 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.22136 Brain electrical activity during bench press weight training exercise https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/21034 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Weight training is one type of exercises which some people interest. When the body has a physical exercise with enough intensity, it can produce a positive effect on brain function by changing amplitude of electroencephalographic activity.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective: </strong>The purpose of this investigation was to examine a more comprehensive range of the electroencephalographic activity including delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma brainwaves during bench press weight training exercise.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>Electroencephalographic activities were recorded with nine participants by using the commercial lightweight electroencephalographic device, NeuroSky Mindwave Mobile, both before and during bench press weight training exercise.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The present study was conducted to find out how bench press weight training exercise effected to human brainwave. The electroencephalographic activity could be recorded during bench press weight training. The findings of the present study documented increase in beta and gamma brainwaves during bench press weight training exercise. This electrophysiological changes could represent the rearrangement of different systems as a consequence of exercise.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This bench press weight training might significantly alter the intense exercise. Future studies may want to examine how these changes in electroencephalographic activity influence or are associated with changes in cognition, affect and/or perception during/after bench press weight training exercise. The impact of peripheral physiology on electroencephalographic activity of bench press weight training exercise also needs to be examined.</p> Pipat Engchuan Karnt Wongsuphasawat Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 80 85 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.21034 Role of ultrasound in diagnosis and differentiation of benign and malignant ovarian mass: A Hospital based study in Western Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/25091 <p><strong>Background:</strong> As ovarian malignancies are one of the commonest malignancies in female population, timely and accurate diagnosis helps in early treatment resulting in better survival. Ultrasound is easily available diagnostic tool not only to diagnose but also accurately distinguish malignant from benign ovarian masses.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives:</strong> To evaluate sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing and differentiating benign from malignant ovarian masses in comparison with histopathological findings.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A prospective study was carried out from August 2015 to August 2018 for a period of 3 years. Total 150 patients with ovarian masses who were operated in our hospital and their final histopathological reports were available, were included in our study. Ultrasound diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis were compared.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound in diagnosing and differentiating malignant from benign ovarian masses were found to be 78.94%, 98.47% and 88.23% respectively compared with histopathological findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Ultrasound is very sensitive, specific and accurate in not only diagnosing ovarian mass but also in differentiating malignant from benign entities making it invaluable and important diagnostic tool in evaluation of ovarian masses.</p> Subash KC Ashish Shrestha Sagar Khadka Ramesh Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 86 89 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.25091 Chinabunchorn chanting causes stress level reduction evaluated by Thai Stress Test https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/22344 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Stress is defined as a bodily or mental tension resulting from factors that tend to alter an existent equilibrium. A stress response is the compensatory reaction the body makes to the disturbance caused by the stressor where overall impact of a stressor will depend on its features and the characteristics of those who have been affected.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to investigate how the Chinabunchorn chanting, an Eastern method of Buddhist meditation, reduced the self-perceived stress among participants. The specific objectives of the study was also to determine the stress level reduction of participants who have self-perceived stress and to relief the stress during specific circumstance.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The samples were thirty participants divided into two groups; the target group who listened to Chinabunchorn chanting, the control group who did similar to the previous one except seeing the Buddha image. The Thai Stress Test was applied to all participants by rating their subjective feelings during experiment.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The result showed that there were statistical significance differences of both positive and negative scales comparing between before and after listening to Chinabunchorn chanting. All participants in the target group felt ‘normal mental health’ to ‘excellent mental health’ after listening Chinabunchorn chanting. Meanwhile, all participants in the control group felt ‘mild stress’ to ‘normal mental health’ after listening to Chinabunchorn chanting. However, no participant showed severs stress (stressful) in this study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>By listening to Chinabunchorn chanting during any activities would help the stress level reduction.</p> Nichamon Waeobut Vichit Boonyahotara Ariya Sarikaphuti Phakkharawat Sittiprapaporn ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 90 97 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.22344 Study of abnormal umbilical artery doppler and neonatal outcome https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJMS/article/view/25135 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Doppler provides assessment of uteroplacental and fetoplacental circulation during pregnancy. It is a sensitive tool in early detection of fetal compromise and allows needful intervention.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objective:</strong> To study the role of umbilical artery doppler in clinically suspected IUGR and its implication on neonatal outcome.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> A total of 104 singleton pregnancies with gestational age of more than 34 weeks who had clinical suspicion of IUGR were evaluated using obstetric ultrasound and doppler. Umbilical artery<br>velocimetry with S/D &gt;3 and RI &gt;0.7 were considered abnormal. Newborns were classified as either small for gestational age (SGA) ie, IUGR or appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Neonatal outcome were classified as either normal or adverse events that included still birth, NICU admissions, perinatal asphyxia and/or neonatal death.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 104 clinically suspected IUGR, 55 were born with small for gestational age. Among these SGA neonates, 45 subjects had abnormal umbilical artery S/D and 42 had abnormal RI. Abnormal umbilical<br>artery S/D ratio had a sensitivity of 81.8 %, specificity of 59.2 %, the positive predictive value of 69.2 % and negative predictive value of 74.4 %. Abnormal Umbilical artery RI had a sensitivity of 76.4 %, specificity of 69.4 %, positive predictive value of 73.7 % and negative predictive value of 72.3 % in diagnosing IUGR. Abnormal umbilical artery velocimetry was associated with increased morbidity and mortality in IUGR neonates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Umbilical artery doppler plays an important role in diagnosing IUGR and predicting neonatal outcome.</p> Gyawali Merina Poudel Ramesh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2019-08-11 2019-08-11 10 5 98 101 10.3126/ajms.v10i5.25135