https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/issue/feed Agronomy Journal of Nepal 2022-05-06T09:46:28+00:00 Mina Nath Paudel, Ph D mnpaudel@gmail.com Open Journal Systems Published by the Crop Development Directorate and Agronomy Society of Nepal. Full text articles available. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44718 Patenting Need Of Unique Geographical Indicator Commodities And Products To Enhance Livelihoods And Resources Conservation In Nepal 2022-04-28T06:43:07+00:00 Mina Nath Paudel mnpaudel@gmail.com <p>This is high time for Nepal to patent endemic genetic resources, commodities and products available in Nepal by studying them scientifically. Nepal is one of the 10th richest countries of Agrobiodiversity availability in Asia and 31st globally. Nonetheless, Nepal being one of the nine oldest countries in Asia, has not been able to harness her potentiality in these areas which could help enhance livelihoods of rural people and gain profit by patenting these resources efficiently. After Prithvi Narayan Shah unified Nepal in 1768 BS, eight countries; Afghanistan, India, China, Korea, Japan, Magnolia, Oman, and Turkey were existed in Asia. The evidences documented in many Vedic and other Sanskrit literatures support Nepal’s existence since time immemorial. This article will help maintain Nepal’s intact for being historically a glorious country since ancient times. Geographical indications (GIs) of crops, commodity and products have special identification of ancientness in Nepal. Bala Chaturdahsi, a unique festival thrived only in Nepal, is an earliest form of genetic resources conservation under Pashupati Nath areas and Shiva temples across Nepal sowing seeds of hundreds of crops since Vedic times. In this article, efforts have been made to document some of the important Nepali cuisine, agricultural commodity, crops, animals, vegetables, fruits, both indigenous and ethnic foods, and products which are very important and endemic to Nepal as GIs with respect to claim their patent rights by Nepal. This article puts efforts to make clear understanding about Nepal with respect to such endemic indigenous genetic resources and their produce locally and globally. It is imperative that Nepal should be in food self-sufficiency and conserve vast pool of unique biodiversity resources and products by patenting them without any delay in days to come.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44723 Does Conservation Agriculture Work For Rainfed Farming In Nepal? A Review 2022-04-28T09:20:39+00:00 Tika Bahadur Karki tbkarki2003@gmail.com Pankaj Gyawaly pankajgyawaly@gmail.com <p>Intensive tillage-based agricultural practices severely affect the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties that eventually limit the crop yields in longer run. It is due to declining soil physical, chemical and biological properties. Several studies have been done to restore and improve the soil quality, however conservation agriculture (CA)-based practices of minimum tillage, crop residue retention and appropriate crop rotations has been observed to be promising across the globe. Studies on CA under Nepal’s rainfed farming systems of Terai and hills of Nepal improved the soil quality, increased individual crop and system yields, reduced labor demand and was economically profitable. However, lack of adequate soil moisture during planting in initial seasons, inadequate tillage equipment and weed management options are the key constraints of rainfed farming to be transformed into CA in initial stages. In Nepal, the introduction of animal-drawn direct seeding equipment, management of residues or mulches, mechanical or herbicidal weed management options for small-scale rainfed hill farmers can be of paramount significance in scaling-out of the CA based practices in Nepal. For this, further on-station and on-farm verifications of CA based practices need to be carried out across the various cropping systems and agro[1]ecological regions of the country by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Nepal in collaboration with international CG centers, universities, extension and development institutions.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44781 Effect Of Seedbed Preparation Methods And Herbicide Application On Yield And Economics Of Dry Direct-Seeded Rice At Parwanipur, Nepal 2022-05-01T08:39:04+00:00 Pradeep Shah pradeep75shah@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np Komal Bahadur Basnet kbbasnet@afu.edu.np Mina Nath Paudel mnpaudel@gmail.com <p>Field experiments were conducted during the 2016 and 2017 normal season (June-November) dry direct[1]seeded rice (DDSR) at RARS Parwanipur to assess the effect of various combinations of herbicides mixture under seedbed preparation to evaluate different attributes of weed control efficiencies (WCE) coupled with grain yield and economics of DDSR. The experiment was laid out in two factors factorial strip plot design with four replications. Treatments consisted of nine levels of weed management practices that include weed free, weedy check, Pendimethalin, Bispyribac sodium, Ethoxysulfuron, Pendimethalin followed by (fb) Bispyribac sodium, Pendimethalin fb Ethoxysulfuron, Bispyribac sodium tank mix with Ethoxysulfuron and Pendimethalin fb tank mixture of Bispyribac sodium and Ethoxysulfuron as horizontal factor whereas two levels of seedbed preparation methods (stale seedbed and normal seedbed) as the vertical factor. The result of the experiments revealed lower weed intensity (WI) and higher weed control efficiency (WCE), net return and benefit-cost (B:C) ratio with Pendimethalin fb tank mixture of Bispyribac sodium and Ethoxysulfuron in both the years 2016 and 2017. Grain yield was significantly higher with weed free treatment followed by Pendimethalin fb tank mixture of Bispyribac sodium and Ethoxysulfuron in both the years due to higher WCE and lower WI which resulted in better growth and development of DDSR. Therefore, the Pendimethalin fb tank mixture of Bispyribac sodium and Ethoxysulfuron is a better option for DDSR under Parwanipur condition during main season rice DDSR rice production.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44727 Effect Of Spacing And Plant Density On Yield Performance Of Determinate Soybean Variety Tarkari Bhatmas-1 Under Mid Hill Condition 2022-04-28T09:54:09+00:00 Renuka Shrestha renuka.shrestha@gmail.com Soni Das sonidas234@gmail.com Reshama Neupane neupanereshama@gmail.com <p>Field experiments consisting nine spacing: three row to row (inter row: 43 cm, 50 cm and 60 cm) and three plant to plant (intra row: 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm) with plant population ranging from 8-23/m<sup>2</sup> were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications from 2014-2016 in Agronomy Farm, Lalitpur, Nepal. Seeds were sown on 29 May 2014, 31 May 2015 and 26 May 2016. Chemical fertilizers 30 N:60 P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:30 K2O kg/ha were applied as basal dose. Combined analysis showed significant variation in final plant stand, grain yield and numbers of pod/plant amongst different inter row and intra row spacing, while other parameters were not statistically significant. Grain yields were at par at inter row spacing of 43-60 cm and intra row spacing of 10-15 cm (11-23 plants/m<sup>2</sup>). Grain yield was reduced by 7-21% when intra row spacing was more than 10 cm, with the greatest reduction in wider intra row spacing of 20 cm. Greater number of pods/plant in wide spacing indicated the ability of soybean to compensate for low plant population to some extent. Plant grew taller in narrow intra row spacing than wider spacing, but seed size was not affected by spacing. Wider intra row spacing was found to have greater influence in term of grain yield than inter row spacing in case of early maturing determinate variety under Khumaltar condition. Inter row spacing of 43-60 cm and intra row spacing of 10-15 cm were found to be optimum for early maturing determinate soybean under Kathmandu valley and similar environments.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44782 Weed Management In Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) At Nawalpur Conditions In Sarlahi, Central Terai, Nepal 2022-05-01T08:57:02+00:00 Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai rkbhattarai@gmail.com Dayamani Devi Gautam dayamani.gautam@gmail.com BP Yadav masteryadavbp2001@gmail.com Pankaj Gyawaly pankajgyawaly@gmail.com Bhimsen Chaulagain bhimsen.chaulagain@gmail.com <p>Groundnut is one of the important summer oilseed crops of Nepal. The area under this crop has decreased considerably in the recent decade due to its high cost of cultivation for weeding and increased labor charge. Crop compete with the repeated flush of diverse weed throughout the growing season which causes substantial yield loss up to 50 -70 %. So, to find out an effective treatment for weed management, an experiment was conducted during 2017 and 2018 with nine treatments laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in three replications. Treatments were constituted by four herbicides, two pre[1]emergence (pendimethalin and metribuzin) and two post emergences (quizalofop and propaquizafop). Pre emergence herbicide was followed by (fb) by hand weeding (HW) in one treatment and by the post emergence herbicides in another treatment. Cover mulch treatment with groundnut pods shell @ 3.0 t/ha was used. Farmer’s practice treatment consists of one hand weeding and one intercultural operation while no weeded plot was kept as control treatment. Data on weed dynamics, yield attributes and seed yield were varied among the treatments. Pre emergence herbicide supplemented by one hand weeding proved highly effective in controlling weeds. Pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i/ha fb one HW showed superior performance in yield attributes, a high percentage (83.0%) of weed control efficiency (WCE), highest grain yield (2005 kg/ha), high benefits (NRs 222450) and BC ratio 2.84 among the treatments. The treatment metribuzin @ 0.5 kg a.i/ha fb one HW was also found as second best treatment with 74.4 % of WCE, yield (1882 kg/ha), benefits of Rs 205060 and BC ratio 2.65.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44783 Effect Of Tillage Method, Crop Residue And Nutrient Management On Growth And Yield Of Wheat In Rice-Wheat Cropping System At Bhairahawa Condition 2022-05-01T09:17:35+00:00 Himal Prasad Timalsina himaltimalsina32@gmail.com Santosh Marahatta santoshmarahatta@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np Anand Kumar Gautam akg.aerd.narc@gmail.con <p>Wheat (Triticum aestivum L), grown under traditional practices becoming less productive and less profitable in Nepal, due to ever-increasing input prices and intensive land preparation. A field experiment was conducted to find alternate practices for enhancing productivity of wheat at the National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa during the winter season of 2018/19 and 2019/20. The experiment plot was designed on strip-split plot design with 3 replications. Three tillage methods, surface seeding (SS), zero tillage (ZT), and conventional tillage (CT) were assigned in vertical strips with two levels of crop residue management: residue removed (R0) and residue retention (R50) in horizontal blocks, whereas three levels of nutrient management: recommended dose of NPK (F100), 25% higher dose of NPK (F125) and farmer’s practice (FP) were assigned in subplots. Data regarding growth, yield attributes, and yield were recorded and analyzed by Genstat. In the first year, ZT was better in terms of number of tillers at maximum tillering stage, maximum leaf area index, effective tiller per square meter, number of grain per spike, and straw yield compared to SS and CT; whereas in the second year SS was better in terms of growth, yield attributes and yield as compared to ZT and CT. In the first year, R(0) produced significantly higher straw yield but significantly lower harvest index (HI) than R(50) whereas in second year R(50) produced significantly higher thousand grain weight, grain yield and HI. The application of 25% more nutrients than the recommended dose resulted significantly better most of the growth, yield attributes, and yield during both years. On the average of two years, ZT produced more yield than CT and SS by 26.6% and 3.0% respectively. The short term ZT significantly increased the bulk density as compared to SS and CT. Based on the research results, it can be suggested that the traditional practices of wheat can be replaced by ZT with retention of previous crop residues and the application of 25% more nutrients than the recommended dose.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44784 Effect Of Plant Densities And Fertilizer Rates On Grain Yield Of Spring Maize In Inner Terai Condition 2022-05-01T10:24:04+00:00 Santosh Marahatta santoshmarahatta@gmail.com <p>To improve the yield of spring season maize in the inner terai of Nepal, the effect of increasing fertilizer levels for increasing planting densities on growth, yield attributes, and yield of open-pollinated maize variety were analyzed through the field experimentation in 2019. The treatments included factorial combinations of three planting densities, (a) 55556/ha, (b) 66667/ha, and (c) 83333/ha; and four fertilizers levels (research-based recommendation i.e., 120:60:40 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 144:72:48 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 180:90:60 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, and site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) based nutrient expert model recommendation i.e., 140:40:40 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha) arranged in a split-plot design with three replications. Data on growth, yield attributes, and yield were analyzed by using R Studio. Growth was higher under the highest planting density and higher fertilizer levels applied treatments. The higher (p&lt;0.05) heat use efficiency was recorded under the highest planting density and the higher levels of fertilizer application. The final plant population was 5.33% lower in the plant density of 55556/ha, 8.8 and 15.7% lower respectively for plant densities of 66667/ha and 83333/ha. Both the barrenness and sterility percentage were higher (p&lt;0.05) for the highest planting densities and the lowest for the lowest plant density. Higher (p&lt;0.05) number of kernels per cobs were recorded in the lowest plant density and the highest amount of fertilizer application. For the lowest and the highest plant densities, the leaf area index increased the grain yield whereas longer grain filling duration and less amount of barrenness and sterility increased (p&lt;0.05) the grain yield for all plant densities. The final number of plant populations was the most important parameter to increase (p&lt;0.05) the yield under lower plant density whereas the number of kernels per row or cob was the most important attribute to increase (p&lt;0.05) the yield of maize under higher plant density. Due to a higher (p&lt;0.05) number of final plant populations and comparable yield attributes, the grain yield of the highest planting density was significantly (p&lt;0.05) higher. From the significant (p&lt;0.05) quadratic response of plant density on the grain yield, a density of 102,950 /ha was estimated as optimum. The increased in amount of fertilizers (144:72:48 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 180:90:60 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha) gave higher grain yield. The plant densities of 66667/ha and 83333/ha were better whereas the present recommended dose of N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O should be increased or need-based SSNM must be adopted to obtain the more profits from open-pollinated spring maize under the central inner Terai.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44785 Effect Of Integrated Nutrient Management In Soybean Variety Tarkari Bhatmas-1 At Khumaltar Condition 2022-05-01T10:40:51+00:00 Reshama Neupane neupanereshama@gmail.com R. Amgain neupanereshama@gmail.com R. Shrestha neupanereshama@gmail.com <p>Soybean (<em>Glycine max</em> L. Merril) is an important summer legume in terms of area and production in Nepal. A field experiment was conducted on the farm of National Agronomy Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur to evaluate the effect of different combination of nutrients on yield and yield component of soybean variety Tarkari Bhatamas-1. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) consisting of eight nutrient treatments. These were 30:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha (recommended dose), 30:80:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 50:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 50:80:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 30:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + compost 10 ton/ha, 30:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + Rhizobium inoculation, 30:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + Biochar (@ 330 g/plot and Compost 20 t/ha with four replications. Results of the pooled analysis revealed that maximum grain yield (2258 kg/ha) and straw dry matter (2735 kg/ha) was obtained with the application of compost 20 t/ha followed by 30:60:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + compost 10 t/ha (2007 kg/ha) and straw dry matter (2394 kg/ha). The number of nodule and nodule dry weight was not affected by different nutrient combination. The number of pods significantly differed with nutrient combinations. The three years result suggested that 20-ton compost/ha or integration of recommended dose of chemical fertilizer with 10-ton compost/ha had shown the best treatment combination for the sustainable production of soybean at Khumaltar condition.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44786 Review On Scope And Challenges Of Direct Seeded Rice In Nepal 2022-05-01T10:51:27+00:00 BB Adhikari bishnuadhi2011@gmail.com <p>Rice is an important staple food crop of more than half of the population in the world to provide food security and livelihoods. Imminent water crisis due to climate change, water demanding nature of traditionally cultivated rice, increasing scarcity of labor and escalating labor costs drive the search for alternative management methods to increase water productivity, system sustainability and profitability in rice cultivation. Direct seeded rice (DSR) technique has received much attention and popularity nowadays because of its low-input demanding nature that can mitigate emission of green-house gases and adaption to climatic risks. DSR involves sowing of dry seed into a prepared seedbed, pre-germinated seed into a puddled soil surface and standing water. The development of early maturing varieties and use of efficient nutrient management practices along with increased adoption of integrated weed management techniques have encouraged many farmers to switch from transplanted to DSR culture. DSR technology is highly mechanized in some developed countries like USA, Australia, Japan, China, Korea etc. This shift from traditional rice to DSR will substantially reduce crop water requirements, soil organic-matter turnover, enhanced nutrient management, carbon sequestration, weed management, greenhouse-gas emissions and enhance crop intensification. However, weed and nematode infestation, blast, panicle sterility, lack of suitable varieties for DSR and lodging are major challenges. Based on existing evidences, this paper reviews the integrated package of technologies for DSR, potential advantages and challenges associated with it.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44795 Screening Of Soybean Genotypes To Short Period Of Flooding 2022-05-02T08:27:11+00:00 Anil Pokhrel anilp.narc@gmail.com Renuka Shrestha renuka.shrestha@gmail.com S.R. Dangi anilp.narc@gmail.com <p>High soil moisture stress owing to heavy rainfall during the early growth stage is the most limiting factor affecting the growth and productivity of soybean in the Terai region of Nepal. This study was conducted to identify the soybean cultivars suitable for high soil moisture stress condition. Sixteen cultivars of soybean were planted under two soil moisture conditions namely, (a) short term flooded and (b) normal growing conditions in two consecutive years 2018 and 2019. Six stress tolerance indices like stress tolerance (TOL), stress susceptibility index (SSI), yield stability index (YSI), yield index (YI), mean productivity (MP) and geometric mean productivity (GMP) were calculated based on seed yields under flooded and normal conditions. The combined analysis showed that soybean cultivar SBO–115 (1912 kg/ha) and TGX 1990–94F (1883 kg/ha) produced significantly the highest seed yield under normal and flooded conditions, respectively. These two cultivars TGX 1990–94F (YI =1.3) and SBO–115 (YI =1.2) also possess the highest value of yield index. In contrast, the yield stability index was found maximum in cultivar LS –77 –16 –16 with a value of 1.4. Similarly, correlation analysis showed that soybean yield under flooded condition had a significant and positive association with yield under normal condition, YI, MP and GMP, while negative association found with TOL and SSI. This study indicated that the cultivars TGX 1990 – 94F, G –1873 and Kavre found to be more stable in two different conditions, while cultivars TGX 1990–94F and SBO –115 found suitable for flooded condition. These cultivars can be used directly or further in the crossing program for breeding high moisture stress tolerance cultivars.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44796 Rice Trade Trend And Policy Implication In Nepal 2022-05-02T08:58:54+00:00 Padma Pokhrel padmapokhrel17@gmail.com Ram Prasad Mainali mainalism.rp@gmail.com R.P. Mainali padmapokhrel7@gmail.com <p>This paper examines how rice external trade behaves over the recent six decades including major trading partners in the context of Nepal. Bringing the time series trade data from reliable sources, this study also attempts to highlight import dependency ratio, correlation of population and GDP per capita growth with total import and pin down plausible reasons behind these pictures. The correlation study between import data to population growth and GDP per capita showed a positive correlation with r values 0.71 (p&lt;0.05) and 0.99 (p&lt;0.05), respectively. National supply sides when combine with domestic production mimics aggregate rice demands and these figures show increasing patterns accompanied by growing imports together with import dependency ratio. India alone dominates the rice trade which accounts for more than 90 percent of Nepal’s import in recent years. These noticeable surges in rice imports can be attributed to liberal trade policies of the respective trade partner countries, improvement in incomes, closer proximity, similar languages, and consumer preferences among others. Opening a domestic market for rice cannot be denied theoretically in favor of welfare-improving policy tools, however, it should be carefully considered to protect local farmer’s concerns. Though growth in rice productivity is encouraging over the recent previous years, there is ample potential to increase further by integrated programs combining expansion of spring paddy, inputs, irrigation, and technology. Moreover, attention should be paid toward consumer’s fine rice preferences aligning farmer’s motivations. The introduction of fiscal policy with application of tariff or non-tariff measures at least for a few years can encourage the domestic rice industry. Above policy adjustment can drive Nepal toward its rice self-reliant footing.</p> <p> </p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44825 Effect Of Weed Management Practices On Weed Dynamics, Yield And Economics Of Spring Maize At Dhading Besi, Nepal 2022-05-04T05:27:11+00:00 Bhimsen Shrestha bhimstha2010@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np D. Marasini bhimstha2010@gmail.com K.R. Kafle bhimstha2010@gmail.com H.B. Bista bhimstha2010@gmail.com <p>Weeds have been a major constraint in maize cultivation resulting in huge economic loss to farmers. A field experiment was conducted at Dhading Besi, Nepal to evaluate the effect of different weed management practices on weed dynamics, yield and economics of spring maize in 2020. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) comprising of eight treatments with three replications. Rajkumar hybrid maize variety was used in the experiment. The treatments consisted of weedy check, weed free, atrazine as PE @1.0 kg a.i./ha, pendimethalin as PE @1.0 kg a.i./ha, atrazine @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha as PE followed by (fb) 2,4-D EE @0.5 kg a.i./ha as PoE, pendimethalin @ 1.0 kg a.i./ha as PE fb 2,4-D EE @ 0.5 kg a.i./ha as PoE, 2 hand weeding @ 20 and 40 DAS and Farmer’s practice. The experiment result revealed that sequential application of atrazine fb 2,4-D EE treatment resulted in highest grain yield (11.37 t/ha) which was statistically similar with weed free (11.24 t/ha) and followed by the treatment atrazine (10.36 t/ha). 16 weed species belonging to 6 different families were identified. The broad leaf weeds and grassy weeds were more prominent than sedges. The total density and dry weight of weeds were found significantly lower in sequential application of atrazine fb 2,4-D EE than other treatments. Similarly, application of atrazine fb 2,4-D EE resulted in maximum weed control efficiency of 87.59 %, 95.91 % and 92.17% at 30, 45 and 60 DAS respectively. The lowest weed index (-1.27%) was also obtained in the application of atrazine fb 2,4-D EE. Yield loss due to weed in the weedy check treatment was found to be 50.99% followed by farmer’s practice (43.17%). The benefit cost ratio and increment in benefit over weedy check were highest in atrazine fb 2,4-D EE followed by atrazine and significantly better than other weed management treatments. The sequential application of atrazine fb 2,4- D EE was found to be the most effective in controlling weeds, high yielding and economical among the different weed control treatments. The application of atrazine one time as PE was found to be next better option for weed control in spring maize.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44826 Managing Weeds In Dry Direct Seeded Rice: A Profound Challenge 2022-05-04T05:40:04+00:00 Pankaj Gyawaly pankajgyawaly@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai rkbhattarai@gmail.com Bhimsen Chaulagain bhimsen.chaulagain@gmail.com P. Pantha pankajgyawaly@gmail.com <p>Dry Direct Seeded Rice (DDSR) is a promising technology to address environmental, water, labor and profitability issue that is constantly threatening the rice farming community around the world. Rice yield under DDSR is primarily limited due to weeds. There are instances of complete crop failure in DDSR owing to poorly managed weeds. More than 50 weeds species infest DDSR crop due to aerobic nature of soil confronting a major challenge in the wide spread adoption of dry direct seeding. Direct-seeded rice faces a potential threat from changes in the competing weed flora, with an increase in those species that are difficult to control. This review article presents the prospects of DDSR along with the available weed management strategies such as preventive, physical, chemical, cultural and biological methods and their judicious use. Over reliance on only one approach of managing weeds may be back firing as well. The use of chemical means are getting popular in an alarming rate for being cost effective, without calculating the environmental concerns which might lead to herbicidal resistance and negative consequences to environment and human health. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the environment while shifting from transplanted rice to dry direct seeding, identifying weeds flora and choosing or integrating the best weed management practices foreseeing the future consequences. The logical integration of available weed management options that is ecologically sound, economic and effective for season long weed control is the main essence that ensures the sustainability of rice production.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44828 Optimum Sowing Date And Fertilizer Management For Durum Wheat Genotype DWK 38 In Mid-Hills Condition 2022-05-04T07:07:12+00:00 Bhimsen Chaulagain bhimsen.chaulagain@gmail.com Rajendra Kumar Bhattarai rkbhattarai@gmail.com Pankaj Gyawaly pankajgyawaly@gmail.com <p>Durum wheat is relatively new crop for Nepal and research on durum wheat were carried out only by Agriculture Botany Division of Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). To find the optimum sowing time and fertilizer dose for mid-hills conditions of Nepal, an experiment was carried out in 2017/18 and 2018/19 at Agronomy Division Experimental farm in Khumlatar at an altitude of 1360 masl. The experimental design was factorial randomised complete block design. There were 3 fertilizer level and 4 sowing date constituting 12 treatment combinations. From the combined analysis over years, we found that plant height, days to heading, days to maturity, thousand grain weight and grain yield were found significnat in sowing date whereas number of tillers per square meter, straw yield and harvest index were significant in fertilizer doses. Combined analysis of both years yielded mean grain yield of 5.2 t/ha and thousand grain weight of 48.6 gm respectively. Precipitation during reproductive period (March[1]April) in 2017/18 contributed in higher grain yield than 2018/19. Optimum sowing date of durum wheat for khumaltar condition is no later than 26 November and optimum dose of fertilizer is 125:75:50 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44831 Performance Of Rice Varieties And Nitrogen Levels Under Aerobic Condition In Eastern Terai 2022-05-04T07:15:33+00:00 Parbati Joshi parbatijoshi4@gmail.com S. Manandhar parbatijoshi4@gmail.com N.K. Dangal parbatijoshi4@gmail.com P. Paneru parbatijoshi4@gmail.com S. Sunuwar parbatijoshi4@gmail.com <p>An experiment was conducted for two years (2016 – 2017) to evaluate the performance of rice varieties and nitrogen level under aerobic conditions in the Regional Agriculture Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari Nepal. The treatments were two varieties of rice (Sukhkhadhan 3 and Sukhkhadhan 6) and five levels of Nitrogen (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha) which was assigned in a split-plot design with three replications. The varieties were treated as the main factor and nitrogen levels were assigned as a sub-plot factor. In both years, the plant height, number of tillers per meter square, panicle number per meter square, panicle length, filled grains, thousand grain weights were recorded. All the recorded values of these paremeters were remarkably same with the application of 120:30:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha and application of 90:30:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha. The grain yields of 3.47 t/ha (2016) and 4.77 t/ha (2017) and straw yields of 7.65 t/ha (2016) and 7.44 t/ha (2017) were recorded with the application of 120:30:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha which found statistically at par with the application of 90:30:30 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha in both years. Furthermore, grain yield of Sukhkhadhan 3 (3.46 t/ha) remained statistically similar with that of Sukhkhadhan 6 (3.38 t/ha).</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44834 Response Of Rapeseed (Brassica Campestris Var Toria) Varieties To Sowing Dates In Middle Terai 2022-05-04T07:51:11+00:00 Mohan Prasad Khatiwada m.khatiwada1@gmail.com N.K. Chaudhary m.khatiwada1@gmail.com S.K. Sah m.khatiwada1@gmail.com J.P. Dutta m.khatiwada1@gmail.com <p>A field experiment was conducted during the winter season at Tamsariya-7, Nawalparasi, Nepal to determine the effect of sowing dates on growth and yield of rapeseed varieties. Four varieties of rapeseed (Unnati, Preeti, Pragati and Local) were planted in four sowing dates; October 13th, October 28th, November 12th and November 27th. The experiment was laid out in split-plot design with sowing date in the main plot and varieties in the sub-plot. Significant variations due to sowing dates and varieties were observed in plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, branches per plant, number of siliqua per plant, siliqua length, number of seeds per siliqua, abortion percentage, test weight and the grain yield. Results showed that the highest grain yield (1.278 t/ha) was obtained from the October 28th sowing date and it was statistically different from the yield of all other dates of sowing. There were 17.05%, 40% and 62.18% reduction in grain yield for October 13th, November 12th and November 27th sowing dates compared to October 28th sowing date. Variety Preeti was the highest yielding variety for October sowing while variety Unnati was the highest yielding variety for November sowing. So, variety Preeti sown on October 28th is recommended to the farmers of the area and similar locations for obtaining optimum yield but under late sown condition, variety Unnati is preferred to Preeti for obtaining the optimum yield</p> 2022-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44836 Effect Of Innovative Nutrient Management Practices On Performance Of Maize And Wheat Under Different Tillage Methods In Rice-Based Cropping System 2022-05-04T07:59:32+00:00 PR Dulal pusparajdulal@gmail.com Santosh Marahatta santoshmarahatta@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np P.P. Joshi pusparajdulal@gmail.com <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of tillage and nutrient management practices on the performance of subsequent wheat and maize in the rice-based cropping system at Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2018-May 2019. The experiment was executed in a split-plot for evaluating two establishment methods viz. (i) zero tillage followed after (fa) conventionally tilled dry direct seeded rice ( ZT fa CT-DDSR) (ii) conventional tillage followed after puddled transplanted rice (CT fa Pu-TPR) and four nutrient management practices, i.e. (i) recommended dose (100% RDF; 80:60:40 and 180:90:60 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha for wheat and maize respectively), (ii) Residue retention of rice crop @ 5 t/ha + 75% RDF (RR +75% RDF), (iii) Nutrient expert (NE) dose (140:60:45; 150:50:90 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha for wheat and maize respectively), (iv) Rice residue @ 3.5 t/ha +75% RDF of each crop followed after brown/green manuring of Sesbania in rice (R+75% RDF fa BM/GM) and the treatments were replicated thrice. The data on yield (rice equivalent yield), yield attributes, and economics were recorded and analyzed by R studio. The study revealed that none of the yield attributes and rice equivalent yield of wheat were significantly influenced by the tillage methods but maize had significantly higher number of grains per cob under CT fa Pu-TPR and significantly higher (8.9%) yield under ZT fa CT-DDSR. NE assisted nutrient management practice produced significantly a greater number of spike (281.9 per m<sup>2</sup> ) and grains per spike (44.5 and higher straw yield (5.9 t/ha) for wheat crop and also showed better performance for maize as well. Maize had yield advantage of 21% and 14% when planted after BM/GM practices in rice and residue mulched condition respectively. The rice equivalent yield of wheat was 21% and 16% more under NE dose and R+75% RDF fa BM/GM respectively compared to 100% RDF. NE dose was the most profitable in terms of B:C ratio for both the wheat (1.9) and maize (3.0). Hence, tillage methods were indifferent for wheat but ZT fa CT-DDSR was significantly productive for maize and NE dose was the best nutrient management practice for better productivity and profitability for the wheat and maize in the rice-based cropping system in inner Terai of Nepal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44838 Weed Dynamics In No-Till Maize System And Its Management: A Review 2022-05-04T08:16:36+00:00 Chudamani Pant pantchudamani@gmail.com Shrawan Kumar Sah sksah@afu.edu.np Santosh Marahatta santoshmarahatta@gmail.com S Dhakal sdhakal@afu.edu.np <p>Among different factors, tillage and weed management are two important factors that influence remarkably the growth and yield of maize. The present review reveals that <em>Echinochloa colona </em>L. is the most dominant weed species with an importance value index (IVI) of 41 followed by <em>Papaver rhoeas </em>L. (32.6), <em>Descurainia Sophia </em>L. (22.27) and <em>Polygonum aviculare </em>L (16.16) in no-till maize. Wider spacing and initial slow growth of maize during the first 3-4 weeks provides enough opportunity for weeds to invade and offer severe competition, resulting in 60-81% in maize yield losses. The shift of the weed population towards perennial was observed under NT. Species like <em>Xanthium strumarium, Solanum nigrum, Euphorbia helioscopia, Convolvulus arvensis</em>, <em>Sorghum halepense, Digitaria sanguinalis, Sonchus oleraceus </em>and <em>Euphorbia vermiculata </em>were associated with no-till <em>Zea mays</em>. The highest weed seed density was found in conservation agriculture practices (no-tillage, no-fertilizer and no-herbicide use) with the highest seed distributed in 0-1 cm depth followed by 1-3 cm depth. Weed control efficiency of Nicosulfuron @0.90 kg/ha was found the highest (98.8%) followed by Atrazine + Tembotrione + Atrazine (@1 kg/ha + 120 g/ha + 0.5 kg/ha) (98.7%) and Tembotrione + atrazine (@ 120 g/ha + 0.5 kg/ha) (96.5%), therefore were very effective in controlling weed in no-till <em>Zea mays</em>.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44840 Productivity Of The Rice-Wheat Cropping System As Influenced By Nutrient Management Under Conservation And Conventional Agriculture Practices 2022-05-04T08:35:12+00:00 B Paudel bjpaudel@gmail.com M Paudel bjpaudel@gmail.com Santosh Marahatta santoshmarahatta@gmail.com Tika Bahadur Karki tbkarki2003@gmail.com <p>A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) and wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) through nitrogen management practices under conservation and conventional agriculture practices during 2012-2013 at Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment on rice was conducted in strip[1]split plot design with two establishment methods (conservation agriculture and conventional practices), two rice varieties (improved variety Sabitri and hybrid Gorakhnath 509), and four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg/ha). The experiment on wheat was conducted in a split-plot design with two establishment methods and four nitrogen levels as in rice with Gautam variety. The research result revealed that the grain yield of the rice-wheat system was higher in conservation agriculture (6.6 t/ha). Gorakhnath 509 of rice followed by Gautam variety of wheat had a higher system grain yield (6.8 t/ha) than Sabitri followed by Gautam (6.5 t/ha). The highest system grain yield was obtained from 180 N kg/ha (8.1 t/ha) which was significantly higher than 0 and 60 N kg/ha but was statistically similar to 120 N kg/ha. Thus, in Chitwan and similar niches, the rice-wheat system either Sabitri followed by Gautam or Gorakhnath 509 followed by Gautam variety under conservation agriculture practices by applying 120 N kg/ha can be successfully grown by the farmers.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44842 Effect Of Leguminous Winter Cover Crops On Soil Fertility And Yield Of Summer Maize 2022-05-04T08:43:57+00:00 B Rijal rijal.world@gmail.com KR Pandey rijal.world@gmail.com SC Shah rijal.world@gmail.com NK Chaudhary rijal.world@gmail.com <p>A field experiment was conducted at IAAS agronomy farm, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from Nov. 2012 to Aug. 2013 to improve soil fertility and production of maize through the inclusion of leguminous winter cover crops in the cropping system. The experiment was conducted for two seasons in single factor randomized complete block design (RCBD) with eight treatments and three replications. Five N fixing legume crops: chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum</em>), garden pea (<em>Pisum sativum </em>var. <em>sativum</em>), field pea (<em>Pisum sativum </em>var. <em>arvense</em>), lentil (<em>Lens culinaris</em>) and grass pea (<em>Lathyrus sativus</em>); one N fixing legume fodder: Berseem (<em>Trifolium alexandrinum</em>); one non-fixing legume: rajma bean (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em>); and maize (as a control) were cultivated in the first season and on the following season maize was cultivated in all plots after incorporating former crop residues. Rajma bean covered the highest area at an early stage but field pea and grass pea covered the maximum land area at a later stage. The highest dry matter production (2.32 t/ha) and nitrogen content in residues (2.57%) were obtained from lentil. Cultivation of leguminous winter cover crops had no significant effect on soil parameters. However, the incorporation of legume residues had significant effects on organic matter content, total nitrogen and available phosphorus in soils. The highest soil organic matter (3.03%) and total nitrogen (0.15%) was observed from field pea plots while the highest available phosphorus (36.00 kg/ha) was from berseem plots. Legumes cultivation and their residues incorporation into the soil had significant effects on grain, straw and dry matter yields of succeeding maize crop. Grain (3.92 t/ha), straw (5.39 t/ha) and dry matter (9.31 t/ha) yields were the highest from lentil plots while the lowest grain (2.51 t/ha), straw (3.96 t/ha) and dry matter (6.48 t/ha) from control plots. Total nitrogen uptake by maize was significant and it was the highest (141.90 kg/ha) from lentil plots and the lowest (109.80 kg/ha) from control plots. Cultivation of lentil in the winter produced satisfactory land coverage and incorporation of its residues into the soil was the best for improving soil fertility and succeeding maize yield under the Chitwan condition of Nepal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44848 Determinants Of Forage And Fodder Production Practices To Cope With Climate Change Adaptation Strategy By Farmers In Terai Region Of Nepal 2022-05-04T09:09:13+00:00 SC Dhakal scdhakal@afu.edu.np <p>Consequences generated by climate change disasters in the vulnerable agricultural system of Nepal could increase in coming days in the absence of effective adaptation strategies in the both agriculture and livestock sector. There is growing evidence that forage and fodder production activity can be a potential adaptation strategy, but adopted in a limited scale. The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of forage and fodder production activity by livestock farmers in the Terai region of Nepal. Primary data collected through household survey of 600 households, 100 from each district in Morang, Sarlahi, Bara, Chitwan, Rupandehi and Banke were analyzed using logistic regression technique. Results showed that western Terai dummy and family size were negatively affecting the adoption of forage and fodder production. Whereas access to credit, size of livestock holding and training were positively and significantly affecting the adoption of the forage and fodder production activity. The magnitude of effect of these significant variables are western Terai dummy (25.2%), family size (92.60%), access to credit dummy (74.21%), size of livestock holding (10.8%) and training dummy (188.80%). Findings of the study suggested that provided opportunity to dairy farmers for participation in training on livestock production management practices and increased access to credit for making investment in dairy enterprises. Rearing livestock at commercial scale also motivates dairy farmers to produce forage and fodder in their own farm land. It is also recommended to provide lease- in land system for dairy farmers with large size family to grow forage and fodder crops aside from promotional activities are needed in western Terai region of the country in particular.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AJN/article/view/44856 Assessment of chemical parameters of Nepalese rice varieties and imported brands 2022-05-04T09:59:36+00:00 Purushottam Subedi psubedi.agr@gmail.com Prakesh Acharya acharyap2020@gmail.com S Shivakota psubedi.agr@gmail.com SS Pandit psubedi.agr@gmail.com <p>There has been growing import of fine and aromatic rice in Nepal in recent years. The inherent quality of different rice varieties could be one factor over consumer preference while proper packing and branding could be other factors. Most of the Nepalese rice varieties have not been able to penetrate the market as commercial brands and local landraces are gradually getting popular due to their inherent taste, aroma nutritional value. A study was conducted by the Center for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC) in the year 2018/19 to compare the chemical compositions of different Nepalese rice varieties and imported brands, which were collected from major markets of different districts of Nepal. The study was aimed in understanding the chemical composition of these varieties and to know if the growing preference over imported fine and aromatic varieties had better chemical parameters over Nepalese varieties. The study revealed that higher content of zinc was observed in local varieties than in other varieties and brands. It ranged from 10.9 to 13.9 mg/kg in imported brands and from 9.7 to 17.6 mg/kg in released varieties. The highest crude protein was observed in the Dawat (12.64 %), one of the Indian brands and the lowest in Radha 4 (6.02 %) Nepalese released variety is commonly grown in the country. Average crude protein in Nepalese brands, imported brands, released varieties and local varieties were found as 11.22 %, 10.38, 8.62 % and 7.41 % respectively. Local varieties showed the highest crude fat (average 2.19 %) content followed by released varieties (average 1.17 %) and Nepalese brands (average 0.51 %). Likewise, crude fibre and total ash contents in local varieties were observed as 0.96 % and 0.93 % respectively. Therefore, the study revealed that local varieties were found superior in terms of chemical and nutritional perspective (total ash, crude fibre, crude fat and zinc) over other varieties and brands found in Nepal. In terms of protein, Nepalese brands were found superior over other varieties and brands.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Centre for Crop Development and Agro-biodiversity Conservation (CCDABC), Shreemahal Lalitpur/Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Lalitpur