Agronomy Journal of Nepal Published by the Crop Development Directorate and Agronomy Society of Nepal. Full text articles available. Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN) en-US Agronomy Journal of Nepal 2091-0649 ©Agronomy Society of Nepal (ASoN), Khumaltar, Lalitpur/Crop Development Directorate (CDD), Harihar Bhawan, Lalitpur Response Differences Stability Model Simplify the Identification of Stable Rice Genotypes for Low Temperature Environment <p>Stable genotype is necessary for long-term grain security to the farmers. Developing site specific variety is a good way of maintaining diversity and getting potential yield. Simple parameters were estimated based on nine rice genotypes evaluated under low temperature at three different altitudinal environments of Jumla, Lumle and Khumaltar. The genotypes were influenced by the varying conditions and G x E interaction which was highly significant for maturity, bearing tiller, and plant height and grain yield indicating responses of the rice genotype in different environments. These traits are very important for adoption of genotypes in farmers’ field. It can be inferred that there is a possibility of developing site-specific variety which are stable and adoptable across these environments. Cold environment rice genotypes of NR10288-015J-15J-7, Chhommrong and NR10293 are most stable and ideally adapted in cold stress environment. NR 10346 is the site-specific genotype adapted to favorable environments. Hence, these genotypes could be used in breeding programs for increasing the productivity of rice in cold environment and for general cultivation as well.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN) vol. 4, Page: 1-8, 2016</p> Bal Krishna Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 1 8 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15512 On Farm Research Is a Viable Means of Technology Verification, Dissemination And Adoption: A Case of Wheat Research in Nepal <p>A study on the role of on-farm/outreach research (OR) site in wheat technology dissemination was conducted in Terai regions of Sunsari, Rupandehi and Banke districts, Nepal. On-farm research sites representing irrigated, partially irrigated and rainfed production domains and their comparative control, the non-outreach research sites were selected. From the list of wheat growers in respective study sites, 30 samples from each of the VDCs were selected randomly irrespective of their landholdings with the total sample size of 180 for the study. The study revealed that overall area covered by the improved varieties was about 94%; however, it was 100 % in OR site. The area covered by the improved varieties released after 1990s was found higher in OR site but there was still domination of improved variety Nepal 297 in the study area, which was released in 1985. The Technological Adoption Index (TAI) for wheat was found higher (0.63) in OR site compared to non-OR site (0.43). Test for equality of mean of TAI was carried out between OR and non-OR sites and found significantly different (P=&lt;0.000) between the sites. Farmers were categorized into low adopters, medium adopters and high adopters based on their TAI value after conversion into percentage. Chi-square test shows the significance difference (χ2 =24.82 and P=&lt;0.000) in number of farmers in different adoption categories between OR and non-OR sites. Results indicate OR sites are playing viable role for increasing number of high adopters (farmers) compared to non-OR site farmers. The knowledge on good agriculture management, access to modern improved seed, and use and availability of agriculture information, availability of agricultural inputs and loan were found significantly high on OR sites. There exists large scope for yield improvement of the wheat in Nepal by increasing number of outreach sites and by strengthening institutional coordination and linkage among the related stakeholders at different levels to provide system based packages rather than component technology for mass dissemination and adoption of technology among the farmers at large.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN) vol. 4, 2016, page: 9-24</p> K P Timsina S Gairhe DB Thapa Magar Y N Ghimire D Gauchan Y Padhyoti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 9 24 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15513 Consequences of Climate Change In Agriculture and Ways to Cope Up Its Effect In Nepal <p>Nepal is one of the four most vulnerable countries affected by climate change in the world. Climate change has been occurred in Terai, hills and mountain of Nepal resulting change in agriculture systems. Global food production of major staples crops of rice, maize, wheat and soybean, and marine resources are decreasing. Nepal is blessed with number of natural flora and fauna which could address negative impact of climate change resulting food and nutritional insecurity. Emphasis should be given to develop technologies address negative impact of climate change. Nepal has been trying to develop some adoptive ways such as development of climate resilient technology encompassing crop varieties, animal breeds; agronomic practices that could address vagaries of climate change and sustain food and nutritional security. In Nepal, the effect of climate change is more pronounced in hills and mountains with respect to increase in temperature than that of Terai. In this paper, bird’s eye views on issues of climate change, negative impact of climate change on food and nutritional security and coping mechanisms to tackle all of such concerns of climate change in agriculture in general and food and nutritional security in particular have been illustrated in ways climate change could be addressed to limit its negative consequences on agriculture as well.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN) vol. 4, 2016, Page: 25-37</p> Mina Nath Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 25 37 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15514 Prospects and Limitations of Agriculture Industrialization in Nepal <p>Nepal is culturally an agriculture based country. One third of GDP comes from agriculture and there are numerous opportunities in agriculture mainly because of varied agro-climate prevailed in the country. Niche specific commodities that have comparative advantage could be produced in fair quantity to meet the demand of huge market of neighboring India and China as purchasing capacity of people in those countries has improved markedly mainly for quality agriculture commodities. Trade deficit, food insecurity, income generation, poverty reduction, and employment generation could be addressed by turning present status of subsistence agriculture into robust, vibrant and commercial agriculture through technology led agro-industrialization. There are agro-commodities which are imported from India and other countries in huge quantity by the scarce hard currency earned through remittance. Evidence shows that almost 70% of the remittance is spent for agriculture commodities which have high potentiality to produce within the country even after local consumption. Such produce could be exported to other countries to mitigate trade imbalance, enhance export promotion and import reduction and promote graduating Nepal from LDC to DC within the stipulated time frame as proposed a couple of years ago by the government of Nepal. Nepal should come up with functional, pragmatic and implementable agriculture plan and policy to harness huge possibility of agriculture commercialization to meet the consumption demand <em>per se </em>within and outside the country. This paper highlights to address prospects and limitations of agriculture commercialization and suggests some way forward to make agriculture more vibrant and robust to address trade deficit, food and nutritional insecurity and livelihood enhancement of Nepalese as a whole thereby Nepal can tailor her pace of development with neighboring countries to meet the aspiration of Nepalese in the 21st century.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN)</strong> vol. 4, 2016, Page: 38-63</p> Mina Nath Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 38 63 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15515 Response of Seed Dressing With Boron Dust and Slurry on Wheat Variety WK- 1204 For Grain Yield and Agronomic Traits under Poly Bag and Field Study At Khumaltar, Nepal <p>Field and poly bag experiments were carried out at Khumaltar on wheat variety WK-1204 by dressing seed with sodium borate decahydrate dust (containing 11.34% elemental boron) and slurry per 100 g wheat seed. A total of nine treatments of Boron (B) dust and slurry to treat wheat seed at 2.2, 4.4, 6.4 and 8.8 gram per 100 g seed and basal application of B at 1.0 kg a.i./ha was in three replications for both field and poly bag experiments in randomized complete block design. The objective of the study was to find out the effect of boron seed dressing on grain yield and agronomic attributes of wheat variety under study. The result of the study revealed that grain yield and agronomic traits were highly and significantly correlated with seed dressing with boron dust at 2.2 to 8.8 g boron /100 g seed of wheat. This finding was consistent with field and poly bag experiments which were coherent with the findings of lab analysis for attributes of root and shoot length, and percentage of germination. However, seed dressing with boron slurry at 2.2 to 8.8 g/ 100 g wheat seed inhibited grain yield and agronomic attributes of wheat in the study. Therefore, seed dressing with boron dust at different level was superior over seed dressing with boron slurry for higher grain yield and yield related traits of wheat variety WK-1204 at Khumaltar condition. Boron deficiency for wheat could be corrected by seed dressing with boron dust at 2.2 to 8.6 g boron /100g wheat seed. This could be very economical and practical way of enhancing wheat production in hilly terrain areas of Nepal where one of the reasons of yield limitations is due to deficiency of boron.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN), Vol.4, 2016, page: 64-74</p> Mina Nath Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 64 74 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15516 Management Status of Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal <p>Agricultural plant genetic resources (APGRs) are one of the pivotal sources for developing high yielding, stress tolerance varieties to sustain food and nutritional security of the world. Nepal has established National Agriculture Genetic Resource Centre (NAGRC), alias Genebank under the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) in Khumaltar premise in 2010 AD (2066 BS). NAGRC has been doing collection, identification, characterization, and regeneration of APGRs since its establishment. There are more than 11000 collections of APGRs in the Genebank. These accessions include cereals, pseudo cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable of orthodox seed whereas crops having recalcitrant seed are conserved in the field Genebank, on-farm genebank and tissue bank. To analyze characters of new accessions, standard passport data are recorded and entered to accessions giving geographical locations and coordinates. The APGRs have been collected, cleaned, processed, preserved and regenerated and characterized according to the standard procedures and norms used by scientists across the world. Types of Genebank and options for effective management of APGRs in Nepal have explained in brief. This paper tries to explain the importance and management of APGRs with respect to sustain food and nutritional security of Nepal in coming days ahead.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN)</strong> vol. 4, 2016, Page: 75-91</p> M N Paudel B K Joshi K H Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 75 91 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15517 Commercial Vegetable Farming: An Approach for Poverty Reduction in Nepal <p>Poverty reduction of farmers from Kapilbastu and Kaski districts were evaluated with respect to the vegetable farming where PRISM (Prosperity Realization through Irrigation and Smallholder Markets) technology was implemented. After the implementation of PRISM there has been considerable increase in vegetable farming area in both districts. Numbers of vegetable crops grown were increased with respect to yield and net return from both the winter and summer vegetables. With the opening of organized markets and large scale increase in income, farmers were attracted towards vegetable cultivation that provided wide range of vegetables for consumers as well. Earlier farmers cultivated vegetables only when there would be fallow land after the harvest of main season cereal crops while after the adoption of new technology farmers grew vegetables all the yearround. Among the popular vegetables during summer was cucumber in the hills and okra in the Terai covering more land than other vegetables crops in the study area. These cropshelp farmers achieve net return of NRs.25240.6 and from NRs. 20425.4 per <em>Ropani </em>in Kaski and Kapilbastu, respectively. Land area under vegetables crops were increased by 6 times in Kaski and 12 times in Kapilbastu. This increase in net return has been found as a result of creating better marketing system developed by the activity of the PRISM. Similarly, involvement of household in summer season vegetable was not enough and farmers hired labor for commercial vegetables cultivation.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN)</strong>, Vol.4, 2016, page: 92-106</p> Bhimsen Gurung R B Thapa D M Gautam K B Karki P P Regmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 92 106 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15518 Economic Benefits of Foreign Sourced Germplasm in Domestic Crop Improvement Program: A Case of an Improved Khumal-4 Rice Variety in Nepal <p>This study assesses economic benefits of international exchange and flow of key rice germplasm in Nepal under globally operated multilateral system of facilitated access using a case of an improved rice variety Khumal-4. Khumal-4 rice is popular and widely grown in mid hills region of Nepal which was developed by crossing a high yielding dwarf foreign sourced germplasm IR-28 with a local Nepali variety <em>Pokharilo Masino</em>. Economic benefits of Khumal-4 rice adoption and impact was analysed using economic surplus model, where additional productivity and profitability gained from developing Khumal-4 was estimated in monetary value in comparison with existing farmers’ variety <em>Pokharilo masino</em>. The finding showed that Khumal-4 covered 9% of rice area in the mid-hills and 7% in the mountains during year 2010-12 years covering about 40 thousand hectares of rice area. Data show that there is a clear yield gain of 1.25 mt per hectare with cost in rice yield equivalent when farmers switch from traditional <em>Pokhareli Masino </em>to improved Khumal-4 variety. Estimation of additional revenue per hectare with total adoption area of Khumal-4 in prevailing market price in Nepal was NRs 1.07 billion (US $ 11 million) per annum. This is reasonable economic benefits obtained annually from flow of foreign sourced genes (IR-28) for the development of an improved Khumal-4 rice variety in Nepal. This finding indicates that access to foreign germplasm is important for ensuring national food security and gaining higher economic benefits in the country.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN)</strong> vol. 4, 2016</p> D Gauchan K P Pant B K Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 107 120 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15533 Effect of Herbicides and Sesbaniaco- Culture on Weed Management and Grain Yield of Direct Seeded Rice Variety Khumal-4 at Khumaltar Condition, Nepal <p>Field experiments were conducted at the experimental field of Agronomy Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during 2012 and 2013 to find the effect of different herbicides on weed management and grain yield of direct seeded rice. The experiment was carried out in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD ) with seven treatments in three replications. Khumal-4 rice variety was used with in all the seven treatments viz; W1 = Weedy Check (no weeding) ; W2 = Farmers practice ( two hand weeding) ; W3 =Pyrazosulfuron (pre) @ 20 g a.i /ha fb (followed by ) Bispyribac (post-emergence (post) @ 25 g a. i / ha ; W4 = Pyrazosulfuron (pre) @ 20 g a.i /ha fb Bispyribac (post) @ 25 g a. i / ha fb 2, 4 –D; W5= Oxadiargyl (pre-emergence (pre) @ 90 g a.i/ha fb Bispyribac (post) @ 25 g a. i / ha; W6 = Oxadiargyl (pre) @ 90 g a.i /ha fb Bispyribac (post) @ 25 g a. i / ha fb 2, 4- D @ 500 g a .i /ha ; W7 = Sesbania (soaked) fb 2, 4- D @ 500 g a.i / ha fb one hand weeding. Rice seeds were directly sown by seed drill machine at seed rate of 30 kg/ha. All the pre emergence herbicides were sprayed on the first day of rice sowing whereas the post emergence herbicides were sown on 20 -25 days after sowing (DAS) by using a knapsack sprayer. <em>Sesbania </em>seed were sown at 30 kg/ha as co-culture with rice on the same day as rice was sown by broadcasting. The <em>Sesbania </em>was knocked down at 30 DAS using 2, 4-D.The yield of rice in 2013 was less than that of 2012 which could be due to the less rainfall and uneven rain distribution during the rice season. The results showed that among the Pyrazosulfuron (pre) @ 20 g a.i /ha fb Bispyribac (post) @ 25 g a. i / ha fb 2, 4 –D was found effective in controlling weed population , biomass and producing highest grain yield of rice 6512 kg /ha in 2012 and 3190 kg/ha in 2013 followed by the treatment <em>Sesbania </em>co-culture (Soaked) fb 2, 4- D @ 500 g a.i/ ha fb one and weeding giving increased rice yield of 6499 kg/ha in 2012 and 2858 kg/ha in 2013.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN) vol. 4, Page: 121-127, 2016</p><p> </p><p> </p> R K Bhattarai D D Gautam J D Ranjit B S Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 121 127 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15534 Cultivar Mixtures in Bean Reduced Disease Infection and Increased Grain Yield Under Mountain Environment of Nepal <p>Field experiment on cultivar mixture was conducted for trailing type and bushy type bean (<em>Phaseolusvulgaris </em>L.) to know the effect of cultivar mixtures on grain yield and disease infection during summer season 2015 in Jumla. The result of the study revealed that agronomic attributes were enhanced while <em>Anthracnose </em>infection was reduced under cultivar mixtures of bean than those of their sole cropping both for trailing type and bushy type beans under study.</p><p> <strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN), Vol.4, Page: 128-135, 2016</p> R C Prasad M N Paudel N H Ghimire B K Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 128 135 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15535 Evaluation of Black Rice under Different Fertilizer Doses in Western Terai, Nepal <p>The black rice varieties are considered to have multiplier benefits in human health due to the presence of different antioxidants. An experiment was conducted at RARS, Khajura during rainy season of 2014 to evaluate the response of black rice with different doses of fertilizers and to document the basic phonological characters. It was found to be of short duration, low productive and non-responsive towards the fertilizer doses. Due to health benefiting qualities, the market price could easily compensate the low productivity and be of high commercial value in farming communities. However, more detail studies required on agronomy, protection, quality and breeding aspects before going to commercialization.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal (Agron JN)</strong>, Vol.4, Page: 136-141, 2016</p> Ram Bahadur Khadka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 136 141 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15536 Status of Methane Gas Emission from Paddy Fields in Nepal <p>Annual methane emission from paddy fields in Nepal has been estimated based on the published secondary data for 11 years from 2000-2010. Available data were collected from the Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD), Department of Agriculture (DoA) and Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Green house gas emission (GHG) was estimated by using IPCC 2006 guidelines. Agricultural activities contribute directly to emissions of greenhouse gases through a variety of processes including the source categories such as enteric fermentation in domestic livestock, livestock manure management, rice cultivation, and agricultural soil management. Diverse traditional agriculture systems, unique diversities in land types and unavailability of required disaggregated data at the national level as defined by the emission factor data base (EFDB) of the IPCC 2006, were the problem encountered while calculating the emission status in this study. Annual methane (CH4) emission from paddy fields ranged from 111.57 to 133.07 Gg over years 2000 to 2010 but it was found lowest ( 111.57 Gg) in the year 2002 and highest (133.07 Gg) in the year2003. In the year 2010, methane emission from paddy cultivation represented about 17.48 % of cumulative methane emission both from livestock sector and paddy fields throughout Nepal. Also, some relevant policies and potential strategies towards mitigation measures of methane gas emission from paddy fields for the future in Nepal are highlighted.</p><p><strong>Agronomy Journal of Nepal</strong> (Agron JN), Vol.4, Page: 142-148, 2016</p> Madhab Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 4 142 148 10.3126/ajn.v4i0.15537