Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV A multidisciplinary journal of Thakur Ram Multiple Campus Birgunj. Full text articles available. Thakur Ram Multiple Campus en-US Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal 2091-1106 <p>© Academic Voices: A multidisciplinary Journal</p> <p>All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher/writers, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages in a review.</p> Sati Custom in Nepal: A Historical Perspective https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21359 <p>Sati custom was a widow-burning custom prevalent in Hindu community in Indian sub-continent. This custom refers to a woman who burns herself willingly on the funeral pyre of her husband. The rationale behind the origin of sati custom was that a husband needed all the worldly belongings like wives also after his death. According to another notion, the fighting tribes of earlier times were proud of their women, thus they did not like to leave women astray after the death of their husbands, rather they preferred to kill them. So, they originated sati custom. The custom of sati was originally confined to royal families and to some high ranking noble families. We find the references of sati custom in many ancient literatures. In the age of 4th and 5th centuries B.C., the custom of sati was prevalent, which is confirmed by the writings of the Greek writers. In the history of Nepal, the Changu pillar inscription of 464 A.D. mentions about the custom of sati. This custom was more prevalent in later age where we find that there were one to thirty-three women in number were forced to become sati. Among them, there were wives, concubines and female slaves also. Right from the beginning, we see that the custom of sati, was not necessary. It was considered as a social evil. In India, due to the efforts of social reformers, the custom of sati was stopped in 1829 A.D. In Nepal, the first attemptin this end&nbsp; was made by Jang Bahadur Rana. In the period of Prime Minister Bir Shamsher (1885-1901 A.D.) the law about this was amended. Finally, Prime Minister Chandra Shamsher, on his 58th birthday, 8th July, 1920 A.D., enforced a&nbsp; legislation abolishing the longstanding horrible custom of sati. In this way, the custom of sati ended in Nepal.</p> Basudevlal Das ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 1 7 10.3126/av.v7i0.21359 Is English Medium Meaningful in Pre-Primary Level in Nepal? https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21360 <p>Language is a means for communication. It also helps children in their cognitive development. Intellectual (cognitive) development, the emergence of increasingly sophisticated forms or levels of understanding, reasoning, and rationality is an ongoing process of reflection, coordination, and social interaction that begins in early childhood and continues, at least in some cases, long into adulthood (Moshman, 2003).it is also regarded that whatever the children build their concept about the society in their early childhood remains throughout their life. In this process language has pivotal role. However, it is not to say that thinking (as an intellectual ability) cannot take place without language (Munn, 1951) but rather mostly, thinking is mediated by language and thus develops to a higher level of sophistication. This article focuses on the important contribution of mother tongue in the process of cognitive development and raises questions against the local decisions of using English medium in pre-primary level.</p> Farmud Miya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 8 13 10.3126/av.v7i0.21360 Algal Diversity in the Rice Field of Parsa District (Nepal) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21361 <p>Twenty two species of algae were collected from rice field of Parsa district, Nepal and identified and recorded. Three Chlorophyceae, ten heterocystous cyanophceae and nine non-heterocystous cyanophyceae. Oscillatoria was most common in all the three selected rice field. Other species like Nostoc linkia, Anabaena oryzae and Merismopedia elegans have been also found as dominant taxa. Six cyanophyta and two chlorophyta are newly reported for Nepal.</p> Kiran Bala Anil Kumar Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 14 19 10.3126/av.v7i0.21361 Lavi-Civita Connection or Riemannian Connection https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21363 <p>The Present paper deals with a connection on a Riemannian manifold M with the help of Riemannian metric.</p> Kripa Sindhu Prasad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 20 23 10.3126/av.v7i0.21363 Impact of Employees Motivation on Organizational Performance https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21364 <p>Motivation and its impact on organizational performance has always remained highly researched area and have gone through many discussions and iterations. This paper identifies the factors that effects employee motivation and examines the relationship between organizational effectiveness and employee motivation. The study focuses on the practice and observance of the two central factors, empowerment and employee recognition for enhancing employee motivation which leads to organizational performance. So organizations should design their rules, policies and organizational structures that give space to the employee to work well and appreciate them on their tasks fulfillment and achievements. Higher the motivation among employee to task accomplishment higher will be the organizational performance and success.</p> Lalan Dwibedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 24 30 10.3126/av.v7i0.21364 Riemann Integral: Significance and Limitations https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21365 <p>This article basically defines the Riemann integral starting with the definition of partition of a closed interval. It throws a light on the importance and necessity of the Riemann condition of integralbility of a function and explains how the concept of R- integral only on the basis of upper and lower integral is not always practical. It has been suggested that a better rout is to abandon the Reimann integral for Lebesgue integral in real analysis and other fields of mathematical science.</p> Laxman Bahadur Kunwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 31 34 10.3126/av.v7i0.21365 Histological Studies of Preen Gland of Some Pet Birds https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21366 <p>Preen gland is also known as uropygial gland or oil gland. It is bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds. It is located dorsally at the base of tail between the fourth caudal vertebra and pygostyle and is greatly variable in both shape and size. Most birds preen by rubbing their bill and head over the preen gland pore and then rubbing the accumulated oil over the feathers of the body and wings and the skin of the legs and feet. Birds also distribute the oil over the plumage. During distribute the oil over the plumage. During preening, birds gather oily secretions that contain diester waxes from their oil glands. Preening is a bird’s way of grooming it’s feathers to keep them in the best condition.</p> Pramod Kumar Kushwaha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 35 38 10.3126/av.v7i0.21366 Synthesis and Characterization of Two New Coordination Polymers Constructed from Azobenzene-4, 4′-Dicarboxylic Acid with Zinc (Ii) and Cd (Ii) 2, 2′-Bipyridine https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21367 <p>Two transition metal coordination polymers [Zn(4,4′-ADA)(bpy)]n (1) and [Cd(4,4′-ADA)(bpy)(H2O)2]n (2) have been assembled from azobenzene-4,4′- dicarboxylic acid (H2ADA) with the help of 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. The different molecular structures for complexes 1 and 2 formed from the same ligand (H2ADA) reveals the fact that organic linkers display different coordination preferences at different metal ions.</p> Pramod Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 39 42 10.3126/av.v7i0.21367 Teaching and Learning Strategies in Montessori Schools https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21368 <p>Teaching learning strategies of Montessori Method can give better result in spite of the traditional approach. Montessori schools are playing a vital role for early childhood education and in the pre-primary section by following the Montessori Method.</p> Rajendra Pd. Mahato Tharu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 43 45 10.3126/av.v7i0.21368 Knowledge on STIs, HIV/Aids, Premarital Sexual Behavior among Janjati Adolescents https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21369 <p>This paper focuses on the knowledge of STIs, HIV/AIDS, and attitude on condom use with premarital sexual behavior among the Janjati adolescents of Pathlaiya, Bara district. The results show that knowledge on STIs and HIV/ AIDS, use of condom and premarital sexual behaviour seemed high in the adolescents. Magar adolescents were found better regarding the knowledge on STIs, HIV/AIDS, attitude towards condom use and premarital sexual behavior in comparison to Tamang and Gurung adolescents. It is recommended that various awareness programme should be conducted to prevent further spread of HIV/AIDS among the Janjati adolescents.</p> Raj Kumar Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 46 49 10.3126/av.v7i0.21369 Implementation of the Teacher Training for Classroom Management https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21370 <p>The main objectives of this study are to investigate the challenges in implementation of teacher training for classroom management, and to explore the strategies of teacher training for classroom management to promote students learning. In the process of collecting data, unstructured interview was taken. The major finding of this study is teacher training is not implemented effectively in the classroom. It is found that there are various difficulties faced by the teachers to implement methods, skills and techniques in the classroom what they have got from training. Thus, for effective implementation of teacher training, the teachers, administration and all the concerned authorities should be responsible.</p> Ram Babu Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 50 54 10.3126/av.v7i0.21370 Waiting for Godot and the Zoo Story: A Critical Perspective towards Postmodern Civilization https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21371 <p>This paper is an attempt out of my living mode of experience in the contemporary society, academic learning, and my teachers’ contribution in imparting epistemological meaning of life and the world to me, to explore the implication of globalization and its different layers of deformities accelerating absurdities, challenging ethical values encompassed with existentialism, nihilism and Charles Darwin’s phrase ‘struggle for existence’, and how the plays-Waiting for Godot and The Zoo story are applicable in the postmodern society-decentring its rationality, faith, love, mutual-understanding and seeking metaphysical protection: giving birth to skepticism everywhere, to show how the contemporary civilization is on the track of Estragon and Vladimir, Pozzo and Lucky, Jerry and Peter respectively and, why the colonized Man opt best for ‘suicide’.</p> Srinewas Prasad Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 55 58 10.3126/av.v7i0.21371 Effect of Cetyltrimethylammonium Hydrogen Sulphate on Production of Citric Acid by Aspergillus Niger Ncim-2101 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21372 <p>The ability of cetyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulphate on production of citric acid by some fungal strains such as Aspergillus-niger NCIM -2101 has been assessed. The micelle; i.e. cetyltrimethylammonium hydrogen sulphate under trial has stimulatory effect on bioproduction of citric acid and enhances the yield of citric acid to an extent of 7.694% higher in comparison to control fermenter flasks, i.e., 8.825 g/100 ml in 12 days of optimum incubation period, 1.8 pH and 30°C temperature with 28% (w/v) molasses solution along with other nutritional ingredients.</p> Umesh Prasad Chaurasia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 59 63 10.3126/av.v7i0.21372 Molecular Diversity Assessment of PGPR Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergeneric Consensus (ERIC) PCR https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21373 <p>In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria isolated from various rice fields of Indo-Nepal border region. It is reported here that diversity in PGPR of East Champaran, West Champaran and Varanasi district of India and Bara and Parsa district of Nepal showed 76 to 97% similarity among them based on ERIC PCR. Serratia, Agrobacterium, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas etc are predominantly present in the rhizosphere of rice fields of these areas. Protein profile showed that all the isolates were 49-79% similar among each other. The three members consisting species of Klebsiella showed 72% similarity to each other and two species of Agrobacterium showed 80% similarity to each other.</p> Umesh Prasad Shrivastava ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 64 70 10.3126/av.v7i0.21373 Shaili Vigyan ko Saidhantik Aadhar: Ek Adhyayan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21374 <img src="/public/site/images/aquaiyum/BishambharSharma.JPG" alt="" /> Bishwambhar Kumar Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 71 77 10.3126/av.v7i0.21374 Purviye Vastusangathanka Aadharma Mukunda Indira Natak https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/AV/article/view/21375 <img src="/public/site/images/aquaiyum/IndraBhattarai.JPG" alt="" /> Indra Prasad Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-17 2018-10-17 7 78 82 10.3126/av.v7i0.21375