Banko Janakari 2021-06-01T15:34:47+00:00 Kiran Kumar Pokharel Open Journal Systems <p><em>Banko janakari</em> is peer reviewed online scientific journal that has been published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal since 1987. Articles can be freely accessed online. If you are an author please follow this link to upload the article at your suitable time.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><a title="Banko Janakari" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web :</a></p> <p>Google scholar : <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=banko+janakari&amp;oq=ba">Google scholar</a></p> Banko Janakari: status and way forward 2021-06-01T15:34:40+00:00 Kiran Kumar Pokharel <p>Not available</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center Enumeration of freshwater algae in Godawari area, Lalitpur district, central Nepal 2021-06-01T15:34:42+00:00 S. Dhakal S. K. Rai M. L. Pathak <p>Not Available</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center Assessment of invasion of Ageratina adenophora in the plantation forest of Nepal 2021-06-01T15:34:41+00:00 R. Malla R. R. Aryal S. Ranabhat <p>Large-scale plantations of pine species were done in the bare hills of the Middle Mountain region of Nepal during the early 1980s. There is a growing concern on the sustainability of the planted pine forests in the country due to the presence of invasive alien plant species (IAPS). Invasive alien plant species are considered as one of the drivers of forest degradation and deforestation. <em>Ageratina adenophora</em> is one of the problematic IAPS found in the planted pine forests throughout the country. In this study, we employed different treatments to control the invasion of <em>A. adenophora</em> in the planted pine (<em>Pinus patula</em>) forest. The research design included four different treatments, viz., (i) control, (ii) stem felling, (iii) floor clearance, and (iv) stem felling cum floor clearance in one block (Block I), which was replicated in another block (Block II). The data were collected using circular sample plots with 2m radius. The ANOVA and TukeyHSD Tests were applied during the analysis process so as to determine the effects of treatments on invasion of&nbsp; &nbsp;<em>A. adenophora</em>. The "floor clearance treatment" was found to be significantly effective to reduce the presence of <em>A. adenophora</em> in the planted pine forest. On the contrary, the "opening of forest cover treatment" was found to be conducive to this invasive species to invade the area. The "stem felling cum floor clearance treatment" could be an effective strategy to control invasion of <em>A. adenophora</em> in planted forest, but as it demands a high cost, it is likely to be appropriate for small forest areas where promotion of regeneration is of high priority.</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center Impact of training on different observers in forest inventory 2021-06-01T15:34:43+00:00 P. Paudel P. Beckschäfer C. Kleinn <p>Observers with different experience levels are involved in the measurement of large number of sample plots during forest inventories, particularly in national forest inventories. However, limited information exist on the quality of data produced by different observers in forest inventory after certain levels of training. This study tries to evaluate the measurement error in forest inventory associated with observers' experience after initial and field-based training for measuring the most fundamental variables- DBH (cm), total tree height (m), and horizontal distance (m) together with bearing (azimuth) to tree from the plot-centre. On completing the second level of training, the mean of the differences in DBH measurement decreased for both the ‘experienced’ and ‘inexperienced’ groups. The mean of the differences in height measurement in the case of the experienced observers was very low as compared to the inexperienced ones. However, the mean of the differences in azimuth measurement showed that the experienced groups were overestimating by at least 1 degree. There was no trend in deviation of measurement for all four variables regardless of tree size. The decrease in the mean and error of differences in measurements after second training showed that field-based training with supervision and training on the use of instruments at laboratories were required for inexperienced surveyors whereas update in working and measurement procedure would be sufficient for the experienced ones.</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center Water balance component analysis of a spring catchment of western Nepal 2021-06-01T15:34:44+00:00 J. K. K.C. S. Dhaubanjar V. P. Pandey R. Subedi <p>Springs in the mountains and hills are getting affected by both climatic and non-climatic changes. Hydrologic models are used to simulate the response of spring systems to the changes; however, only a limited number of studies using the hydrologic modeling approach have been accomplished on studying springs and spring-dominated watersheds in Nepal. This research aimed at understanding changing hydrological processes through hydrologic modeling in a spring catchment. A micro-catchment named 'Sikharpur' of West Seti watershed of Nepal was selected to get insights into the process influencing the spring system. The RRAWFLOW models with gamma distribution and time variant IRFs were calibrated and validated for the catchment to get the best fit model. The discharge was simulated according to the future projected climate scenarios. Then, a water balance was assessed for the micro-catchment. The results showed that understanding of likely response of hydrologic variables to potential future climate scenarios is critical for water resource management. It was estimated that the spring discharge would be decreased by more than 40 percentage after 50 years mainly due to the increase in evapo-transpiration (91.47% of the precipitation). Evapo-transpiration was found as a major hydrologic process impacting upon water balance in the spring catchment; therefore, its management for better spring resource conservation is recommended by considering high evapo-transpiration months, water deficient period and crop factor. The change in the storage was observed to be 51.78%; so, detail isotopic analysis and long-term monitoring of water balance is required for further characterization of water balance components.</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center Acute cold stress: a potential threat to Royle's pika (Ochotona roylii) survival at Central Himalayas of Nepal 2021-06-01T15:34:46+00:00 N. P. Koju M. K. Chalise R. C. Kyes <p>Climate change and its threat to human life and biodiversity are under discussion as the major issue of this century. In this study, pika (<em>Ochotona roylii</em>) was taken as a model animal to study the effect of changing climatic parameters in the Central Himalayas of Nepal. The study was carried out for three consecutive years (2011−2013) in the Kyanjing Valley situated at 3900 m asl, Langtang National Park, Nepal. The study focused on the population density of pika, its lowest elevation distribution, and temperature patterns of the pika-burrows and their immediate surroundings. An iButtons Temperature Recorder was installed inside a pika-burrow for acquiring burrow temperature while the ambient temperature data were obtained from the nearby metrological station. The population density of pika decreased compared to those based on the previous studies. Over the last 25 years, there was a significant increase in the minimum temperature (R<sup>2</sup> =0.77) that decreased the snow cover which might have reduced the insulation effect and colder winter to animals living inside the burrow. The temperature inside the burrow was recorded below −5°C for nearly 50% time during January alone and 25% time during total winter days. The environment with a temperature below −5°C could be a threat to the survival of pikas suffering from acute cold stress. Neither there was any record of heat stress (above 25°C) recorded nor there was an increasing trend of the ambient maximum temperature within the LNP during the study period. The lowest elevation of the pika's habitat was found to have shifted 200 m upwards over the last 46 years, indicating that the animals had either migrated upwards or facing extinction locally at lower elevations. However, this short-term study is not sufficient to reflect the effects of climate change on the population of pika in the Central Himalayas. Therefore, a long-term study is required to explore the relation between pikas and their vulnerability to the changing climate</p> 2021-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center