Banko Janakari <p><em>Banko Janakari</em> (BJ ) is peer reviewed online scientific journal that has been published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal since 1987. Articles can be freely accessed online. If you are an author please follow this link to upload the article at your suitable time. BJ does not charge authors for article submission and peer review process fees. </p> <p>Articles of BJ are licensed under a <a href=""></a> (<span class="cc-license-identifier">CC BY-NC 4.0</span>)</p> <p>Banko Janakari is Scopus Indexed Journal <a title="" href=""></a><br /><a href="">SJR INDEXED</a><br /><a href="">Web :</a><br />Google scholar : <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=banko+janakari&amp;oq=ba">Google scholar </a><br />DOAJ : <a title="DOAJ" href="">DOAJ INDEXED</a></p> Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 <p>© Forest Research and Training Center</p> Allometric Volume and Biomass Equations for Nepalese Tree Species <p>not available</p> Thakur Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 1 2 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50891 Distribution pattern of corticolous lichens in different areas of Kathmandu valley, Nepal <p>This study attempts to document the lichen species and their distribution in different areas of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Twenty sampling sites with different degrees of air pollution categorized as disturbed (industrial, heavy traffic and residential areas) and undisturbed areas (clean area) were selected for the study. Sampling was done using the quadrat method. To enumerate the total number of lichen species found in Kathmandu valley, lichen specimens were collected from inside as well as outside the quadrats. A total of 97 species of corticolous lichens belonging to 21 families and 44 genera were recorded from the study sites. Parmeliaceae was the largest family followed by Graphidaceae. The importance value analysis showed that Candelaria concolor (115.2), <em>Dirinaria aegialita</em>, <em>Lepraria sp., Phaeophyscia hispidula var. hispidula</em> and <em>Physcia sorediosa</em> (106.02) are the most common and dominant lichen species in Kathmandu valley. Among the most common and dominant lichen species, <em>Candelaria concolor</em>,<em> Dirinaria aegialita</em>, <em>Phaeophyscia hispidula</em> var. <em>hispidula</em> and <em>Physcia sorediosa</em> were found concentrated in heavy traffic areas whereas Lepraria sp. in the industrial areas. A higher number of lichen species (70%) was recorded in undisturbed areas than in disturbed areas (50%). These study confirm that the distribution of lichen flora is strongly influenced by degrees of pollution. This in turn suggests that lichens can be used as bio indicators of air quality in the Kathmandu valley.</p> Neena Karmacharya Dalip K Upreti Mukesh K. Chettri Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 3 18 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50892 Valuation of timber and firewood of trees outside forest along the urban–rural gradient in Kathmandu valley, Nepal <p>This study aims to analyze diameter class, quality class, wood production potential and timber and firewood values of trees outside forest along the urban-rural gradient in Kathmandu valley of central Nepal. Inventory was performed in 209 randomly selected points. Circular plots of 20 m radius were used for inventory. All trees (height &gt; 1.3 m and DBH ≥ 5 cm) in the plots were identified to species level and their height, DBH &amp; quality class were recorded. In total 6,210 trees (236.35 ha-1) of 150 species belonging to 111 genera and 57 families were recorded. The total merchantable timber volumes of timber class A and B, and total timber volumes were highest in the urban stratum (537.08, 84.88 and 621.96 cu ft ha -1 respectively) followed by rural (442.94, 66.82 and 509.76 cu ft ha -1 respectively) and suburban (250.04, 47.31 and 297.35 cu ft ha -1 respectively) strata. But due to higher merchantable price of tree species recorded in rural stratum, total market value of class A timber was higher in rural stratum (NPR 7,89,871/US$ 6,085), class B timber was higher in urban stratum (NPR 1,08,255/US$ 834), total timber was higher in rural stratum (NPR 8,70,410/US$ 6,706), firewood was higher in urban stratum (NPR 4,88,709/US$ 3,765) and total wood was higher in urban stratum (NPR 12,95,531/US$ 9,981). <em>Cinnamomum camphora</em> was found as tree species with highest market price of total wood value in the study area. The study provides the baseline data of useful timber species through TOF suggesting a need for appropriate timber producing species selection for plantation.</p> Babita Shrestha Bhuvan Keshar Sharma Ram Kailash Prasad Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Center 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 19 36 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50894 Assessment of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) Using SatelliteDerived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in Three Metropolitan Cities of Nepal <p>Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) are urban areas that are relatively warmer than nearby rural areas due to the presence of infrastructures, such as buildings, roads, and associated development. This study explored the UHIs in Nepal's three largest metropolitan cities, i.e., Pokhara, Bharatpur, and Nepalgunj. Using freely available data, we explored LST dynamics between 2000 and 2019 and how changes in NDVI affect LST and their relationship with UHI. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day product (MOD11A2) to evaluate LST and the MODIS-derived NDVI 16-day product (MOD13Q1) to quantify land surface characteristics. Using a simple linear regression technique, we explored the relationship between LST and NDVI. The results indicated that LSTs for the urban areas are consistently greater than LSTs for the nearby rural areas, and an inverse relation between LST and NDVI was obtained. The results from Pokhara and Bharatpur showed that increasing LST resulting from declining NDVI is responsible for UHIs. However, the results from Nepalgunj suggested that factors other than NDVI are responsible for variation in LST. These results indicate a need for systematic mapping, planning, and managing open and green areas in large cities. This research also highlights the scope of applying UHI conceptual models to rapidly developing urban areas in different locations of Nepal for better planning and management of open spaces.</p> <p> </p> Smriti Kandel Buddhi Gyawali Jeremy Sandifer Sandesh Shrestha Suraj Upadhaya Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 37 51 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50895 Exploring the relevance of community forest operational plan: users’ perspective and implementation status <p>Community Forestry has long been considered an epitome of decentralized forest management in Nepal. The management of Community Forests are guided by their Operational Plans (OPs), the mandatory technical document. Their preparation demands substantial human and economic inputs. However, their extent of implementation and the significance of these plans to local user are topics of debate. In this context, this study analyzes users' perception about the OP and their implementation status. We took case study approach and conducted key informant interview (n=25), focus group discussion (n=16) and purposive household survey (n=246) in 15 Community Forest User Groups to compile required data. The perceptions were analyzed using qualitative methods. The results revealed that the users have poor understanding of their plans and considered the plan as technical legitimate documents. The implementation status of the plans was of sub-standard. Silvicultural operations prescribed in the operational plans were insufficiently carried out. We found that the users are adopting only the forest product harvest and utilization aspects of the plans. Provided the poor understanding of OPs among the users and quality of plan implementation, this study questions the relevance of current operational plans and emphasizes the need of reviewing the planning process so that their high-standard implementation can be assured.</p> Prayash Ghimire Srijana Baral Pragya Khanal Sandesh Bolakhe Gyan Bandhu Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 52 62 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50897 Tree carbon stock in middle mountain forest types: A case study from Chandragiri hills, Kathmandu, Nepal <p>The forest carbon stock usually depends on the forest types, forest density, age of forest, size of trees, site quality, wood density, annual precipitation, and species composition. This research aims to analyze the relationship among tree carbon stock, species richness, soil chemical properties such as soil organic carbon, and soil pH in the Forests of Chandragiri Hills, Kathmandu, Central Nepal. Along this forest, five square plots (20 × 20 m2 ) each were established along the two transects at a maximum interval of 100 m. Carbon stock of each tree was estimated by using allometric equation based on measured tree height and DBH. The mean tree carbon stock was found to be highest in Mixed Forest (87.13 t/ha) followed by Oak Forest (52.75 t/ha), and Pine Forest (22.5 t/ha). The tree carbon stock showed significant negative correlation with tree species richness (r = -0.56, p = 0.001). The tree carbon stock showed significant positive correlation with soil organic carbon (r = 0.57, p = 0.001) and soil pH (r = 0.37, p = 0.05). Tree carbon was found positively highly significant correlation with altitude, Soil organic carbon, pH, and Shannon diversity index.</p> Ranjan Gurung Hari Sharan Adhikari Ram Sharan Dani Chitra Bahadur Baniya Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 63 76 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50896 Documentation of wild and underutilized vegetables:potential for conservation and utilization <p>Wild and underutilized vegetables are important sources of food, nutrition, and income for rural communities and indigenous people. Cultivation of high-yielding hybrid varieties, change in food habits, climate change and over-harvesting have resulted in genetic erosion of these vegetables. In addition to this, their availability, distribution and uses are poorly documented. This study aims to document the wild, neglected, and underutilized vegetable species in Jaimini Municipality of Baglung District, Western Nepal. Complete information on wild and underutilized vegetables were collected using semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, and field observation. We recorded 64 species of wild and underutilized vegetables belonging to 27 different families in the study area. Leaf was the most used plant part (26 species) and majority of the plants species were herbs (33 species). Most of these vegetables were consumed in rainy and summer seasons and their availability decreased during winter season. Knowledge regarding their utilization, cultivation, and conservation were also gradually disappearing. Therefore, consumer awareness, evaluation of their nutritional value, and promotion for their commercial use should be emphasized for the inclusion of these vegetable species in our daily diet.</p> Milan Regmi Aashish Shrestha Hem Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 32 2 77 86 10.3126/banko.v32i2.50898