Banko Janakari https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO <p><em>Banko janakari</em> (BJ ) is peer reviewed online scientific journal that has been published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal since 1987. Articles can be freely accessed online. If you are an author please follow this link to upload the article at your suitable time. BJ doesnot charge authors for article submission and peer review process fees. </p> <p>Article of BJ are licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0</a> (<span class="cc-license-identifier">CC BY-NC 4.0</span>) </p> <p>Banko Janakari is Scopus Indexed Journal <a title="https://www.scopus.com/sources.uri" href="https://www.scopus.com/sources.uri">https://www.scopus.com/sources.uri</a></p> <p><a title="Banko Janakari" href="http://bankojanakari.gov.np/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web : http://bankojanakari.gov.np/</a></p> <p>Google scholar : <a href="https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=banko+janakari&amp;oq=ba">Google scholar</a></p> Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 <p>© Forest Research and Training Center</p> Exploring agroforestry systems and practices in the Terai and hill regions of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41885 <p>This paper explores the status of agroforestry systems and practices in the Terai and hill regions of Nepal. &nbsp;Field survey, semi-structured interview and focus group discussions with the local farmers and stakeholders were conducted to explore the status of the agroforestry system and practices. The study covers forty-three districts, and represents agroforestry systems and practices in the Terai and hill regions of Nepal. Altogether, twelve agroforestry systems and forty-three agroforestry practices were documented in the Terai and hills of Nepal- ten systems in the Terai and seven systems in the hills. Agrisilviculture, agrisilvihorticulture, agrosilvopastoral, agrohortosilvopastoral, homegarden, hortiagriculture, silvofishery, agrosilvifishery, hortisilviculture and apiculture were the major agroforestry systems adopted in the Terai whereas those adopted in the hills included hortiagriculture, agrisilviculture, agrisilvihorticulture, agrosilvopastoral, homegarden, hortosilvipastoral and silvopastoral. The study revealed a gradual emerging scenario of commercial agroforestry systems in these regions although the continuation of traditional agroforestry systems was observed in most of the Terai and hill regions. Insufficient labour availability, fragmentation of land, market price fluctuation, lack of technical knowledge, and wild animal disturbances were some of the major challenges observed in the Terai and hills of Nepal.</p> S. Ulak B. Lama D. K. Pradhan S. Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 3 12 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41885 Processing and marketing of rattan canes in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41897 <p>This study highlights the processing and marketing of rattan canes with reference to small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The study was designed based on the exploratory research, and was carried out in all the districts of Nepal with rattan enterprises. The main objective was to assess the processing status, supply, and demand including constraints and potentialities of rattan-canes as well as their marketing practices. Systematic random sampling method was followed to take the sampling of rattan processing enterprises of CFUGs. The questionnaire survey was conducted among35 rattan entrepreneurs cum rattan traders and ten executive committee members of CFUGs. The quantitative data was analyzed using Frequency. The study found that hanger, cradle, stools, chairs, and tables were largely manufactured items among all the rattan-cane products. The annual consumption of imported rattan from India and other countries ranged from 850 MT to 1094 MT. Nepalese rattan fulfills 30% of the total demand. The average marketing margin of rattan products was found to be 37-64%. Nepalese rattan is potential to fulfill 70-80% of the total domestic demand of smaller size strands of rattan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> C. L. Chowdhary I. C. Dutta Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 13 25 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41897 Regeneration status and species diversity of major tree species under scientific forest management in Kapilbastu district, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41898 <p>In Nepal, scientific forest managementhas been practiced as an effective forest management technique to utilize forest resources sustainably. However, the program has faced many controversies such as intentional logging of only high-valued timber species like <em>Shorearobusta.</em> In addition, few believe this program is severely affecting the regeneration productivity and species diversity in the natural forests. In order to address these issues, we examinedthe regeneration condition and plant species diversity in the stands where scientific forest management operations were carried out. The data related to regeneration status and species diversity were collected using a systematic random sampling of the selected stands. Our results showed good regeneration conditions (Seedling &gt;5000, Sapling&gt;2000) in all the studied stands. The tree species community was dominated by <em>S.robusta</em>(Sal) followed by <em>Schleicheraoleosa</em> (Kusum) and <em>Casia fistula</em> (Rajbriksha). The value of diversity indices of different species varied significantly between felling series. The highest diversity was found in the second year felling series with the Simpsons Index of dominance value 0.6934 and the lowest species diversity was in the first year felling series with a value of 0.8448. It can be recommended that the regeneration felling practice has helped in promoting the regeneration condition and growth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> B. Aryal S. Regmi S. Timilsina Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 26 39 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41898 Climate change adaptation governance in Nepal: a framework for sustainable generation of adaptation services https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41900 <p>Poverty and high dependency of rural and mountainous households on the natural resources of Nepal have made the country more vulnerable to climate change. On the other hand, there is inadequacy of adaptation services provided to the vulnerable households and ecosystems. Responding to climate change necessitates amore consolidated effort and effective implementation interventions from both the government and non-government actors. To help achieve this very essence, this study has aimed to- (i) review the existing climate change adaptation (CCA) practices, processes and patterns of sustainable resource mobilization and benefit sharing, and (ii) develop a framework that ensures sustainability of resources and equitable sharing of services and benefits accrued from CCA. Consultations with the communities, key state and non-state stakeholders both at federal and provincial levels, reviews of national policies, strategies, periodic plans and programs and field visits were carried out to synthesize the information, document the knowledge, and highlight the gaps pertaining to CCA. Qualitative Content Analysis (QCA) was executed for analyzing qualitative information. Recently, the Government of Nepal has developed a priority framework on sustainable resource management and delivery of adaptation services. In line with the eight themes identified by the National Climate Change Policy (NCCP, 2019), the proposed framework has paid central attention on medium and long-term adaptation planning adhered with Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) and Community-based Adaptation (CbA). Building resilience, reducing vulnerability, increasing capacities, enabling environment, and integrating CCA in development planning have been the focus of the framework. It is found that the delivery of adaptation services to the climate vulnerable groups and poor communities is well reached out through CbA and EbA approaches. It is therefore, crucial in strengthening community- and locally-based mechanisms (such as forest-user groups, farmers groups, agricultural and fisheries cooperatives, and community networks) for sustainable management and delivery of services to facilitate effective adaptation.</p> G. Karki B. Bhatta N. R. Devkota R. M. Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 40 50 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41900 COP26: A glass half full https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41880 <p>Not available</p> Milan Dhungana Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 1 2 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41880 First generic record of aero-terrestrial algae Apatococcus lobatus (Chodat) J.B.Petersen for algal flora of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/41902 <p>No abstract available.</p> S. Dhakal M. L. Pathak S. Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Forest Research and Training Center https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-12-28 2021-12-28 31 2 51 55 10.3126/banko.v31i2.41902