Banko Janakari <p>Published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment , Government of Nepal. Articles available in full text. <span class="text_exposed_show">Article can be submitted at a time that suits you,&nbsp;</span>Please visit the following link&nbsp;<a title="Banko Janakari" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 <p>© Forest Research and Training Center</p> Adjustment of watershed management towards federal system <p>Not available.</p> Prem Prasad Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 1 2 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25148 Integrating biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services into operational plan of community forest in Nepal : status and gaps <p>After initiation of community forestry system in Nepal, the status of forest cover has improved due to significant roles of people in conservation, management and utilization of forest resources. As a result of increased productivity of the forest and restoration of degraded areas, forest users have been able to receive various economic, social, cultural and environmental benefits to strengthen their livelihood. Despite many positive outcomes of community forestry, there are still some factors which haven’t allowed the proper biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services maintenance. The study carried out on 100 operational plans from different parts of the country and it showed that the incorporation status of biodiversity and ecosystem services into community forest operational plan is worse despite the fact that such plan is the main component to lead the destination of any community forest. In addition to this, some gaps and challenges were observed in community forestry which have not favoured to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services management systematically at an optimum level. Among them, duplication problem of biodiversity and ecosystem services related issues in operational plan; timber oriented operational plan; limited provision about wildlife conservation and negative perception of people on wildlife and their conservation owing to human wildlife conflict; dominant socioeconomic factors; impact of introduced species, invasive and alien species; lacking in provision of adaptation and mitigation methods to cope with impact of climate change on biodiversity and ecosystem services and shrinking of biological corridor due to habitat fragmentation were major issues<strong>. </strong>Besides this, to address these issues, it was also identified from the national consultation workshop of forest officials and experts that most appropriate uniform methods, measures and mechanisms are needed to be developed for the complete assessment, prioritization, analysis and development of action plans to main stream biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services management into operational plan of community forestry.</p> P. R. Thani R. KC B. K. Sharma P. Kandel K. Nepal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 3 11 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25149 Community structure and regeneration pattern of Abies spectabilis in Sagarmatha National Park, Central Himalaya, Nepal <p>Community structure and regeneration pattern of <em>Abies spectabilis </em>was studied along the elevation gradient from 2750 to 3550 m asl in mixed forest of <em>A. spectabilis</em>in Sagarmatha National Park, eastern Nepal. Various community attributes (<em>viz. </em>importance percentage, species diversity and beta diversity) and population characteristics (e. g. density- diameter, bar diagram) were analysed. Out of the thirty four species recorded from the study forest, <em>A. spectabilis </em>was the co-dominant species with high species diversity. Total tree density was the highest at 3450 m and the lowest at 3550 m. Elevation appeared to be the important environmental factor that affects the community attributes of the study forest<strong>. </strong>The curve for <em>A . spectabilis </em>solely was lightly deviated from the typical reverse J-shaped which indicates a discontinuous regeneration pattern. The distribution of the seedling and sapling distribution was not uniform. Seedling mortality was found relatively medium and development of seedlings into saplings was also low. The lower number of sapling might be due to moderate disturbance (grazing and trampling) by livestock or due to environmental factors. The use of <em>Abies </em>tree for construction and firewood might be the reason of un sustainability.</p> A. B. Nagarkoti M. L. Pathak B. Pandey A. Devkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 12 24 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25150 Status and distribution of Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens) in Simsime community forest of Papung VDC of Taplejung district, Nepal <p>Red Panda <em>(Ailurus fulgens fulgens), </em>globally an endangered species of Himalaya, were studied in Simsime community forest of Papung Village Development Committee (VDC) in Taplejung district. It was carried out to assess status, habitat characteristics and threats to Red Panda. Three transects were laid out along the contours and their total length was 2200 m. The altitude of these transects varied from 2800–3400m. While moving along the transect line, the signs such as pellets, footprints and nests of Red Panda were searched and the GPS points were recorded in those places where the signs were observed. The habitat was assessed simultaneously to describe its characteristics in this community forest. Square plots of 10m * 10m, 4m * 4m and 1m*1m were laid out to assess trees, shrubs and herbs, respectively along contour lines at an altitudinal interval of 200 m between 2800 m and 3400 m and the plots were spaced at a distance of 100 m. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of major tree species (<em>Juniperus </em>spp., <em>Pinus </em>spp., <em>Acer </em>spp. and <em>Rhododendron </em>spp) was measured in the plots. The signs were found in Simsime community forest at an altitude of 3026 m, 3125 m and 3127 m. Overall sign encounter rate for this community forest was 1.36/km. <em>Acer </em>spp. had the highest Importance Value Index (IVI) and <em>Arundinaria maling</em>ers the major bamboo species with highest relative frequency (RF). Based on direct field observation, major threats to Red Panda were found to be grazing and bamboo cutting in which majority of the respondents agreed.</p> B. Lama ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 25 32 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25152 Making sense of conservation behaviours in Mustang, Nepal <p>Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs) have been undertaken in many countries due to expectations of their supporting both natural resource sustainability and livelihoods. However, they have been challenged by critics over the years, who claim that conservation goals take precedence over local development in practice, thereby worsening the vulnerability of resource-dependent people. Nonetheless, one ICDP implemented in Nepal, the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACAP), has been largely regarded by researchers and practitioners as an ICDP success case. Under the authority of a conservation-oriented NGO, ACAP, the ICDP engages local communities participatory for resource management. One community within ACAP has been found to have a substantial timber surplus that satisfies conservation goals, but could also become a sizeable and sustainable source of income for local development. We interrogate the rules and practices of timber management in this community to explore the why behind this practice, discussing how modes of environmental governance aimed at producing behaviors to manage natural resources in particular ways (‘environmentalists’) feature in the seemingly conservation-oriented <em>de jure </em>rules and <em>de facto </em>practices and in authority relations in and around the community.</p> C. S. S. França E. O. Kyei G. S. Aragundi R. L. Rutt ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 33 42 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25153 Relationship between soil properties and forests carbon: Case of three community forests from Far Western Nepal <p>The study was carried out in three community-managed forests of Dadeldhura district located in Far West of Nepal in 2015. The objectives of the study were to analyze biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation and observe how primary soil nutrients and other soil properties affect the biomass and SOC in these forests. Simple random sampling method was used with 0. 62% sampling intensity. Concentric circular sample plot of various sizes were laid out for the necessary data collection. ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD and correlation tests were performed. The carbon density differed significantly (p&lt;0. 05) in the studied CFs. The Tukey’s test showed the BPCF had significantly higher (p&lt;0. 05) carbon density than other CFs. The correlation between biomass density (t/ha) and soil bulk density was very weak and it was not significant. However, biomass density revealed significant (p&lt;0.05) negative correlation with SOC(r = -0.38) and Phosphorous (r = -0.56) content in the soil. Biomass density had no significant correlation with rest of the parameters. Similarly, SOC had significant (p&lt;0.05) positive correlation with all the parameters except with soil bulk density (p&lt;0.05, r= -0. 88). Despite the higher biomass in forests, we found the lesser amount of SOC and primary soil nutrients in the soil. Similarly, acidic soils with higher contents of primary soil nutrients (NPK) had relatively higher SOC whereas higher bulk density decreased the SOC content. Results revealed that community-managed forests seemed a viable source of biomass production and carbon sink to combat the global environmental problem (global warming). These types of forests have conserved relatively the higher biomass (biomass carbon) than normally (business-as-usual )managed forests. This output would be a reference to the policy maker, national and international communities of diverse fields who are engaged in forest carbon services related activities such as reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation(REDD), clean development mechanism (CDM) and forest management in terms of production. Similar studies are recommended in larger geographical areas and different ecological zones to generalize the inference.</p> H. P. Pandey P. Pandey S. Pokhrel R. A. Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 43 52 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25154 Influence of environmental parameters on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the headwaters of Bagmati river, Kathmandu valley, Nepal <p>The distribution of benthic macro invertebrates (BMIs) is affected by various environmental factors. Understanding their response to these factors is a key to assessing freshwater quality. The aim of this research is to understand the influence of different environmental parameters on BMIs assemblages in the headwaters of Bagmati River. The BMIs were sampled following a multi-habitat sampling protocol and the – hydrological and physico-chemical parameters were measured using standard methods. The relationship between environmental parameters and macro invertebrate assemblages was analyzed through Multivariate analysis - Redundancy Analysis and Variation Partitioning. Stream discharge, pH and Dissolved Oxygen were selected for multivariate analysis through backward elimination method. pH and Dissolved Oxygen were important contributing factors explaining the variation in BMIs community. Physico-chemical parameters were found to be the most important group of variables explaining the variation in macro invertebrate assemblages. Only about twenty-five per cent of the variation in the BMIs community was explained by the model so the parameters studied here do not have a high degree of explanatory power.</p> A. Rai D. N. Shah R. D. T. Shah C. Milner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 53 61 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25155 Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.), a new record for Nepal <p>Not available.</p> K. R. Rajbhandari G. Amatya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 29 1 62 63 10.3126/banko.v29i1.25156