Banko Janakari <p><em>Banko janakari</em> (BJ ) is peer reviewed online scientific journal that has been published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment, Government of Nepal since 1987. Articles can be freely accessed online. If you are an author please follow this link to upload the article at your suitable time. BJ does not charge authors for article submission and peer review process fees. </p> <p>Article of BJ are licensed under a <a href=""></a> (<span class="cc-license-identifier">CC BY-NC 4.0</span>)</p> <p>Banko Janakari is Scopus Indexed Journal <a title="" href=""></a></p> <p><a title="Banko Janakari" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web :</a></p> <p>Google scholar : <a href=";as_sdt=0%2C5&amp;q=banko+janakari&amp;oq=ba">Google scholar</a></p> Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 <p>© Forest Research and Training Center</p> Spatio–temporal pattern of human leopard conflict and mitigation strategy in Baitadi district, mid–hills of Nepal <p>Human–wildlife conflict is increasing globally, particularly in the areas, where wildlife and humans coexist and share resources. Large mammalian predators such as common leopards not only kill livestock but they are also killing humans. Baitadi is among the top ranked districts in Nepal in terms of number of human common leopard conflict events in last 10 years. The fieldwork for this study was carried out between January and June 2020 in the villages of <em>Bishalpur, Udayadev, Pancheshor and Aamchaura of Baitadi</em> district. Field observation, questionnaire survey, key informant interview and literature review were used for the data collection. Our study found that common leopards killed 23 and injured eight people between 2011 and 2019 in the district. In retaliation, people killed 26 common leopards in the same period, which must have spelt disaster for these rare cats. Despite the increasing number of conflict events, the local people, in general, were found to have positive attitude towards wildlife conservation. Therefore, improved prey species management, awareness raising among the local people and detailed study on habitat assessment, population status of leopards and their prey species are the urgent needs for the mitigation of human common leopard conflict in the district.</p> Kedar Baral Achyut Aryal Craig Morley Ripu Mardhan Kunwar Shivish Bhandari Hari Prasad Sharma Khum Thapa Magar Binaya Adhikari Ji Weihong Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 3 14 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45434 Aboveground carbon stocks and sequestration rates of forests under different management regimes in Churia region of Nepal <p>The impact of forest management activities on the ability of forest ecosystems to sequester and store atmospheric carbon is of increasing scientific and social concern. This research estimated the aboveground carbon stocks and carbon sequestration rates of forests under various management regimes in the Churia region of Nepal. We used tree data from 469 permanent sample plots distributed across the region from the data archive of Forest Research and Training Centre for the study. The data from 2012 and 2017 were used. The volumes of individual trees were calculated using species–specific allometric equations, which were then converted to biomasses using their respective wood densities. The carbon content was calculated by multiplying the biomass by 0.47 and was converted to the amount of sequestrated CO<sub>2</sub> by multiplying by 3.67. We found that the average estimated aboveground carbon stock increased from 78.43 t ha<sup>–1</sup> in 2012 to 89.20 t ha<sup>–1</sup> in 2017, resulting in an average annual carbon sequestration rate of 5.34 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup> (i.e. 7.90 t CO<sub>2</sub> ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>). The results showed significant differences in aboveground carbon stocks and annual carbon sequestration rates among different forest management regimes in the region. Generally, aboveground carbon stock was found to be the highest in protected areas in both years whereas, the annual carbon sequestration rate was found to be the highest in government–managed forests. It can be concluded that the Churia region has great potential in terms of carbon sequestration. The evidence of the strong association of carbon stock and sequestration rate with management regimes provides valuable information for policymakers to maintain and further enhance carbon storage in a geographically vulnerable region like Churia.</p> Bipana Subedi Prakash Lamichhane Lilu Kumari Magar Thakur Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 15 24 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45442 Climate change, climatic disasters, and adaptation techniques: learnings from the lowlands of Nepal <p>Nepal is experiencing inevitable consequences of changing climate. Rural communities are badly suffering from these implications. Meanwhile, the rural communities are trying to acclimatize through small–scale adaptation efforts. This study aims to analyze changes in temperature and rainfall trends, identify major climatic disasters, and document current adaptation measures being adopted by rural communities. For this study, we randomly selected 220 households from a total of 4,282 Households, and seven key informants for the questionnaire survey within the study area. Meteorological data from the nearest station were used to analyze changes in temperature and rainfall trends. The study revealed that both mean annual maximum and minimum temperature increased by 0.063 °C/year and 0.072° C/year respectively, between 1991 and 2020. Similarly, mean annual rainfall increased by 12.329 mm/year. Floods, droughts, landslides, hailstorms, and forest fires were major climate disasters experienced by the locals. The adverse impact perceived were loss of crop yield, decrease in water availability, an increase of mosquitoes, and a decline in sightings of the birds and waterfowls in the area. Embankment construction along rivers, changing cropping patterns and cultivation time, forest protection, and maintaining home gardens were major adaptation measures being practiced by the locals. We believe the findings of this study will be helpful for policymakers to develop strategies and programs for communities that will promote resilience against climate– induced disasters at a local level in the lowlands of Nepal.</p> Roshan Singh Thagunna Sagar Godar Chhetri Deepak Gautam Diwakar Bhattarai Prakash Singh Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 25 40 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45443 A Strategy for involving community forest managers in effective forest fire management in Nepal <p>Each year forest fire causes enormous damage to Nepal's forest ecosystems and landscape. For an active community involvement at the landscape level, policymakers must take the interests of local forest managers into account to increase social acceptability. This research explores the perception of community forest managers, who are constantly managing forests at the grassroots level, to understand the relationship between their priorities, needs, and attitudes toward forest fire management. Eighty–eight key informants from six districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three major sections, (i) forest fuel management and infrastructure, (ii) forest fire management strategies and actions, and (iii) public education and awareness on forest fire management. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal–Wallis test, where the respondents rated above 4.2 out of 5 for activities like increase of insurance mechanisms, providing training for firefighting volunteer groups, and provisioning firefighting equipment. The majority of the respondents agreed on the activities under the forest fire management strategies and actions section (Kendall's Tau = 0.8501), followed by forest fuel management and infrastructure (Kendall’s Tau= 0.6757). We anticipate that the results of this study will be helpful for the local decision–makers in involving different communities and identifying their priorities while implementing various forest fire management activities in diverse landscapes or provinces of the country.</p> Ashok Parajuli Ambika P. Gautam Sundar Sharma Prakash Lamichhane Gagan Sharma Bhuwan Singh Bist Upendra Aryal Reecha Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Center 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 41 51 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45476 Fungal diseases of economically important tree species in plantation forest of Arjam, Myagdi district, Nepal <p>This paper deals with the fungal diseases of important tree species, which have enormous economic value, i.e. <em>Melia azedarach, Celtis australis and Toona ciliata. </em>These tree species are used for timber, fuelwood, fodder and for infrastructure development. A number of devastating fungal diseases were prevalent among the tree species in plantation forest of Myagdi District. For Isolation and identification of pathogen infected samples were cut into small pieces, washed, sterilized with 70% ethanol and transferred to Petri plates containing potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. Then, incubated at 25 ± 2ºC and after few days when fungal colonies developed observed in microscope. These fungal pathogen causing different disease were <em>Erysiphe kusanoi </em>(powdery mildew), <em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides </em>(anthracnose), <em>Pestalotia neglecta </em>and <em>Fusarium </em>sp. (canker) and <em>Alternaria alternata </em>(blight). It has been concluded that to moderate the damages caused by these pathogens, it is must to identify them early in the infection process.</p> Sanjay Kumar Jha Shashi Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Center 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 52 59 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45444 National Land Cover Monitoring System for Nepal <p>Not Available.</p> Rajaram Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Centre 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 1 2 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45429 Research notes on vegetative propagation of Chiuri (Diploknema butyracea (Roxb.) H.J.Lam) <p>Not available.</p> Ramesh Subedi Roshan Chikanbanjar Umed Kumar Pun Copyright (c) 2022 Forest Research and Training Center 2022-05-31 2022-05-31 32 1 60 64 10.3126/banko.v32i1.45445