Banko Janakari https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO Published by the Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS), Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation, Government of Nepal. Articles available in full text. Department of Forest Research and Survey (DFRS) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 © Department of Forest Research and Survey Urban forestry in the federal context of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21448 <p><strong> </strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 1-2</p> Dr. Keshab Raj Goutam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 1 2 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21448 Natural regeneration potential and growth of degraded Shorea robusta Gaert n.f. forest in Terai region of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21449 <p>Sal <em>(Shorea robusta ) </em>has ecological, economical and socio-cultural importance. It is a dominant species in the Terai and Chure region of Nepal. Natural regeneration is the only relevant regeneration method for Sal in Nepal. This study intended to assess natural regeneration potential of Sal in ploughed and unploughed (control) sites. The study was carried out in Chetaradei of Kapilvastu district in an area of 4.79 ha. Two treatments (control and ground work <em>i.e</em>. ploughed) were applied to assess regeneration potential of Sal. The radius of the sample plots was 2 m, which were laid out systematically and the data were recorded from these plots in three consecutive years. Regeneration density was found higher in control site than ploughed site. T-test for regeneration density in three consecutive measurements showed that there was no significant difference between ploughed and unploughed conditions. The species composition was dominated by Sal in both ploughed and unploughed sites. Species diversity (Shannon Weiner) index was found higher in ploughed site than unploughed site in three consecutive measurements. Moreover, T-test showed that mean height of Sal was not significant in both ploughed and unploughed sites except in the first measurement. This study shows that protection from grazing and fire is essential for natural regeneration of Sal. However, ground work helps to increase tree species diversity but it is not necessary in degraded Sal forest.</p><p><strong></strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 3-10</p> R. Malla B. K. Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 3 10 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21449 Comparative study on litter production and nutrient return to soil in Tarai and Hill Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests of eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21450 <p>Litter production and nutrient return to soil through litter fall is important pathway for the regulation of nutrient cycling and primary production of the forest. Litter fall dynamics is generally influenced by phenology of tree species, seasons and altitude of the forest stand. As most of the information on litter production are from temperate and dry tropical region. A comparative study on litter production and nutrient return were conducted in Terai Sal forest (TSF) and Hill Sal forest (HSF) located in moist tropical region of eastern Nepal. Litter samples were collected from the litter traps (1m × 1m size) placed randomly in the forest. Collection was done at two months interval for one year. Annual litterfall in TSF (8.82 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>y<sup>-1</sup>) was significantly (p &lt; 0.001) higher than in HSF (7.18 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>y<sup>-1</sup>).There was distinct seasonality in litter production. In TSF and HSF, litterfall was maximum in the summer (6.57 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 5.05 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively) and minimum in winter season (0.86 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup> and 0.72 Mg ha<sup>-1</sup>, respectively). Amount of nutrient return to forest soil through litter fall (kg ha<sup>-1</sup> y<sup>-1</sup>) was higher in TSF (72.44 N, 6.80 P and 33.23 K) than HSF (54.31 N, 4.84 P and 22.23 K). The difference in litter production between these two forests was influenced by the phenology of dominant tree species, variation in altitude and seasons. Nutrient return through litter fall is a great input of nutrients in soil which is required for production process. Thus, litter constitutes a significant role in forest management.</p><p><strong></strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 11-19</p> K. P. Bhattarai T. N. Mandal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 11 19 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21450 Distribution pattern of tree species from tropical to temperate regions in Makawanpur district, central Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21452 <p>Tree species are the dominant component of forest ecosystems which influence most structural and functional attributes of these ecosystems. This study aims to document distribution pattern of forest types and their composition from tropical region at Hetauda (550 m asl) to temperate region above Simbhangyang (2500 m asl) of Makawanpur district, central Nepal. The carbon stock in the living biomass of tree  species was estimated using an allometric equation while the biodiversity index was calculated using Shannon-Wiener Biodiversity index. A total of 62 species of trees belonging to 51 genera was recorded. <em>Shorea </em>forest was dominant in lower elevation while <em>Quercus </em>forest, <em>Alnus</em>-<em>Rhododendron</em>, <em>Quercus</em>-<em>Lyonia </em>and <em>Quercus</em>-<em>Symplocos </em>forests at higher elevation. Similarly, <em>Castanopsis tribuloides </em>has the widest distribution range (570 m to 2240 m asl) followed by <em>Shorea robusta, Lagerstroemia parviflora</em>, <em>Trichilia connaroides, Syzigium jambos</em>, <em>Castanopsis indica</em>, <em>Schima wallichii </em>etc<em>. </em>The highest number of tree species was recorded at 550 m elevation. Estimated carbon stocks were ranged from 0.85 — 53.37 t/ha with the mean value 24.98 t/ha. The values of Shannon-Wiener Biodiversity index ranged from 1.23— 2.78. There was positive relationship between carbon stock and biodiversity index (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.40, p = 0.03). People have been practicing community forest management to support sustainability of harvesting in the study area.</p><p><strong></strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 20-25</p><p> </p><p> </p> S. Bhattarai B. Bhatta R. Tamang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 20 25 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21452 Variation in structure and composition of two pine forests in Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21453 <p>Chir pine (<em>Pinus roxburghii </em>Sarg.) and blue pine (<em>Pinus wallichiana </em>A.B. Jacks.) are two common species found in mid-hill forests of Nepal where households largely depend on forest resources for their livelihoods and subsistence. The management of such forests is supported by our understanding of the dynamics in forest structure and species composition and the relationship between different forest community characteristics. This study was designed to determine the variation in species composition and the relationship between various forest community characteristics in two pine forests of Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal. Quadrat sampling was applied to collect information on forest species, forest community structure, and disturbance factors.Data was statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS. There were a total of 31 plant species under 28 genera and 20 families in the <em>P. roxburghii </em>forest, and 38 plant species under 37 genera and 19 families in the <em>P. wallichiana </em>forest. Mean DBH, height and canopy diameter of <em>P. roxburghii </em>was 23.98 cm, 12.77 m and 1.97 m, respectively, and that of <em>P</em>. <em>wallichiana </em>was 31.5 cm, 11.48 m and 2.79 m, respectively. The relationship between DBH and both height and crown diameter showed strong relationships in the two forest types. In both  forests, DBH and height class distribution showed a hump-shaped (unimodal type) distribution with a greater proportion of medium-sized individuals that indicated disruptive forest regeneration. Fire and tree cut were significant disturbance factors in <em>P. roxburghii </em>forest, while grazing and trampling were significant in <em>P. wallichiana </em>forest. The extent of these disturbance factors as determinants of regeneration and species recruitment is important to assess for effective forest management.</p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 26-36</p><p> </p> C. K. Subedi J. Gurung S. K. Ghimire N. Chettri B. Pasakhala P. Bhandari R. P. Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-26 2018-05-26 28 1 26 36 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21453 Locally identified criteria, indicators and verifiers for evaluating sustainable community based forestry: a case from Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21455 <p>Community based forestry is seen in many countries as a way to enhance sustainable forest management through close involvement of local people. This paper aims to develop understanding of local perspectives on criteria, indicators and verifiers for evaluating sustainable community based forest management practices. This study includes ten different forest user groups ranging from full autonomy to semi-autonomy in making decisions regarding forest management practices covering three districts from three physiographic (mid-hill, inner-tarai and tarai) regions of Nepal. A village to village approach was used to acquire the perspectives from male, female and different castes. The findings show that local people identified four criteria, 26 indicators and 60 verifiers for evaluating sustainable community based forest management practices. Three locally identified criteria were found to be identical with the institutional topdown criteria. The paper concludes that understanding local knowledge, local practice and associated institutions are important to manage forest resources in a sustainable manner. There is also a need to have continuous collaborative works between forest professionals and local people to enhance sustainable forest management.</p><p><strong> </strong><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 37-47</p><p> </p> R. K. Pokharel K. R. Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 37 47 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21455 Pterospermum truncatolobatum Gagnepain (Sterculaceae): A new addition to the flora of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/BANKO/article/view/21456 <p>Not available.</p><p><strong>Banko Janakari</strong></p><p><em>A Journal of Forestry Information for Nepal</em><em></em></p><p>Vol. 28, No. 1, 2018, page: 48-49</p> B. K. Basnet M. Siwakoti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-26 2018-10-26 28 1 48 49 10.3126/banko.v28i1.21456