Banko Janakari <p>Published by the Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC), Ministry of Forests and Environment , Government of Nepal. Articles available in full text. <span class="text_exposed_show">Article can be submitted at a time that suits you,&nbsp;</span>Please visit the following link&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> Forest Research and Training Centre (FRTC) en-US Banko Janakari 1016-0582 <p>© Forest Research and Training Center</p> Contribution of NWFPs in National Economy <p>Not Available.</p> Rajendra K. C. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 1 2 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24182 Effect of growth hormone and growth media on the rooting and shooting of Zanthoxylum armatum stem cuttings <p>The common method of propagation is through seeds but seed germination in <em>Zanthoxylum armatum </em>is very low due to the presence of hard seed coat, which might be a great hurdle for large scale production of plantlets. So an attempt was made in this study to see the effect of different growth hormones, their concentrations and different rooting media on the rooting and sprouting of <em>Z. armatum</em>. The stem cuttings of <em>Z. armatum </em>were treated with two types of auxins namely Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) and Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) at different concentrations (2000 ppm, 3000 ppm and 5000 ppm), while the untreated cuttings were used as control. The cuttings were planted in three different rooting media: sand, neopeat and mix (containing a mixture of sand, soil and vermin-compost). The completely randomized design was used for the experiment. The total number of stem cuttings of <em>Z. armatum </em>used in the experiment was 1080 for 18 treatments in three replicates (20 cuttings per treatment x 18 treatments x 3 replicates). The experiment was set up in controlled greenhouse conditions at Dabur Nepal Private Limited Nursery, Banepa, Kavre District. The parameters evaluated were root length, shoot length and number of roots per cutting. The collected data were analyzed statistically using R-program with Agricola. Least significant difference (LSD) and Duncan multiple Range Test (DMRT), as mean separation technique was applied to identify the most efficient treatment in the rooting and shooting behavior of <em>Z. armatum </em>(Gomez and Gomez, 1984). Hormone concentration and growth media significantly affected the rooting and shooting ability of <em>Z. armatum </em>stem cuttings. IBA was found to be more effective than NAA. Neopeat medium was better than sand and mix media. The highest number of roots (6.5) and root length (11.6 cm) were recorded under IBA 5000 ppm in neopeat medium.</p> N. Phuyal P. K. Jha P. P. Raturi S. Gurung S. Rajbhandary ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 3 12 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24183 Looking women seriously: what makes differences for women participation in community forestry ? <p>Women participation has been in discussion for long in community forestry in Nepal - a successful programme in participatory forest governance. Despite having ample of policy instruments to address the women concern in community forestry decision making activities several pragmatic issues have been encountered. This paper examines on the women participation in different community forestry decision making activities and identifies the factors influencing participation in such activities. The evidences were generated from five community forest user groups in Kaski district. The analysis was based on the household surveys that included the random sample of 213 respondents (107 females and 106 males). Similarly, regular triangulation and verification of the data were made through series of interviews, discussions and observations followed by the analysis of CF documents. Three ordered logit regression models were deployed to examine the determinants of women participation in decision making in forest management, resource utilization and participatory activities. The analysis showed lower participation of women in community forest decision making activities. Gender had the significant association with the participation in all decision making activities. The men with higher education, who are the member of executive committee and have access to community forestry fund, had participated significantly more than women in community forestry decision making activities. Low participation of women was associated with lower representation in user group committee, social and traditional beliefs and preoccupied assumption that women cannot lead which may result in unfair implication of community forestry.</p> P. K. C. Bhandari P Bhusal B. B. Khanal Chhetri C. P. Upadhyaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 13 22 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24184 Impact of anti-poaching approaches for the success of Rhino conservation in Chitwan National Park, Nepal <p>Nepal has succeeded in granting better protection for its Asian rhino population that has become exemplary in the world. Effective law enforcement along with community participation has been acclaimed as a reason for this achievement. However, there have been very few studies to assess the effectiveness of current anti-poaching strategies. In this study, we assessed the performance of SMART patrolling and population trend of rhino in Chitwan National Park (CNP). The patrol data collected through patrolling logbooks were used to visualize the coverage of SMART in the CNP and its Buffer Zone by dividing it into 1km*1km grid cell. Logistic regression models were used to analyze whether or not the patrol effort and patrol frequency correlate with the reduction in occurrences of illegal activities. A total of 6,593 patrols were conducted within the last fifteen months. Logistic regression models revealed that sites with a greater frequency of patrols, rather than the combined distance walked, had a lower probability of occurrence of illegal activities (βPatrol.frequency= -8.6428 &amp; βPatrol.effort= -4.1804). This implies that patrol frequency was found more significant than patrol efforts in reducing prevalence of illegal activities in and around the CNP. The poaching activities were found high during insurgency period. The trend in rhino poaching was found to be decreased with increase in number of security posts, Community-based Anti-poaching Unit formation, conservation education and sweeping/camping operations. To maintain the continuous success in the long-run,&nbsp;it is crucial to regulate and enhance effective law enforcement capability and more&nbsp;advance techno-based modality in close coordination with stakeholders including&nbsp;community institutions.</p> D Mahatara S. Rayamajhi G. Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 23 31 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24185 Anatomy of two Rhododendron species along the elevational gradient, Eastern Nepal <p>A wide range of habitat conditions including elevation determine adaptative variation in a species. The study was carried out to investigate the anatomical variation of two common species of <em>Rhododendron </em>(<em>R. anthopogon </em>and <em>R. lepidotum</em>) growing between 3200 and 4700 m asl in Gokyo valley of Sagarmatha National Park, Khumbu, eastern Nepal. Seven anatomical characters <em>viz</em>. pore area (PA), pore density (PD), vessel element length (VEL), fiber tracheid length (FL), ray density (RD), uniseriate ray height (URH) and uniseriate ray cell number (URCN) of twenty-three samples for two species (12 samples of <em>R. anthopogon </em>and 11 of <em>R. lepidotum</em>) were studied by making permanent slides of transverse, tangential longitudinal and radial longitudinal stem sections. In <em>R. anthopogon, </em>out of three non- anatomical characters (plant height, soil nitrogen and leaf nitrogen) the nitrogen content in leaf increased with increasing elevation. However, the plant height and nitrogen content in soil did not vary significantly with elevation. Out of the seven wood anatomical characters three characters such as PA, VEL and FL decreased with increasing elevation. The other four characters, PD, RD, URH and URCN did not vary significantly with elevation. In <em>R. lepidotum</em>, plant height decreased with increasing elevation and nitrogen content of soil and leaf increased with elevation. The PD, PA, VEL and FL decreased along the elevation gradient. However, RD, URH and URCN did not vary significantly with elevation. These variations in the anatomical features of both species have been attributed to the adaptative strategies of the plant in the hostile environment at high elevation.</p> M. L. Pathak B. B. Shrestha L. Joshi X. F. Gao P. K. Jha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 32 44 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24186 Higher estimation, lower harvesting: case of NTFPs from Dhaulagiri region, Nepal <p>In Nepal, non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have high potentiality in contributing to local and national economy. Studies have shown that the potentiality of NTFPs has not been realized yet. This paper aims to explore the number of NTFPs species and quantity collected against the number of NTFPs species and quantity specified in the five year forest management plans of three districts (Baglung, Parbat and Myagdi) in Dhaulagiri region. The data related to number of NTFPs species and the quantity collected in fiscal year 2016/2017 were acquired from three District Forest Offices (Baglung, Parbat and Myagdi) and compared them as specified in the five year forest management plans. The NTFPs species specified for collection in the plans were 90 in Baglung, 50 in Myagdi and 13 in Parbat district. Only 21 species from Baglung, 16 species from Myagdi and none species from Parbat were collected in fiscal year 2016/2017. The annual total quantity of the NTFPs specified in the plans of three districts was 454.21 tons with the royalty of US$ 78,500. But the harvested quantity of NTFPs was only 31.18 tons with the royalty of US$ 4,610 in fiscal year 2016/2017. The quantity of harvested NTFPs was 9.59% and 3.64% of their supply potential in Baglung and Myagdi districts, respectively, while there was no collection of NTFPs from Parbat district. On an average, only 6.87% of NTFPs specified in the plans were collected, generating only 5.87% of the total royalty specified in the plans. The study revealed that remoteness of the area, lower quantity of NTFPs for commercial&nbsp;harvesting and lack of site specific plan of NTFPs are the major causes for under&nbsp;harvesting. Networking of local people and NTFPs traders and formulating site and&nbsp;species specific NTFPs conservation, management and utilization plan are necessary to collect NTFPs in a sustainable manner from these districts.</p> G. Paudel R. Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 45 51 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24187 Investment and benefits associated with community based forest enterprises in Nepal <p>Community forests in Nepal are operating various types of forest-based enterprises. These enterprises are generating considerable amount of income and employment at the local level contributing to the local and national economy. Comprehensive assessment of these enterprises is needed to improve their condition in the future. There is lack of assessment on the investment and benefits associated with these enterprises. We collected the data from 195 community-based enterprises in 23 districts of Nepal representing all geographic and development regions. For the analysis purpose, we categorized the enterprises into four categories <em>viz. </em>non-timber forest products (NTFPs), wood, ecotourism and agriculture enterprises. We analysed the investment, income, households benefitted and employment generation from these enterprises and compared with each other. Mean investment in ecotourism (US$ 22805.09) and wood (US$ 11252.42) based enterprises was found higher than the mean investment in NTFPs (US$ 2628.03) and agriculture (US$ 3383.63) based enterprises. Mean annual income from the enterprises was found US$ 1982.56 and was significantly different between the types of enterprises (P&lt;0.05). On an average 115 households were benefitted per enterprise. Employment generation from wood based (2527 man-days) enterprises was found the highest followed by ecotourism (1490 man-days) enterprises. The mean employment generation from NTFP (1093 man-days) and agriculture-based enterprises (978 man-days) was found significantly lower (P&lt;0.05) than timber and ecotourism-based enterprises. Examination of&nbsp;community-based forest enterprises contribution in local economy and household economy is recommended for future researchers.</p> S. R. Dhakal A. R. Sharma G. Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 52 59 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24188 Local people’s perception and awareness of climate change: a case study from community forests in Lamjung District, Western Nepal <p>Climate change has negatively impacted the underdeveloped and developing countries including Nepal due to low adaptive capacity and higher dependency in agriculture. Forests are important component of the lives and livelihoods of the community in Nepal, which can offer an important source of climate-resilient livelihood. It is crucial to know the fact that climate change was in the past, which will continue to change in the future. It is essential to understand how communities perceive and adapt to climate change. A study was carried out in Kirepani, Jagreni and Kalika Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) in Lamjung District with an objective of assessing their perceptions on impacts of climate change. The survey was carried out in 62 households along with participatory appraisal to understand the perception of local people on climate change and its impacts. Focus group discussion was held in each CFUG. Climatic data of 29 years (1987–2015) acquired from Khudi, Kuncha and Gharedgunga metereological stations and analysed to supplement the results. Data were analysed using MS-Excel as major computer software and presented as table, trend lines and graphs. The study showed that the locals correctly perceived change in temperature, unpredictable&nbsp;occurrence of rainfall and increased incidence of change in crops phenology, an&nbsp;increase in drought. Based on the perceptions of the community forest users, climate change has affected the biodiversity and societal system differentially. Drought has higher impact to the people affecting their lives and livelihoods. They perceived that the increase in drought, floods, landslide have affected their lives and livelihoods. The results revealed that minimum temperature was increased at the rate of 0.01º C per year whereas the maximum temperature was increased by 0.056° C per year. From the rainfall data of Khudi meteorological station, it was found that annual rainfall was highly decreased at the rate of 25.8 mm per year, which alarms for more disaster such as drought and fire in the area. Our findings suggest that for the innovative climate change adaptation planning and policy it is crucial to incorporate and acknowledge the role of community forest in climate change adaptation.</p> N. Dhungana N. Silwal S. Upadhaya S. K. Regmi S. Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 2 60 71 10.3126/banko.v28i2.24189