Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2024-01-14T06:01:01+00:00 Dr. Nirmala Mani Adhikary Open Journal Systems <p>BODHI is an interdisciplinary journal. Published by Department of Languages and Mass Communication Kathmandu University. Its focus is on communication, media and journalism. Full text articles available.</p> Easterine Kire’s A Respectable Woman: A Feminist Study 2024-01-14T06:01:01+00:00 Tamishra Swain Neha Chauhan <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Women’s position since time immemorial has been secondary, whether in Western or Eastern culture. Women are not only pushed to the margin in the cultural, social, or economic sphere but also in the literary sphere. With growing awareness, women asked for equal rights in every sphere of life, whether in political, social or cultural spaces. Considering the condition in the literary sphere, one can see how women’s voices are never raised, or even if raised, they are never heard. However, by writing about their own experiences, women can represent themselves in a more accurate way, make their presence felt and challenge the mainstream writings mostly written by men. This paper tries to analyse Easterine Kire’s A Respectable Woman from a feminist perspective.</span></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Media Literacy: A Survey among Headteachers of Community Schools in Kathmandu Valley 2024-01-14T04:54:37+00:00 Govinda Dhital <p>This study has aimed to measure the level of media literacy among headteachers of community schools in Nepal and examine the relationship between their communication behavior and their awareness of media literacy. The study focuses on the level of media literacy among headteachers and the contribution of headteachers' media literacy to their communication behavior. The study considers demographic variables such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status, academic qualification, teaching experience, and training to achieve the expected outcomes. The population of this study includes 295 secondary-level headteachers of community schools in Kathmandu Valley, and a sample of 170 headteachers were randomly selected from three districts. The collected data were analyzed using inferential statistics, and reliability, validity, and ethics were considered at each stage of the research. The findings indicate that headteachers are not sufficiently aware of the influence of media on their jobs in general, but there is a positive relationship between media literacy and communication behavior among them. Female headteachers felt recognized and had good relationships with colleagues, while older headteachers were less literate about media. Headteachers with higher qualifications and training were more literate with media and more communicative with subordinates and students. The study suggests that headteachers should constructively engage in building their schools, develop a social network, and maintain autonomy in their decision-making process to support the quality improvement of community schools. Therefore, the study recommends that stakeholders of the school consider the knowledge development, autonomy, and media literacy of headteachers to improve communication, collaboration, and quality of education in community schools.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University An Economic Model of Media Ethics 2024-01-14T05:44:14+00:00 Prajjwal Dhungana <p>Ethics and economic profits are considered to be trade-offs to one another. Akin to other disciplines, private media face the same dilemma. Pursuing more economic profit through increased viewership, advertising rates, or other practices usually comes at the cost of diminished ethical compliance. However, many studies highlight the importance of ethical guidelines in increasing revenues and profits in media organizations. This article aims to reconcile previous scholarship on the subject and develop an economic model of media ethics. The model is based on the literature and methodology of public economics, particularly that of public goods and externalities. It predicts that private media firms, when left to the perfectly competitive market, produce a greater quantity of news that may not be socially desirable and is of low quality and poor ethical compliance. When the social cost of producing ethical and quality media products is considered, the revenue of the private firms decreases, thereby suggesting an inverse relationship between ethical compliance and profits. This demands a case for libertarian paternalism, nudges, or incentives to restore private firms to the socially optimal equilibrium to ensure independent, ethical, free, and sustainable media.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Approaching Kautaliya Arthashastra from the Communication Perspective 2024-01-14T05:35:07+00:00 Nirmala Mani Adhikary <p>Political thoughts on good governance from the Hindu perspective are set by Dandaniti, which is guided by Dharma and Artha in a continuum. Kautilya’s <em>Arthashastra</em> has been one of the most influential sources of political thoughts in Hinduism since over two millennia. The treatise deals with wide-ranging subject matters including politics, economics, governance, administration, philosophy, and so on. Though the emphasis on Artha is self-evident in <em>Arthashastra</em>, the common guiding principle for all affairs of statecraft as envisioned by Kautilya is the concept of Dharma. For instance, raja-dharma, the duty of the King or the ruler, is discussed at length in the classic text. As evident in <em>Arthashastra</em>, Hinduism envisions close interconnection between peace, politics and religion, in which politics guided by Dharma is instrumental for ensuring peace in society. This classical treatise can be approached from the communication perspective, employing certain indicators.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Clientelism and its Influence in the Nepali Press 2024-01-14T05:52:53+00:00 Sudarshan Dahal <p>This review explores the clientelist structure in politics and its influence in Nepali media with two aims: first, to identify how the clientelist structure has been practiced and influenced media in Nepal; second, to identify how the media perform the functions of clientelist networks. This review uses desk research of post 1990 documents focusing on the practices of clientelist structure in personalized behavior of the leaders, volatile political culture, fragmented civic society, and mounting corruption index in Nepal. Clientelism was a widely practiced phenomenon and it weakened the ideological base of the political parties and became the causes of uncertainty in Nepali politics. The unstable politics decreased public trust and reputation of the politicians, and visibility became a major concern to the leaders while reaching out to the electorate. In this context, the media became a vital tool to communicate with the public for political goals. The power holders practice clientelism, appointing loyalties in the board of directors in the state-owned media, attempt to endorse press restricted bills, and distribute welfare advertisements and subsidies to the favorable media. The media owners practice clientelism, recruiting professionals with strong political ties, frequently changing editors and journalists to ensure balanced representation of different political connections. The journalists tend to establish political connections and cover news with limited ethical guidelines with reference to their allies and advocate the political strategies of their patronage. Besides political intervention, the shrinking economy in the limited media market, long history of political parallelism of the press and the strong presence of the role of the state might be the explanation for adopting clientelist networks in the media.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University English Language Teacher Professional Development: Teacher Educators’ Perceptions and Experiences 2024-01-14T04:50:28+00:00 Dammar Singh Saud <p>With rapid changes and advancements in teaching English language education and the needs of learners, it has become essential for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers to be updated periodically by enhancing their attitudes, skills, and knowledge through different teacher professional development activities and strategies. English language teachers are required to keep upgrading themselves to help EFL learners acquire English effectively. This research aims to explore EFL teacher educators’ perceptions of the importance of teacher professional development and identify their experienced activities for teacher professional development. This research is conducted at a university in Nepal with the participation of eight EFL teacher educators involved in individual interviews. The interpretive research paradigm and case study research method are used for the study. Semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis are used for data collection and analysis. The results show that most of them have positive perceptions towards the importance of EFL professional development and offer suggestions on activities for English proficiency, teaching pedagogy, digital skills, and research skills for teacher professional development that administrators of the university can consult to build skilled teaching professionals who can meet various needs of present learners.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Secondary Level Teachers’ Professional Development through Research and Development Project 2024-01-14T05:10:44+00:00 Laxmi Sharma <p>This study explores the lived experiences of Nepali public secondary level school teachers in taking initiatives for their professional development, and the support they received in research and development projects. The data were collected through conducting in-depth interviews with five teachers teaching in public schools run under the education trust of Pokhara and Kathmandu in Nepal. Findings revealed that the Research and Development Project introduced in these selected schools turned out to be supportive of teachers ‘professional development in several ways. Their involvement in the Research and Development Project offered them opportunities to form a new identity and developed skills in self-reflection. This opportunity has contributed to creating a positive impact on improving classroom practices and enhancing teachers’ professional development. Future research might explore modes of effective interventions for helping teachers to grow in their professional practices.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Impact of E-Pedagogy in English E-Class in Higher Education of Nepal 2024-01-14T03:59:28+00:00 Bishnu Kumar Khadka <p>Though the use of e-pedagogy in education has been advocated, it had not been well-practiced before the COVID-19 pandemic period in Nepalese education context. In this connection, thisstudy aimsto reflect the context and explore the use and impact of e-pedagogy in terms of access and quality with the practices of it by the university English teachers and students of Nepal during pandemic and post pandemic contexts. The mixed-method research design was used collecting data from an online survey questionnaire and internet based semi-structured interviews among the participants from the teachers (N=20) and students (N=80) of five universities for quantitative data and for qualitative data from two students and two teachers of two the universities of Nepal. The findings of the study revealed that on average, 23.6% of university teachers and students have a positive impact of e-pedagogy where KU followed by MU, TU, PU and FWU teachers and students were found to be using more often it in terms of joining e-class and using resources (30%), interaction (33%), regularity (31%), techno-based learning (average 21.2%:MU–28%), searching internet-based resources (TU–28%), attending online examinations (average 17.4%:KU21%), participating online training/workshop/ conference (average 23.8%:KU–26%), and learner autonomy (average 15.4%:PU-19%) supported by the qualitative data. Furthermore, the use of e-pedagogy in ELT was found to be no longer being used regularly pandemic period onwards and suggested to be practiced as the regular part of teaching and learning in a blended way. Overall, e-pedagogy has had a positive impact on teaching-learning in English e-class during the pandemic period.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Role of Emotional Intelligence on Retaining Faculty Members at Higher Educational Institutions: A Phenomenological Analysis of Selected Business Schools 2024-01-14T05:25:45+00:00 Mitra Bandhu Poudel <p>Competent faculty retention in any academic institution requires its leaders to have adequate competencies of emotional intelligence. The purpose of this study, hence, has been to examine the importance of emotional intelligence in faculty retention in higher educational institutions in Nepal. A qualitative, phenomenological approach was used to achieve the purpose of this study. In this context, eleven faculty members shared their experiences highlighting the value of emotional intelligence in their work environment. Transcription of interviews and focus group discussions were used as primary sources of data collection. Five themes and sixteen sub-themes revealed that competency factors of emotional intelligence such as empathy, self control, and inspirational leadership, conflict management, delivering services, effective communication, teamwork, and collaboration have profound roles in retaining faculty at the academic institution. According to the description of the participants, organizational policies, leadership behavior, and motivational factors also play important roles in retaining the faculty. Furthermore, it was revealed that sports, pairing protocol, spacing effect, and environmental enrichment initiatives would also enhance faculty retention from a brain science perspective. As a result, leaders who want to retain their employees for a longer period need to portray emotional intelligence at their workplace. This research, therefore, serves as a guideline for leaders at selected business schools to connect towards all ongoing debates that contribute to the body of literature as a new area of emotional intelligence in faculty retention.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Guru as an Academic Leader in Vedic Tradition: A Review 2024-01-14T03:41:21+00:00 Bharat Neupane Laxman Gnawali <p>Vedic literature from the Indian Subcontinent does not use the phrase ‘academic leadership’ or any other terminology precisely equivalent to this; still, rishi-munis , gurus, and even some kings with passion for knowledge, who provided the environment for exploration and dissemination of knowledge and wisdom can be considered as academic leaders in true sense. In this line, this article reports the review results on the concept of educational leadership depicted in Vedic literature. For this purpose, we explored writings on Vedic wisdom tradition and philosophy, mainly in Google Scholar, using the keyphrases “academic leadership in Vedic literature,” “education system in India,” “Sanatan philosophy,” “Hindu education system,” “Gurukul education,” and “education system in Mithila.” The review results revealed that academic leaders were selected based on practical expertise and specialization in content knowledge, particularly skills, knowledge, character, moral values, perseverance, and gratitude. Academic leaders were father figures, a source of inspiration, role models, and much more. Besides, leaders were characterized by honesty, devotion, and trust, and they had a passion for education and dedication to the profession with a desire for the quest for eternal truth. At current times, when the selection of leadership in academia is based on non-academic influence, such as political inclination, nepotism, and favoritism, neglecting leadership qualities and performance, particularly in Nepal and many other countries, the article provides valuable insights into academic leadership. </p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University The Role of Bengali Women in the 1971 Non-Cooperation Movement Against the Government of Pakistan 2024-01-14T05:12:33+00:00 Mohammed Rezaul Karim <p>The Lahore resolution of 1940 and the bi-nationalism of Muhammad Ali Jinnah were considered as the cornerstones of the Pakistan movement. The demand for partition of India on the basis of the Lahore resolution sparked a firestorm among the Muslim community. India split seven years after the Lahore resolution was tabled. But the partition of the country in 1947 and the creation of Pakistan could not provide a state solution to the question of the Bengali nation. As a result, for twenty-three long years, the Bengalis were subjected to various forms of discrimination by the military rule of West Pakistan. Eventually they started a movement demanding the elimination of this inequality and the establishment of democracy. Pakistan’s military government was forced to hold its first national elections in 1970. The popular East Pakistan Awami League, led by Bangabandhu, won a single majority in the elections. But even though the Awami League gained a majority, the military government did not hand over power to the majority party. As the leader of the majority party, Bangabandhu called for a non-cooperation movement. Men as well as women participated in the movement and played a vital role in gaining independence in the country. So, the present article highlights the participation of Bengali women in the non-cooperation movement and their role in the movement.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University The Posthuman Pedagogy: A Learning Centric Educational Dimension 2024-01-14T05:50:32+00:00 Siddhartha Dhungana <p>The article is based on a thematic analysis of available literature on posthuman educational practices and opportunities. It asserts that the posthuman context does not demoralize human space, but rather strengthens educational practices by going beyond formal and informal education and surpassing teacher-centered or student-centered teaching-learning activities. The article discusses perceptions of the posthuman context in general, as well as common educational practices about the posthuman context. Its primary focus is on posthuman pedagogical considerations and a method to incorporate digital realities as a strength to posthuman pedagogue. It proposes a multisensory pedagogy that incorporates human and nonhuman realities to promote lifelong learning procedures. It also asserts the concept of a diffractive teacher who transforms into a barycentric mass collaborating and functioning in a relational approach.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Dissonance Between Internal Migration and Citizenship Rights in Nepal 2024-01-14T03:54:51+00:00 Binayak Krishna Thapa Sagar Raj Sharma <p>This paper discusses the issues pertaining to internal migration and citizenship regulations for people in Nepal, especially those concerning the vital registration rights of the citizens and their free movement across administrative boundaries. The data for this purpose is based on field work conducted in the district headquarters of Bhojpur in Eastern Nepal, where temporary migrants that had come from remote villages were interviewed. The authors delves into exploring how temporary migrants are facing exclusion from membership to self-help group and user committees which islooked upon as lack of citizenship rights conferred to them by the state. It is seen that free mobility does not always amount to extension and enhancement of citizenship rights, and, through the practice of free movement, migrants without migration registrations have been getting lesser access to social rights and civil and political entitlements.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Dalit Women’s Political Participation at the Local Level: Perspectives of Elected Women Representatives in Nepal 2024-01-14T04:47:32+00:00 Chandra Upadhyay <p>Political representation is believed to be a tool to enhance the competency of Dalit women. It is also acknowledged as a factor for the socio-political empowerment and advancement of the communities they represent. However, it is always fascinating to explore what political representation meant to them, why and how they could come to represent, and how consequential and substantial their representation was. This article interprets the construction from the narratives that come through one-to-one interviews with 19 Dalit women in Biratnagar Metropolitan City as the research participants on the status, opportunities and challenges of their political representation at the local level. After gathering the narratives, the data is discussed to reach the conclusion that political representation can be a gateway to enhance the leadership potential of Dalit women. The research reveals that political representation is taken as a crucial tool for enhancement of their competency and it can support the empowerment of the community one represents, though there are some issuesto be addressed with due time and efforts. Most of the time, a contextual need overcame a Dalit woman’s absence of political awareness to enter politics. Lack of prior experience not only constrained their political mobility and advancement but also, in situations, their male colleagues and the ward ‘chairman’ intimidated them due to their ‘politically inexperienced’background. Forsome others, their own community too was not excited with their election process or their roles at the local government. Higher levels of politicalsocialization and leadership training would be more goal-oriented. This paper contributes to comprehending the contextual rationale and the status of Dalit women’s political representation and creates scope for additional scholarly and political discourse.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Adoption of Digital Agro-Advisory Services Among Smallholder Farmers: Patterns of the Innovation-Decision Process 2024-01-14T04:04:32+00:00 Bristi Vaidya Hritika Rana Sagar Raj Sharma <p>Various digital agricultural advisory services have been developed to effectively exchange agriculture related information, skill and knowledge with the farmers. However, innovation and readiness of such technology does not guarantee that it will be adopted by the farmers. This study focuses on understanding farmers’ adoption of digital agroand non-adoption. A mixed-method research was conducted with 50 farmers of Kageshwori Manohara Municipality of Bagmati province, Nepal, who were also the users of mobile-based agriculture application, innovation theory was used as an analytical lens for data interpretation. terms of their adoption decision i.e., passive rejecters, active rejecters as digital literacy, farmer’s agricultural needs, communication channel, farmer’s social network, socio-economic and household dynamics and technological cluster. The study further argues that such innovations need to incorporate information that not just aligns with the needs of any farmers but should also be based on the local context. </p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2024-01-14T03:52:17+00:00 Kashi Raj Pandey Dinesh Kafle <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The present volume of Bodhi includes a textual analysis of a novel from India's northeast from a feminist perspective; an examination of media literacy among school headteachers in Kathmandu Valley; an economic model that helps the media sustain itself without crossing its ethical boundaries; an examination of a canonical text of economics from the communication perspective; and a critique of contemporary media practices amid Nepal's clientalist political structure.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The volume also contains interventions in the field of education, with an analysis of teacher educators' perceptions and experiences in professional development; secondary level teachers' professional development through research and development; new pedagogical approaches in the digital realm in a post-pandemic world; a phenomenological inquiry into the importance of emotional intelligence in faculty retention in educational institutions in Nepal; an exploration of academic leadership embedded in the Vedic teaching-learning practices in the Indian subcontinent; and a proposal for a posthuman pedagogy that incorporates human and non-human realities that promotes lifelong learning procedures. Finally, the volume includes interventions in the social sciences, with an analysis of internal migration and citizenship regulations for Nepalis as they straddle administrative boundaries; a study of Dalit women's political participation in the eastern Nepali city of Biratnagar; a deep dive into the adoption of mobile phone-based agriculture application among smallholder farmers in a municipality in Kathmandu district; and an analysis of the role of women in the 1971 non-cooperation movement across East Pakistan against the oppressive Pakistani government. We believe that this volume serves as indispensable material in the advance of debates in the thematic areas and disciplines they cover.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">We sincerely thank our contributors for trusting us with their articles and the reviewers for the timely review of the articles. When the next iteration of this journal reaches the tenth volume's landmark, we aim to make it even more special. Therefore, we invite academics and researchers across various fields in the Humanities and Social Sciences to contribute their articles to make Bodhi's next volume another leading light in our inter/multidisciplinary and transnational academic intervention.</span></p> 2024-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Department of Languages and Mass Communication School of Arts, Kathmandu University