Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2020-05-30T17:21:59+00:00 Dr. Nirmala Mani Adhikary Open Journal Systems <p>BODHI is an interdisciplinary journal. Published by Department of Languages and Mass Communication Kathmandu University. Its focus is on communication, media and journalism. Full text articles available.</p> Editorial Vol.7 2020-05-30T17:21:59+00:00 Nirmal Mani Adhikary <p>No abstract available.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Root of Indian Communication Theory in the Ṛig Veda: Practical Vedānta 2020-05-30T17:21:58+00:00 Anna Melfi <p>What is the source of the power of speech and eloquence and fulfillment in life? Though communication and rhetoric departments in most Indian universities have been focusing their teaching and research agendas on Western models, a growing body of scholarship is developing communication theory that approaches the big questions from an Indian perspective, drawing on traditional sources (Adhikary, 2014), which claim Veda as their ultimate source. This paper explores the Vedic worldview on speech and communication proclaimed in the <em>Ṛicho Akśare </em>verse of the Ṛig Veda, and others, drawing on sage Bhartṛhari (c. 450-500 CE), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1975; 1971), and Sanskrit scholars of the philosophy of language, who reference these hymns. They describe a Vedic cosmology of speech that bears striking resemblance to the universe according to string theory of quantum physics. The science serves to corroborate the premise of Vedic levels-of-speech theory that the universe is structured and governed by laws of nature/language of nature from within an unmanifest unified field of all the laws of nature, which Ṛig Veda 1.164 calls <em>Parā </em>and identifies as consciousness. This inquiry helps to illuminate how speech is Brahman, the source and goal of understanding, eloquence, and fulfillment. The Vedic texts enjoin the <em>sanātana dharma </em>of yoga, opening awareness to the transcendental source of speech. I conclude that Vedic communication theory embedded in the hymns is integral to practical Vedanta. As Muktitkā Upaniṣad 1.9 proclaims: “As oil is present in a sesame seed, so <em>Vedānta </em>is present in the Veda.”</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Applications of Right Speech in Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning 2020-05-30T17:21:57+00:00 Kalpana Mishra <p>The focus of this research is more on the applications of Right Speech (RS) in Knowledge Management (KM) and Organizational Learning (OL) in the context of Nepal. The primary motivation of the researcher is to see whether people at the managerial level do use right speech in relation to KM and OL. We would agree the fact that the job of quantifying values into numeric system is not an easy one; therefore, mixed-method has been carried out as a tool so as to interpret the quantitative, qualitative, and the content of Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). The mixed-method is the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches or methods in a single study or program of inquiry, and this is what the researcher has done here in the Nepalese organizations that deal with various sectors such as education, finance, human resource development, profit and non-profit etc.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Media Autonomy in Cross-road in Post-Conflict Democracy of Nepal 2020-05-30T17:21:56+00:00 Sudarshan Prasad Dahal <p>Nepali media intend towards neutral projections of their institutional stance covering politics in a balanced way despite a long practiced political parallelism in the country. The media also project both dark and bright sides of Nepalese politics for strengthening democracy in post-conflict period of Nepal. This study has examined editorial contents covered by two leading Nepali newspapers: The Kathmandu Post daily and Nepali Times weekly, both published in English language.</p> <p>The focus of this research has been to examine the editorials appeared during election campaign of Constitution Assembly, 2008. The study has chosen two dominant framing concepts: thematic vs. episodic framing, in order to explore the phenomenon of media autonomy in the Nepalese context. The findings show a mixed result where the media appear more likely to an instrumentalized phenomenon while projecting government/political parties’ policies and decisions. Their issues and activities were framed thematically putting public issues in general context, and also detracting political issues from negative stereotyping in their institutional viewpoints. At the same time, media portray the issues and activities focusing on particular events and occurrences while framing political parties/governments and their leaders with negative attributes of conflict and personalization frame. It can be argued that some external forces such as increasing dispute among political actors and increasing volume of impunity against journalism could be the consequences of media’s less likely instrumentalized appearance to political forces.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Debating Identity: Reflections on Coverage of Dharaharā and Kāṣṭhmaṇḍap Post Gorkha-Earthquake 2015 2020-05-30T17:21:55+00:00 Abhas Dharananda Rajopadhyaya <p>The 7.8 M<sub>w</sub> <em>Gorkhā</em>-earthquake in April 2015, took 8,857 lives, injured 21,952, destroyed 755,549 buildings, 581 heritages and cost an estimated approximate $513.38 billion. Many heritage sites, including those enlisted in the World Heritage Site, were damaged due to this disaster. The fall of <em>Dharaharā</em>, among all cultural-historical sites, was given (un- ) due attention by many national media, owing to high number of deaths and as a popular landmark of the city. This modern elite tower structure was presented as symbol of national unity and of 'rising back'. But there are other important public heritages too - many centuries older than <em>Dharaharā </em>and they too had stories of deaths, of injuries and of survivals, but received a very small space or almost none in the national media. I take an example of <em>Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap </em>that hosted over 54 people during the earthquake. I have used the method of qualitative content analysis to discuss the construction of identity by national media. &nbsp;</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sadharanikaran Model vs Mathematical Model: Analyzing their Relevance in Context of Social Media 2020-05-30T17:21:55+00:00 Priya Shaw <p>The communication process varies according to cultural, political, economic, social, psychological, socio-economic factors from one country to another. The term ‘communication’, however, has been accepted globally though the pattern of communication differs from one society to another. Communication scientists have tried to define communication in a particular context of a particular society. In this study, therefore, Sadharanikaran model from the Eastern perspective and Shannon and Weaver model from the Western perspective have been chosen to study the difference in the pattern of communication. The elements of the models have been studied along with the context of technological communication with particular reference to social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp and Skype.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introduction to Narrative Phenomenon Model: A Framework for Mapping War Stories that Travel through Generations 2020-05-30T17:21:54+00:00 Chandi Raj Dahal <p>This article relies upon cultural trauma theory for the basic understanding of storytelling in a post-traumatic situation and presents its findings based on researcher’s own observation of a post conflict situation of decade long armed conflict in Nepal. It introduces a communication model to explain the storytelling phenomenon that emerges during and after any violent situation and that exists through newer generations. First, the article discusses some theories related to trauma stories and sociology of generational differences. Second, it proposes Narrative Phenomenon Model as a new tool that can map the journey of trauma stories created by those exposed to war or violent events. Third, it discusses how narratives get created, modified or transformed into multiple truths.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Navigating Gendered Space with Special Reference to Lil Bahadur Chettri’s Mountains Painted with Turmeric 2020-05-30T17:21:53+00:00 Tamishra Swain Shalini Shah <p>It is rightly put by the French philosopher Simone De Beauvoir in her book ‘Second Sex’ that “one is not born but made a woman”. So, women are treated secondary as compared to men for a long time. Similar view has been propounded by Judith Butler in her book ‘Gender Trouble’ that female identity has been created by repetitive performances and further, gender identity is not fixed rather it is created. There are certain agencies through which these ideologies came in to function. One of such agencies is “space” which is not necessarily physical and fixed but can be mental/psychological and fluid. This space can also use as subversive technique to control certain part of the society. This paper tries to analyze a Nepali fiction ‘Mountains Painted with Turmeric’ by Lil Bahadur Chettri to understand the subversive practices of space and how it controls gender identity.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Polarized pluralistic model: Characteristics of Nepalese press 2020-05-30T17:21:52+00:00 Bhuwan K.C. <p>This paper presents a comparative study of Media System in the context of Nepal on the basis of Hallin and Mancini’s study. The paper shows that the characteristic of Nepalese press match with the polarized pluralistic model, which is prevailed in Southern European states. This study also helps to understand the effect of political parallelism in professionalism of Nepalese press.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Secularism - An Impractical Idea 2020-05-30T17:21:52+00:00 Govinda K. Shah <p>The article explores the various meanings and concepts of secularism presented by famous ideologues and sociologists of their time. Two contrary concepts of the secularism - one that defines secularism as denial of existence of religions or supernatural forces and another that defines secularism as concept of peaceful co-existence and mutual harmony has been discussed here. The difference of application of secularism on the individual human being and a state is also explained here. The article concludes that no state of human being can remain isolated or indifferent from the influence of religion even if they want. None of the concepts of secularism apply in real life performances; neither on individual nor state.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Situation of Intimate Partner Violence among University Female Students in Nepal: Findings of a Cross-Sectional Survey 2020-05-30T17:21:51+00:00 Bhagabati Sedain <p>Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence in our society. Intimate partner violence among Nepali female university students, in particular, has not yet been studied. Therefore, across-sectional survey was conducted among female students studying in bachelors and masters level at Padmakanya Campus using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 370 participants were randomly selected and data were collected from the 1 December 2013 to 30 January 2014. One-thirds of the respondents were married. Married participants reported about their violence experience perpetrated by their husbands. The prevalence of emotional violence 40% was higher than physical 33% and sexual violence 20%. Women with landownership, employed, members of community groups and those who were married to husbands with the higher level of education were less likely to experience physical violence. Women who did not own land (OR=2.92), unemployed (OR=1.21) were more likely to experience violence than those who owned land and were employed. Similarly, lower level of husband's education (OR=3.35) and unskilled jobs (OR=1.56) were associated with the higher occurrence of violence compared to their husbands having university level of education and government job or working abroad. Prevalence of IPV is common among educated girls. Efforts to reduce IPV should give priority for educated women in Nepal.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Experiencing Transformative Learning: An Autoethnographic Journey through Ethical Dilemma Story Pedagogy (EDSP) 2020-05-30T17:21:50+00:00 Kashiraj Pandey <p>I believe our cultural heritage has so much potential for creating new forms of knowing about the self, others, community, and environment while also revealing the interconnected spaces and realities that reside between cultures and people. The Nepalese heritage encompasses through a rich tradition of narratives in storying. For the purpose of present research, I composed two ethical dilemma stories and discussed them in classrooms with a critically reflective understanding of the subject matter where I utilised the local, lived contexts and characters from the Nepalese society. The results have shown that this study, with the use of ethical dilemma stories as a key tool to interact with the research participants, gave sufficient challenges and possibilities for transformative learning. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the unification of my personal, professional, and cultural spheres that are focused on the importance of transformative learning using an autoethnographic methodology. The paper also tries to document my lived experiences through stories as the understanding of my own self, other selves, and cultures around me.</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## पं. कुलचन्द्र गौतम र प्रपञ्चचर्चा Pandit Kulchandra Gautam ra Prapanchacharcha 2020-05-30T17:21:49+00:00 रामचन्द्र Ramchandra पौडेल Poudel <p>यस लेखमा पं.कुलचन्द्र गौतमको जीवनयात्रालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसै<br>सन्दर्भमा उनको जन्मसमय, स्थान, परिवेश, नामकरण लगायत्का विषयमा प्रकाश<br>पारिएको छ । यस क्रममा विषयपरिचय, पं.कुलचन्द्र गौतमको जीवनयात्रा, जन्म,<br>जन्मस्थल र नामकरण, जीवन–परिवेश, रचना र पुनः प्रकाशन, प्रपञ्चचर्चाको<br>अध्ययन, कथानक, परिवेश विधान, भावविधान, केन्द्रीय कथ्य, कथनपद्धति,<br>छन्दविधान, अलङ्कारविधान, भाषा, शैली, शीर्षकविधान, निष्कर्ष, सारांश आदि<br>विषयलाई २१ वटा शीर्षकमा विभाजन गरी अनुशीलन गरिएको छ ।<br>कुञ्जी शब्दहरू ः विद्वच्छिरोमणि, मनोवृत्ति, प्रपञ्चर्चा, कलुष, प्रायश्चित्त, पापः,<br>गोत्रहत्या, प्रभूतपापा, शठ, रोदनध्वने, निपिता, दुर्भगा, दशगात्र ।</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## लेखनाथ पौड्यालको आध्यात्मिक पर्यावरणवाद Lekhnath Poudyalko Aadhyatmik Paryabaranvad 2020-05-30T17:21:48+00:00 गोविन्दशरण Govindasharan उपाध्याय Upadhyaya <p>प्रस्तुत लेख नेपाली साहित्यमा कविशिरोमणि पदवीले सम्मानित कवि लेखनाथ<br>पौड्यालका कृतिको दार्शनिक समीक्षामा आधारित छ । लेखमा कविशिरोमणि<br>पौड्यालका रचनालाई आध्यात्मिक पर्यावरणवादी दृष्टिकोणबाट हेरिएको छ । वेद<br>उपनिषद तथा शास्त्रहरुप्रति आस्था राख्ने कवि पौड्यालले उपर्युक्त आस्थाका<br>आधारमा पर्यावरणवादी विश्वदृष्टिकोणलाई आफ्ना रचनामा कसरी अवलम्बन<br>गरेका छन् भन्ने तथ्यलाई यो लेखले उजागर गर्छ ।</p> 2019-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##