Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology 2018-12-31T17:18:50+00:00 Mr Man Bahadur Khattri Open Journal Systems <p>Official journal of the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Dhawalagiri Multiple Campus, Baglung, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Dhaulagiri Journal is now accepting online submissions. Please <a title="Register" href="/index.php/DSAJ/user/register" target="_self">register</a> with the journal to submit your articles. If you experience any problems registering please contact the editor <a href=""></a></p> <p class="Pa2"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>. DJSA does not charge article processing fees.</p> <p class="Pa2">Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology is included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> Editorial Notes Vol.12 2018-12-31T14:56:39+00:00 Man Bahadur Khattri <p>This is a happy moment for us to present Volume 12 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology to our respected readers. As this volume is the 12th, we have changed the size and layout of our Journal to make it standard size and reduce the paper waste during the printing process. We hope, you like it. Many people have contributed in different aspects of publishing this volume. We would also like to inform to our reader that this Journal is indexed in DOAJ and Ebscohost. The journal is also ranked by the Journal Publishing Practices Standard and awarded 'One Star'. We most work hard and sincerely to achieve higher ranking in coming volumes.</p> <p>We would like to offer our deep respect to Prof. Gregory Marskarnec who has contributed NPR. 10,000 (Ten Thouand Rupees) for printing of this volume. We are delighted with the work of wonderful reviewers, who supported and encouraged both authors and editorial team to improve and make appropriate judgement to the submitted papers. Without their rigorous work we would not have been able to bring this journal in this form. We would like to express our heartfelt thanks and sincere gratitude to all valuable reviewers: Rajendra Raj Timilsina, Janak Rai, Jiban Mani Paudel, Madhav Pokhrel, Ganga Ram Gautam, Dan Raj Regmi, Sushant Acharya, Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi, Prem Bahadur Bhandari, Jhakendra Bahadur Gharti, Jailab Rai, Madhu Giri, Anita Sherestha, Madhusudan Subedi, Man Bahadur Khattri, Rishikesh Pandey, Binod Pokhrel, Jaganath Adhikari, Madan Kumar Rimal, Dilli Raj Sharma, and Gyanu Chhetri. We must not forget to thank Sioux Cumming at INASP who has been very co-operative throughout the online publishing proceses. Similarly, we would like to express our sincere thanks to Netralal Neupane and Tika Ram Sapkota for their time and hard effort for proof reading. &nbsp;</p> 2018-12-31T14:53:18+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Regional Variation in Food Security in Nepal 2018-12-31T14:56:37+00:00 Prem Bhandari <p>Food security is a global challenge. This paper examines the regional variation in household food security in Nepal. Specifically, I examine the variation in household level food security with particular reference to newly formed provinces constructed as per the new constitution (2015) of the country, three ecological regions and rural-urban locations of households. I use the nationally representative data from 2011 Nepal Demographic Health Survey to investigate the issue. Using both descriptive as well as multivariate analysis, evidences show that there is regional variation in overall food security in Nepal. Findings show that food security is a problem of rural households. Moreover, food security status of households also significantly varied by province. Households living in Karnali and Far-west provinces (province 6 and 7) located in the western part of Nepal are more food insecure as compared to those living in other provinces. Food security status of households also varied by domains of food security. While anxiety about food supply was an issue for households in the mountains and the hills, food security in terms of quality was equally important in all three ecological regions. However, interestingly, quantity of intake was not a major issue in all the three ecological regions. All three domains were important for households that live in rural areas as well as those living in provinces other than those in Karnali and Far-west provinces. These findings provide a macro level snap shot of food security situation of Nepal and are deemed important for the newly formed federal and provincial governments for food policy framing. Further investigation at the micro-level is necessary for more concrete policies. </p> 2018-12-31T12:12:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Factors Contributing to Delay in Diagnosis and Start of Treatment of Leprosy: Analysis of Help-seeking Narratives from a Community Study in Dang District 2018-12-31T14:56:40+00:00 Madhusudan Subedi Ulla-Britt Engelbrektsson <p>Prolonged delays between first symptoms and diagnosis easily result in more impairment in newly detected leprosy patients, and aggregate negative consequences for individuals and their families. In cases of infectious leprosy, longer delays increase the risk for the spread of the disease. Limited studies have been carried out to explore the causes for delays in Nepal. This is a community level qualitative study conducted in Dang district. The information was obtained through in-depth interviews with 8 leprosy affected persons, 8 contacts, 8 community members and 5 service providers in Dang district. Skin patches were regarded as a simple skin disease, in particular of paucibacillary patients who had a limited number of skin lesions and no nerve damage. A local medical shop was the first choice for medicine to treat skin conditions. Delays in diagnosis of leprosy occurred at many stages from the development of the symptoms to consultation of health care services. The use of traditional medicine, a belief in self-cure and visit to traditional healers, and misdiagnosis (a disease other than leprosy by the health worker) and inadequate knowledge about the disease and its early symptoms were the main factors that influenced the delayed diagnosis. Delays accumulated as the result of series of help-seeking actions that reflected local socio-cultural beliefs and practices. Misdiagnoses could be reduced if adequate information on leprosy is given to community people and health service providers. Specific interventions are needed to promote knowledge and a good attitude among contacts and community members. To reduce patient delay, public health promotion is needed to increase the awareness of leprosy, and the health service delay should be reduced by improving diagnostic skills in public and private sectors. Addressing both components of delays will decrease the time to diagnosis and ultimately the extent of transmission of the disease and reduce the risk of nerve function impairments.</p> 2018-12-31T12:24:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review of Simarongarh’s History on Its Nexus Areas with References of Archaeological Evidences 2018-12-31T14:56:42+00:00 Prakash Darnal <p>After the Lichachhavi period, Nepal was bounded within the Kathmandu valley only. Sinja emerged as a powerful state in the west of Nepal. Likewise, Karnata dynasty became strong and powerful to the south of Nepal in the beginning of 10th and 11th century A. D. They were so strong and powerful that they attacked Kathmandu valley several times and plundered for the sake of wealth. So Simraongarh was once an important medieval kingdom of Nepal. It was established by Karnata dynasty Nanyadev in 1097 A. D. After capturing Mithila, Nanyadev began to rule it from Simraongarh. He has been credited in the records for the unification of Tirhut. Under the Karnatas Tirhut had developed on economic, social and cultural which was also known as golden age. They ruled over Mithila for about 227 years and after that Gayasuddin Tuglak conquered. Muslims ruled about three hundred years, and then it came under Sens of Makawanpur. Lohang Sen had extended his territories up to Vijayapur. When Prithivi Narayan Shah conquered Makawanpur in 1762 A. D. all part of eastern Terai including Tirhut or Mithila became integral part of Nepal. After the Anglo Nepal war in 1814 - 16 A.D., Nepal lost some parts of eastern Terai, it came again under its jurisdiction in Sugauli Treaty of 1816 A.D. But now people seem to forget Simarongarh which was once so rich and highly developed. Therefore, the objective of this article is not only to remind of its glorious past history but also to prove how important this area through archaeological findings.</p> 2018-12-31T12:36:58+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fieldwork among Women in Nepal: A Female Researcher Revisits Her Experience 2018-12-31T14:56:43+00:00 Mira Mishra <p>In this paper, I argue, based on in-depth interviews with 75 rural women from 25 households in Nepal nearly eight years ago, that a reflection on fieldwork helps a researcher to critically review and critically appreciate one’s own work and to identify challenges that can be helpful not only to the researcher but also other researchers. I describe three distinct stages of my fieldwork. The first one relates to the image I held regarding rural women’s life and society as well as the information generation techniques I thought I ought to utilize before I actually went to the field. The second stage relates to the learning I gained during the fieldwork regarding rural women’s life and society and the manner in which I actually went about generating information. The third stage relates to how I now reflect back on the lives women lead in rural areas as well as the techniques I utilized to generate information. In the concluding section, I attempt to identify the gains I made while I traversed through the three different stages of research.</p> 2018-12-31T12:47:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Local Governance Restructuring in Nepal: From Government to Governmentality 2018-12-31T14:56:45+00:00 Keshav K. Acharya <p>Local governments are the closest unit of the grassroots communities as they are not only undertaking to institutionalize the governance system and create enabling environment to promote the democratic values and public participation mainly from marginal section in decision making process, but also accelerate the economic development so that they enhance the peoples' capacity and enable them to influence the local governments representatives for responsive governance. However, Nepali society remains frustration and dissatisfaction at the citizen level, and dishonrization and dishonesty in the political and bureaucratic domain as these attributes have created the extreme risk to capacity development of the local governments. Against this perspective, the study aims to address a major research question: to what extent local governments are able to implement the constitutional granted exclusive and concurrent rights to transform the local communities, which is a consequence of governance shift from government to governmentality. Findings indicate that more capacity is required to institutionalize the restructuring process of local governance, increase citizen engagement in local governance system, build new partnerships in changing context, enhance technical, administrative, and fiscal capacity for effective service delivery, and formulate the essential laws, acts, and regulations. Nonetheless, some major arguments such effectiveness of local autonomy, political differences mainly identity based issues, productive role of outsiders, and democratization of bureaucratic assertiveness have been remained to be answered.</p> 2018-12-31T12:59:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Digital Divide: An Inquiry from Feminist Perspectives 2018-12-31T14:56:46+00:00 Lina Gurung <p>Exponential use of ICT has brought colossal opportunities as well as challenges to the present society. In spite of increasing women’s involvement in Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) , gender inequality has yet remained critical across the nations and globe. The uneven access and skills to technology has intensified the degree of digital divide specially for the women. Further the multifaced attribute of ICT and its relation with women is changing discourses among the feminist scholars. This is a conceptual paper which focuses on the deliberations of different feminists based on optimistic and pessimistic perspectives. Some studies show that the gender digital divide is getting intense while some have reported of alleviating gaps with more involvement of women. The concept of digital divide is beyond the access and includes various dimensions such as perception, usage, motivation, participation and skills. The paper deals with the tension between utopian and dystopian views on technology benefits. Through literature review this conceptual paper examines and discusses the diverse standpoints of feminist scholars from west and east which buzzes to redefine the relationship of gender with technology. It recommends that empowerment of women in technological domain is equally important as social, economic and political. Further women should be motivated from within to embrace ICT and get benefitted from its prospects. Resisting modern technology in the digital era would further widen the digital gap and thus make difficult to observe gender equality. More studies are required to explore the strategies for technological empowerment of women.</p> 2018-12-31T13:34:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## When the Needs of Multicultural Classroom are Ignored: An Ethnographic Study in Nepal 2018-12-31T14:56:47+00:00 Meenakshi Dahal <p>The teaching-learning process begins with the interaction between the teachers and the children. Without two-way interaction between student and teachers the process is incomplete. Using ethnographic research methods, this paper aims to analyze the role of teachers in a multicultural classroom. Attempt is made to do so by exploring and understanding the school culture and its impact on children’s learning as well as the perception of the teachers in its processes. It is found that the teachers’ cultural understandings and the children’s cultural background is not adequately addressed in the teaching-learning process.</p> 2018-12-31T13:43:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teacher: An Important but Less Recognized Actor of School Curriculum Development in Nepal 2018-12-31T14:56:49+00:00 Kalpana Rimal <p>Curriculum development is considered as a key factor in the process of educational transformation. In this process, teachers can play multiple roles such as translator of learning objectives into outcome, mediator between curriculum and students and so on. On the other hand, curriculum experts contribute to making a need assessment and contents development on the basis of educational theories and principles. But, contemporary literatures point gaps in exchange of knowledge and expertise between these two important actors of school curriculum development. On this backdrop, this study aims to explore what rolesteachers can perform and how their rolesare acknowledged in the curriculum development. Following social constructivist worldview, this study adopted qualitative approach with the scientific tool of in-depth interviewsand purposive sampling design. This study reveals teacher’s contribution inidentification of practical educational needsin the context of changing overall societal needs.Moreover, the teacherscan bridge existing gaps between national educational goals, social needs and the interest of people. But the current school curriculum development process takes place at the top where curriculum experts play decisive role. These experts seek school teacher’s contribution only at the review phase of curriculum development process which is not enough to incorporate teacher’s expertise. In this respect, teachers will be able to view curriculum not in terms of content to be covered, but as a transformative process. Rather, this looks like just maintaining a formality. The attitudinal and procedural process constrain in recognition and involvement of teacher in curriculum development process. Thus, school curriculum has missed opportunity to reflect local need and increase ownership of the teachers. This paper argues for the recognition of teacher’s role as a critical practitioner and change agent, and urges to provide sufficient space to incorporate their real-life experiences in school curriculum.</p> 2018-12-31T13:51:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Case Study Research, Philosophical Position and Theory Building: A Methodological Discussion 2018-12-31T14:56:50+00:00 Thakur Prasad Bhatta <p>Case study research though increasingly popular in social sciences for positivist and intrepretivist research, a kind of confusion is prevalent when it is used ignoring its philosophical position. Arguably, the case study research is considered more appropriate for qualitative research because of its foremost strength ˗ the in-depth study of complex issues. This paper, drawing from the literature, discusses the philosophical position of case study research and argues that qualitative case study research is appropriate for theory building. For theory building, this paper follows the inductive approach guided by qualitative research paradigm and argues that it is not appropriate to assess theory building from the perspective of quantitative research. Very similar to other research methods, it is natural that the case study research has certain challenges; however, most of the challenges and misunderstandings overlap causing difficulty to understand the role of case study research. Hence, this paper aims to contribute to the understandings of the challenges and misunderstandings associated with the theory building from case study research. This paper argues that most of the challenges associated with theory building from case study can be addressed employing appropriate research strategies particularly clear understanding of philosophical stance and selection of appropriate case. The misunderstandings, on the other hand, are arisen due to the differences in the researcher’s perspectives particularly positivistic thinking of them rather than the shortcomings inherent in the qualitative case study research design.</p> 2018-12-31T14:00:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Addressing Linguistic Diversity with Three Language Formula: A Case Study of Newa Schools in Newa Settlements 2018-12-31T14:56:51+00:00 Toya Nath Bhattarai <p>Nepal, as a multilingual nation, has constitutionally adopted mother tongue based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) policy in 1990. However, implementation of this policy into practice has been taking considerably a long time. This study, primarily focused on Newa Schools in Newa Settlement Campaign (NSNSC), looks into the efforts made by Nepalbhasa communities to implement the MTB-M LE policy by adopting a practical strategy of three language formula to facilitate students’ learning through mother tongue, official language Nepali and international language English, thus, addressing the demands of socially and culturally diverse parents as well. This study has been carried out with ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, electronic recording, taking notes while recording and also using local language as suggested by Duranti (2000, pp.99-118 ). The data have shown that as a new experiment the three language formula has been a success story and a raiser of hope for future endeavors to implement MTB-MLE policy in the context of Nepal’s linguistic diversity. What is still required is to chart a ‘plan of action’ supported by ‘political will’ of the government (central as well as local) and an active support of respective linguistic communities.</p> 2018-12-31T14:07:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kinship as a Social Capital in Rural Development: An Anthropological Perspective 2018-12-31T14:56:52+00:00 Rudra Aryal <p>This paper is the study of institutional and organizational aspects of the management system of a community based micro hydropower. It mainly focuses on the role of kinship as well as social capital for the sustainability of micro hydropower management. However, social capital has been analyzed as one of the fundamental sources of kinship organization. This study also emphasizes on the social transformation that is only possible with an effective social mobilization and reliable institutional sources. An organized form of management system for micro hydro is functioning continuously due to the consistent engagement of community, proper mobilization of groups/institutions and institutional guidance, where social and cultural substances are primarily embedded. Ethnographic fieldwork was the principal data collection method. Both direct and indirect participant observations were used to garner the substantial amount of data. In-depth nature of semistructured interviews on various social, structural and cultural aspects was used to conduct the key interviews. To make the representative units inclusive, twenty people were purposively selected for key informant interviews including male, female and from the various occupation status. The related structural issues as well as regarding the entire management system of micro hydropower were probed through the informal interviews and group discussions to enhance the ethnographic data.</p> 2018-12-31T14:16:25+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethnographic Fieldnote Writing: Methodological Challenges in the 21st Century 2018-12-31T14:56:53+00:00 Debendra Prasad Adhikari <p>This paper focuses on the methodological challenges in the 21st century of ethnographic field note writing using pen and pencil amidst the increasing use of modern gadgets. Many ethnographers have been using modern electronic devices to collect field texts. Thus, the ethnographers are in a dilemma whether to use the traditional field note writing method or the modern method using gadgets. To address the research problem I conducted in-depth interview with 23 participants focusing on Communist Party of Nepal Maoist female ex-combatants and observed their activities for a prolonged period in the natural setting. Fieldnote is considered the most important field text collection method in ethnographic research. Ethnographic research requires more descriptive and interpretive field text analysis with cultural aspects. This article considers the creation of ethnographic fieldnote in the act of seeing and writing through emerging insight and understanding. The challenges related to the method of writing ethnographic fieldnote have received less attention in methodological discussions. This indicates that while writing ethnographic fieldnote in the field may have some benefits looking at the field practicalities but is equally challenging. There are certain methodological aspects involved in every fieldnote writing mission. My personal experiences of writing ethnographic fieldnote about the experiences of the excombatants fail to exclude the researcher in terms of methodological aspects rather it is more multifaceted and inspiring.</p> 2018-12-31T14:24:52+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Critical Reflective Practice as an Approach to Developing Transformative Living-theory 2018-12-31T14:56:55+00:00 Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi <p>This reflective paper aims to provide an opportunity to the readership in the field of transformative education in order to engage them with reflective practices as professional development approach. In academia, writing reflective papers, using multi-paradigmatic research design, for readers believing in post/positivist views is a challenging task. However, innovative editors of journals encourage to create new knowledge through un/conventional approaches. I used Jack Whitehead’s paper (i.e., the review of my doctoral study- Creating living-educational-theory: A journey towards transformative teacher education in Pakistan) and my own reflections as lived experiences to carry out this study. Moreover, I employed reflexivity as an approach to meaning making to serve the purpose of data analysis in this paper. The key findings of this study show that Jack Whitehead skillfully captures key learning outcomes of the doctoral study and synthesized some deep insights very precisely. He created a space for future researchers especially action researches and self-study practitioners to think about how to engage with multi-epistemic approaches in order to experience transformative learning. It is recommended to encourage reflective writings on un/conventional studies to develop a clear understanding of the existing state of teacher education and nature of the journey of transformative teacher education in the academia.</p> 2018-12-31T14:36:08+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##