Economic Journal of Development Issues A publication of the Department of Economics, Patan Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. Department of Economics Patan Multiple Campus en-US Economic Journal of Development Issues 2091-055X Informal Street Food Trade: A Source of Income Generation in Urban Nepal <p class="Default">Street food trade is a growing sector in many developing countries, Nepal among them. As a means to provide low-cost food to a growing urban population of poor, unemployed people and low-wageworkers, street food trade –a predominantly self and family-based activity – has become an opportunity to generate income for many among those same urban poor living in Kathmandu Metropolitan City. On the basis of cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 50 street food vendors in two main areas of the city – namely New Bus Park and Ratna Park – this chapter analyzes the determinants affecting street food vendors’ income: whether it is correlated to vendors’ investment rates, education level, and labor supply, thus attempting to find employment and income patterns. Data are analyzed using OLS regression, and STATA- 12 statistical software.</p><p> <strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23 &amp; 24 No. 1-2 (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 1-17</p> Dipak Bahadur Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 1 17 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19062 Effect of Payments for Disease Specific Care on Poverty Estimates in Nepal <p>The popular poverty estimation method follows the cost of basic needs approach through estimation of poverty line. Health care is a basic necessity of life, as important as food, shelter, and clothing; however, current practice of estimating poverty indicators in Nepal does not capture the basic health care cost. Not accounted of out of pocket payment for health care into the poverty estimation could give a misleading picture of trends in poverty over time. Ignoring health care costs altogether can result in misclassifying which households or individuals are in the greatest need. Therefore, the paper estimated the revised poverty statistics with explicitly accounting for basic health care needs along with other basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter by utilizing the Nepal living standard surveys(2010/11) data. The paper used the Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty estimation method to estimate hidden or underestimated poverty before and after accounting health care payment. The results show that official poverty statistics are significantly underestimated while incorporating basic health care cost in the estimation of poverty statistics in Nepal. Out of pocket payments for health care of different diseases have different impoverishment impacts in terms of incidence and intensity of poverty. Higher average costs of health care cause higher impoverishment impacts. This paper indicates that incidence of poverty is underestimated by almost 4 percentage point and intensity of poverty is underestimated by 0.29 percent based on official estimation of poverty.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23 &amp; 24 No. 1-2 (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 18-34</p> Shiva Raj Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 18 34 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19063 Sinking in Premature Deindustrialisation or Revitalising Industrialisation? Nepal’s Prospective <p class="Default"><em> </em>Economies of the world in general evolve by transferring them from agriculture to manufacturing and then from manufacturing to services. Today’s most developed economies have experienced their deindustrialisation at higher level of per capita income. But developing countries have begun to fall in premature deindustrialisation at low level of per capita income which is not taken as a good sign for their overall economic development. This paper analyses the potentiality of premature deindustrialisation in the context of Nepal covering the data of the period 1975-2016. The issue of premature deindustrialisation is analysed in terms of the share of manufacturing output in the gross domestic product of the country and employment. There is evidence of premature deindustrialisation in Nepal. The paper argues that reindustrialisation is essential and possible in Nepal. </p><p> <strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 35-70</p> Madhav Prasad Dahal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 35 70 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19064 Foreign Aid in Nepal <p class="Default">Foreign aid is essential for least developed countries like Nepal because these countries have the shortage of fund to meet their domestic investment for accelerating economic development and also to finance the import of essential capital goods required for the development. Nepal receives foreign aid from bilateral and multilateral sources. Following a descriptive approaches this paper analyses the trend of foreign did flow in Nepal from aggregative perspective.</p><p><em> </em><strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 71-76</p> Kiran Bahadur Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 71 76 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19065 Economic Interpretation of Philosophy of Bhagavad Gita: A Descriptive Analysis <p class="Default">Bhagavad Gita has proposed number of economic principles and values. In his recent book, The Idea of Justice, Amartya Sen discusses main massage of the Bhagavat Gita that is ‘duty is important’. In addition to this, the central thesis of the Gita from the philosophical view is found through the concept of yoga. The path of action without motive (or the path of Niskam Karma Yoga) is the most important of those various principles. The path of knowledge (Gyan Yoga) and the path of commitment to work (Bhakti Yoga) are other important principles. Bhagavad Gita analyses in detail the behavioral nature of different individuals and the result of the behavior of the individual. It emphasizes on the good moral character and considers labour as the duty of each and every individual. Similarly it describes about the qualities of life and the happiness of people. Self-reliance of the individual is also emphasized in the Bhagavad Gita. Full commitment to fulfill ones assigned task makes the task successfully accomplished even if people do not care about the fruit (returns from it) before doing the task. Doubts and continuous eye in the fruit work may divert the attention of the actor from the work to the fruit only. Full concentration in the work is necessary to make the work fully successful. The concepts of sustainable development and human development also have their roots in the Bhagavad Gita.</p><p> <strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 77-101</p> Yuba Raj Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 77 101 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19066 An Assessment of Cost of Access to Health Services of Severely Disabled People in Chitwan <p class="Default">There are many barriers that keep people with disabilities from fully engaging in health care services. This study assessed the direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect cost as well as potential barriers and obstacles that people with spinal cord injury and intellectual disabilities faced in accessing health care services. This study conducted in Chitwan district of Nepal used both quantitative and qualitative information. For quantitative study, structured interview were conducted to assess the cost involved in health care services with 60 persons divided into Physical (spinal cord injury) and intellectual disability. In-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted for qualitative study to find out their experiences regarding barriers, coping strategies and their needs and expectation when accessing health care services.</p><p>Physical (spinal cord injury) disability accounted 46.67% while 53.33% were intellectual disabled. 48.3% were in poor health and 51.67% in fair health condition. The total mean values of direct medical cost for both types of disability were Rs. 6682.53 in the past six month. The qualitative reports suggest that people with severe disability faces numbers of barriers in accessing health services. This is seen as the key reason for their poor health outcome. High cost incurred in medical services and physical health maintenance, worse socio-economic status, and layers of barriers in accessing health care services were the reason of poorer health outcome and exclusion from the society.</p><p><em></em><strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 102-112</p> Chudamani Poudel Ramesh Baral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 102 112 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19067 Cost and Consequences of Integrated Public Health Campaign in Baglung District, Nepal <p class="Default"> Budget allocated, especially for new pilot program should yield better health effects than the regular ones. The government of Nepal launched Integrated Public Health Campaign (IPHC), a new type of intervention to make rural and vulnerable communities more aware about basic level health care services and increase their utilization. This paper examines the cost of the campaign and its outcomes in terms of providing awareness, utilization of maternal health services and improving health indicators. The study followed a comparative quasi experimental design, study unit being the household and the campaign. Case and Control village development committees (VDCs) were selected from the same territory and matched based on the criteria of IPHC and other socio-demographic &amp; health services characteristics. Cost calculation was based on direct method whereas the effectiveness was measured by analyzing the output of campaign between case and control VDC. The total cost of the campaign was NRs. 18, 00,000 with per household cost NRs. 585.93 and per capita cost NRs. 123.11. The awareness level of Free Health Services (FHS), Primary Health Care-Out Reach Centre and Safe Delivery Incentive Program (SDIP) was found to be 3.3, 2.65 and 1.95 times more in people of Case VDC than those of Control VDC. Moreover, there was no significant association between implementation of campaign with different practices of maternal health viz. Antenatal Care visit, delivery, SDIP and post natal care visit. The campaign was found effective in improving the status of OPD visit, measles, TT2+, growth monitoring of children and vitamin A supplementation to postpartum mothers. The campaign was effective in limited aspects. In case of its continuation, revision is necessary with the introduction of newer and better approaches.</p><p class="Default"><em><span> </span></em><strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 113-122</p> Sudarshan Subedi Bishnu Prasad Sharma Chiranjibi Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 113 122 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19068 Issues in the National Supply Policy of Nepal <p class="Default"> Rationality of public policy analysis emerges due to the need of understanding the nature of policies and their elements towards solving societal problems. National supply policy is formulated and implemented for the regular supply of necessary goods and services in the country. Effective implementation of the policy depends on its structure as well as on the external factors from the prevailing situation in the country. In the present article an attempt has been made to highlight the basic features of the current national supply policy of Nepal and discuss the issues related with its effective implementation. Despite several elements proposed in the policy only few have the result oriented features. Many of the elements are ambitious as well as vague. Imperfection in policy implementation witnessed during the suddenly arrived difficulties as well as at the normal time. From the discussion it has been concluded that the policy has weaknesses in its structure, basically in maintenance of hierarchy of objectives and has been facing several unsolved practical issues.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Economic Journal of Development Issues </strong>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 123-136</p><p> </p> Laxmi Panta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 123 136 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19069 Book Review: Research Methods in Health Economics, 1st ed. <p>Not available.</p><p class="Default"><strong><span> Economic Journal of Development Issues </span></strong><span>Vol. 23&amp;24 No. 1-2, (2017) Combined Issue, Page : 137-139</span></p> Shiva Raj Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-23 2018-01-23 137 139 10.3126/ejdi.v23i1-2.19070