The Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality <p>The Gaze is published by the International School of Tourism and Hotel Management (Affiliated to Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria).</p> International School of Tourism and Hotel Management en-US The Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality 2467-933X <p>Copyright is retained by the authors.</p> Impact of COVID-19 on Tourism in Nepal <p>Tourism is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industries. It acts as an engine for development through foreign exchange earnings and the creation of direct and indirect employment. Tourism plays a vital role to uplift the living status of people in specific areas worldwide. Tourism has potential for creating jobs and encourages income-generating activities and it also leads to infrastructure development. In Nepal, tourism has uplifted the socio-economical condition of the locals and given them ample opportunity to better their lives. It has created path towards the elimination of poverty and has significantly contributed to overall development of the nation. It is also one of the major sources of foreign exchange earning of the country. However, due to the impact of COVID-19, tourism has suffered unprecedented setback and its effect can be seen on global economy. It has rendered millions of people unemployed and huge investments have frozen and unable to generate business and move the economy. This study will analyze and study the challenges faced by tourism industry post COVID-19 in Nepal and try to provide answers for the recovery of tourism in Nepal. This study follows the qualitative methodology and the data is obtained through primary and secondary sources. As we move into the new era of travelling, tourism industry needs to adopt and focus on safety, personal hygiene and social distancing. Nepal is capable to adapt to the “new normal” and bounce back as it did post 2015 earthquake. But Nepal’s poor infrastructure, lack of implementation of rules and people’s laidback attitude could prove to be a hurdle and deter tourists and usher them to a more organized destination.</p> Archana Shivakoti Copyright (c) 2021 Archana Shivakoti 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 1 22 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35674 The Impact of COVID-19 on Tourism: A Case Study of Lumbini, Nepal <p>This research aims to discover and present the impacts of COVID-19 in tourism in the context of Lumbini and its premises. As COVID-19 spread globally, it has created many challenges in health and security, daily lives, the national economy, and the global tourism industry. The COVID-19 outbreak has been considered as the most challenging tragedy that occurred in the world after the 2nd world war. The World Health Organization (WHO) had listed Nepal also as a country with a high-risk zone of COVID-19.The travel restriction and nationwide lock-down implemented by many countries including Nepal have resulted in a stranded traveler’s movement. As the consequences ticket reservation, flight services, transportation, hotel, and restaurants were closed and several job losses were registered in the tourism sector. The negative effects like fear, threat, frustration, and losing the confidence of tourism entrepreneurs appeared. This has brought changes in the tourists’ behavior and their motivation to travel for the next few years. In Lumbini businesses like lodges, hotels, restaurants, and travel offices were also severely affected by the pandemic. Thus, the tourism sector has been facing serious threats due to the prolonged lockdown and closing of tourism activities than the terror of COVID-19 itself.</p> Bhim Bahadur Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Bhim Bahadur Kunwar 2021-03-19 2021-03-19 12 1 23 43 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35675 Tourism Governance in the aftermath of COVID-19: A Case Study of Nepal <p>The global pandemic of COVID 19 has had a severe effect in various developing economies, including Nepal itself, as it has seriously engulfed the strongest economies of the world. The tourism industry globally has been paralyzed, and it will take long ahead to get the industry back on track. There are challenges to revive this industry and ensure its tremendous contribution to revitalizing the ailed tourism sector. To drive this situation more efficiently and tactfully, the need for good governance through its leading agencies seem to be much demanding and prevailing. Visit Nepal 2020 has been postponed by the Nepal government due to the potential risk of an outbreak of COVID -19 and almost all the government efforts have now been centralized to combat the threat of COVID-19. Both domestic and international tourism is in its complete halt, creating a massive shortfall on revenue generation in the national economy. To combat the spread of COVID-19 into the community level and thus checking the further loss of lives and property, series of lockdown at the national level were imposed restraining the public mobility, factories, and industries are closed for indefinitely leaving the tourism activities completely at coma. As the tourism industry globally has come to a halt now, stopping all the tourism-based activities resulting cut off of a heavy chunk of revenue, it’s a high time to think over the noble strategies on what might be the forms and modality of governance in tourism sector globally.</p> Prakash Chandra Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 Prakash Chandra Neupane 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 44 69 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35676 Constraints to Community Participation in Tourism In Kenya: The Mwaluganje Elephant Sanctuary <p>Community Based Tourism (CBT) is among several types of tourism that have been considered sustainable and beneficial to the host populations in conservation areas. The local community participation in tourism in conservation areas is supposed to be high and its members should benefit from the tourism process. However, having been presented with opportunity to improve their livelihoods, communities are constrained in various ways and generally fail to benefit from tourism development. This study was set to investigate constraints to community participation in conservation areas. It was carried out in Mwaluganje Elephant Sanctuary (MES) in Kwale County, Kenya, using a descriptive survey design. Data was collected using researcher administered questionnaires and oral interviews. The results indicated that lack of coordination among stakeholders; inadequate financial resources, lack of conducive environment for tourism growth, and lack of skills/knowledge were major constraints to participation. The study concludes that to address both operational and structural constraints to community participation, the national and county governments should develop policies that compel investors to honour agreements with communities, assist communities to enter into fair collaborations with investors, and provide incentives to investors in tourism.</p> Paul M. Musila Bonface O. Kihima Copyright (c) 2021 Paul M. Musila, Bonface O. Kihima 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 70 87 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35677 Conveying Impetus for Fostering Tourism and Hospitality Entrepreneurship in Touristic Destination: Lessons Learnt from Pokhara, Nepal <p>This research explores the inter connectedness in entrepreneurs’ and tourists’ perception about western influence in business culture of touristic city – Pokhara, Nepal and provides suggestions for fostering sustainable tourism development of the destination. Primary data results are drawn in which researchers have collected 249 data from tourists’ viewpoint, 395 from determining provincial government roles and 395 from hospitality entrepreneurship along with key informants interview with experts’ viewpoints for generating practical solutions of the existing problems in order to enhance hospitality and tourism business for progress and sustainability. Based on this triangular data results and secondary resources’ analysis, this research concludes that, for the sustainable tourism business in Pokhara, the entrepreneurs in the area should recognize, preserve, promote and sustain local socio-cultural practices; tourists’ viewpoints should be addressed and Gandaki provincial government roles must be constructive.</p> Niranjan Devkota Udaya Raj Paudel Udbodh Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Niranjan Devkota, Udaya Raj Paudel, Udbodh Bhandari 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 88 111 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35679 COVID-19 Global Pandemic Lockdown Impact on Visit Nepal Year 2020: A Review <p>Tourism sector, a major backbone in revenue generation in Nepal having an immense potentiality is hardly hit by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic that has suspended Visit Nepal Year 2020, with a theme, an experience of a life-time. This remarkable campaign is also a national development strategy in the tourism history of Nepal which aimed at attracting around 2 million foreigners from all over the world. This article is designed to explore about COVID-19 Pandemic lockdown impacts on tourism industries and Visit Nepal year 2020 Campaign. For these, secondary literature available in Google Scholar, Research Gate and, recently published newspapers were accessed. The result shows that the unprecedented and uncertain lockdown stuck millions of people in their home, lower the economic activities of different sectors of the tourism industry including hotels, homestays, travel and tours, impact on remittance, a collapse of small industries and suspension of mega projects and many more. In addition to this, this paper aims at showcasing a strong correlation between lockdown and tourism industry with perspective from Nepal Tourism Board, Academic practitioner, Tourism Entrepreneurs, Nepal government, ministries, Economist and Analyst to revise the protocols and safety standard of the tourism industry to massively flourish and revive amidst the pandemic and even in the post-pandemic environment.</p> Deepak Gautam Aarati Khatri Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Gautam, Aarati Khatri 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 112 125 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35680 A Preliminary Study of Pilgrimage Tourism in Barahachhetra, Nepal <p>Pilgrimage is an age-old phenomenon for people of all religions. Pilgrimage is often been defined as a journey resulting from religious causes, externally to a holy site, and internally for spiritual purposes and internal understanding. For the Hindus, Pilgrimage is associated with Moksha (liberation), one of the four Purusharthas (virtues), the other three being Artha (material value) Dharma (righteousness), and Kama (pleasure). The concept of pilgrimage tourism in the Hindu tradition is a recent one. In Nepal, where tourism has largely remained a seasonal business, pilgrimage tourism can be a perennial source of income especially because Nepal is home to some of the world’s most important sacred Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimage destinations. It is also noteworthy that according to 2011 official census in Nepal, more than 80 percent of the residents follow Hinduism (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2012, p.4) and Nepal shares a free border with India, the country with the largest number of Hindu residents, in absolute terms, in the entire world. Barahachhetra in Nepal is as important as other pilgrimage destinations in Nepal, however, no studies have been carried out so far on the status and potential of pilgrimage tourism in Barahachhetra. The authenticity of the pilgrimage sites, the hospitality culture and the peace experienced by pilgrims together provide a memorable pilgrimage tourism experience for the pilgrimage tourists visiting Barahachhetra. The prospect of pilgrimage tourism in Barahachhetra is immense and has a direct bearing on the preservation of the religious and cultural heritages as well as the economic condition of the residents therein. A coordinated approach initiated at the highest level of governance is required to study, promote and sustain pilgrimage tourism in Barahachhetra. In this study both pilgrimage tourism and religious tourism interchangeably used. Though spiritual tourism has become recently evolved, the authors did not visit on it although efforts have been made to highlight its significant in the introduction.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Nabin Thapaliya Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Raj Kunwar, Nabin Thapaliya 2021-03-13 2021-03-13 12 1 126 170 10.3126/gaze.v12i1.35681