The Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality The Gaze is published by the International School of Tourism and Hotel Management (Affiliated to Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria). International School of Tourism and Hotel Management en-US The Gaze: Journal of Tourism and Hospitality 2467-933X Copyright is retained by the authors. The Concept of Post-humanism and Its Reflections on Tourism Education <p>The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the influence the impacts of post-humanism on tourism education. The paper will start with a body of literature on post-humanism based on the previous studies and debates in the academia. The methodology will be literature review and critical evaluation of the findings. As a conclusion, the study suggests that the Post-humanist reflection in tourism education will contribute positively to the tourism sector, specifically regarding to sustainability issues. The manuscript will also suggest a model in order to provide a quantitative analysis for the post-humanism, including the technological advancements and environmental regeneration variables, along with possible economic and social impacts. In short, establishment of a tourism education that considerably pays attention to the benefits of post-humanism will be essential for functionality and effectiveness of tourism practice in the future.</p> Ruhet Genç ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 10 1 1 7 10.3126/gaze.v10i1.22774 Heritage Tourism in Japan and Nepal : A Study of Shikoku and Lumbini <p>Tourism, the world’s largest industry, is essential to a community’s economic vitality, sustainability and profitability. The word ‘heritage’ in its broader meaning is frequently associated with the word ‘inheritance’, that is, something transferred from one generation to another. Heritage might look old-after all, the language of heritage focuses on preservation, revitalization, and restoration-but closer inspection usually reveals contemporary concerns. Heritage is the symbolic embodiment of the past, reconstructed and reinterpreted in the collective memories and traditions of contemporary societies rather than being perceived as a mere apotheosis of bygone times. It is concerned with exploring both tangible and intangible remnants of the past. Important criterion for a designation as a World Cultural Heritage site is the ‘‘authenticity’’ and ‘‘sincerity’’ of a candidate site. The heritage sites are the most susceptible and vulnerable sectors. A large number of significant heritage sites around the world are fragile properties, and they are faced with different challenges. Both Japan and Nepal is home to a variety of frequently occurring disasters, which can cause wide-ranging damage to its cultural resources. Japan and Nepal’s remarkable heritage is not only part of what makes both the countries a popular travel destination, but also something that needs to be properly protected, maintained and preserved, so that future generations can enjoy it as much as we do today. It has been interesting lesson to rest of the world that how Japan has been mitigating and surviving with large scale disasters. The Japanese culture, tradition and technology must have been playing significant role for this. The learning from Japan could be instrumental to manage, rebuild and develop heritage sites and tourism in Nepal. This article is the partial outcome of my Postdoctoral research in Japan.</p> Him Lal Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 10 1 8 36 10.3126/gaze.v10i1.22775 Tourism Policy of Nepal and Sustainable Mountain Tourism Development in Retrospect <p>The modern history of tourism in Nepal began with mountain tourism embodying the diversity of nature and culture, diversity, marginality, access difficulty, fragility, niche and aesthetics. Despite huge scope, Nepal has been unable to take full benefits of mountains, due to inadequate policies and fragile implementation. Pedestaled on secondary data, the key objective of this paper is to make a retrospective assessment of tourism policy and sustainable mountain tourism development efforts in Nepal. The sustainable development of mountain tourism relies on the government’s plans and policies and the efficient coordination between stakeholders. But the tourism policies have not been able to adequately&nbsp;address mountain tourism, and this has led to unbalanced growth of tourism sector. Despite the implementation of new Tourism Policy in 2008, adequate focus on mountain tourism is still missing. There is a lacuna of adequate driving force in tourism policy and it has failed to address vital areas of mountain tourism. Hence, there is an instant need of specific and separate mountain tourism policy encompassing integrated approach (abiding federal structure and local participation&nbsp;in planning and management) hence making mountain tourism sustainable, responsible and sensitive--ecologically and culturally.</p> Prakash Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 10 1 37 50 10.3126/gaze.v10i1.22776 Destination Management: Nepalese Efforts, Experiences & Challenges <p>Nepal with diverse geographical landscapes, rivers, mountains and alluring religious and cultural sites, has been declared as top first destination amongst various global destinations. Standardized destination management efforts with designated entities has not gone satisfactorily as expected, resulting poor inbound tourism in Nepal. This article will go around the various initiatives taken for the destination management from both government and non-government level and their implications for successful ecotourism practices in Nepalese perspective. Ideal destination management is all about providing convincing safety and security, logistics, entertainment, health and sanitation and much other to the tourists.</p> Prakash Chandra Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 10 1 51 66 10.3126/gaze.v10i1.22777 Medical Tourism and Hospitality in Hospital <p>Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Both private sectors and the governments of such destinations are found playing important role for medical tourism promotion and development. This study tries to highlight a conceptual analysis of medical tourism, the targeting of medical tourism flows and major destinations, and the proposed medical tourism development strategies based on the experience of several countries regarding medical facilities. Medical tourism, where patients travel overseas for operations, has grown rapidly in the past decade, especially cosmetic surgery. The review of current literature reveals that no integrated theoretical framework for the holistic study of the medical tourism industry exists. This study examined whether the scholars who studied medical tourism and hospitality in hospitals found interrelationship between those two different sectors. Those who studied medical tourism or healthcare tourism didn’t touch on hospitality provided to hospital patients. Likewise, those who studied hospitality in hospitals also ignored the dimension of tourism. In this regard, this study shows the interrelationship between these two entities. i.e medical tourism&nbsp;and hospitality in hospitals which are very important for understanding the concept of medical tourism in better way. Additionally, this study also enters the sphere of cross cultural behavior and intercultural communication between the hosts and the guests.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-18 2019-02-18 10 1 67 123 10.3126/gaze.v10i1.22778