Biophysics : Aspects of Amino Acids Sequence in Proteins and Nucleotide Sequence in Nucleic Acids
Keywords:Polypeptide chain, Globular and fibrous proteins, Neurotransmitters, Chemical kinematics, Misfolded proteins, Conformational change, Activation energy, Entropy, Active centers, Transcription, Enzymatic catalysis, Haptens
Protein is the polypeptide chain of amino-acid sequence. Proteins of all species, from bacteria to humans, are made up from the same set of 20 standard amino acids. In order to carry out their function they must take a particular shape which is known as fold. All the enzymes hormones and antibodies are also proteins. To treat certain toxic-microorganism or invader we need certain antigen-antibody complex in the organisms. Just as amino-acid sequence forms the proteins, the polynucleotide sequence forms the nucleic acids. The gene is a part of DNA macromolecule responsible for the synthesis of protein chains. There are 20 amino-acids responsible for the formation of protein and 4 nucleotides responsible for the formation of DNA (RNA). Therefore, we can say that protein text is written in 20-letter and the DNA (RNA) text is written in 4-letter language. The information contained in genes in DNA is transferred to mRNA during transcription.
The Himalayan Physics
Vol. 4, No. 4, 2013
Uploaded date: 12/23/2013