International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="http://www.ijasbt.org/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> SEM-Biotech Publishing en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2091-2609 Recent Advances in Microbial Production of Butanol as a Biofuel https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24630 <p>In lieu of rising crude oil prices, exhaustion of petroleum feed stocks and environmental challenges, only renewable fuels have the potential to match the energy requirements of the future. Among the various renewable fuels, butanol has recently gained a lot of attention because of its advantages over other biofuels. Its microbial production by clostridia through ABE fermentation is being explored for improved yield and cost effectiveness. Using lignocellulosic wastes successfully for butanol production through ABE fermentation is a major breakthrough to deal with the future energy crisis. Genetic engineering of microbes to increase the carbon and redox balance, cell recycling, media optimization, mathematical modelling and tolerance improvement strategies are being attempted to overcome the hurdles of high production cost, by products formation leading to low yield and product toxicity. Along with genetic engineering major research is cantered on heterologous host engineering for improved butanol production and tolerance. This review highlights the recent advances in improving yield and tolerance to butanol in both<em> Clostridial</em> and heterologous hosts&nbsp;from genetic engineering and fermentation methodology aspects.</p> <p>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 130-152</em></span></p> Liza Goyal Sunil Khanna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 7 2 130 152 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24630 Potassium Fertilization in Potato https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24636 <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) is one of the major vegetable crops of Nepal. Potato is grown all over the globe and consumed as either vegetable or staple food depending upon the crop production scenario. It is also an integral part of human diet. Potato is a high nutrient mining crop and needs higher fertilization for economic tuber production. Despite sufficient application of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P2O5), low replenishment and widespread potassium deficiency are limiting the potato production in Nepalese condition. Growth parameters such as plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll% was positively correlated with potassium application. Potassium alleviated stresses of frost and drought and reduced incidence of diseases like late blight, black scurf and hollow heart. Potassium also decreased the reducing sugar content and improved chips color and quality. Similarly, potassium application before harvest was found to increase storage life of potato tubers. Furthermore, potassium application significantly increased the yield of potato tubers and quality parameters such as Vitamin C content and specific gravity. Source of potassium and method of potassium application also affected growth, yield and quality parameters. Soil application of potassium in splits coupled <span lang="EN-IN" style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: &amp;quot; times new roman&amp;quot;,serif; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 13.33px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0px;">with foliar spay was found to perform better.<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>Optimum dose of potassium was recommended for economic tuber production.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: &amp;quot; times new roman&amp;quot;,serif; font-size: 12px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 13.33px; orphans: 2; text-align: left; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px; margin: 0px;">Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 153-160</span></p> Bishal Bista Devashish Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 153 160 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24636 Agronomic and Environmental Aspects of Conservation Agriculture on Wheat Crop Production https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24637 <p><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: small;">Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em> L.) is one of the major vegetable crops of Nepal. Potato is grown all over the globe and consumed as either vegetable or staple food depending upon the crop production scenario. It is also an integral part of human diet. Potato is a high nutrient mining crop and needs higher fertilization for economic tuber production. Despite sufficient application of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>), low replenishment and widespread potassium deficiency are limiting the potato production in Nepalese condition. Growth parameters such as plant height, leaf area and chlorophyll% was positively correlated with potassium application. Potassium alleviated stresses of frost and drought and reduced incidence of diseases like late blight, black scurf and hollow heart. Potassium also decreased the reducing sugar content and improved chips color and quality. Similarly, potassium application before harvest was found to increase storage life of potato tubers. Furthermore, potassium application significantly increased the yield of potato tubers and quality parameters such as Vitamin C content and specific gravity. Source of potassium and method of potassium application also affected growth, yield and quality parameters. Soil application of potassium in splits coupled with foliar spay was found to perform better.&nbsp; Optimum dose of potassium was recommended for economic tuber production</span></p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 161-166</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A. Bista T.N. Joshi K. Biswokarma S. Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 161 166 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24637 Permaculture: A Key Driver for Sustainable Agriculture in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24647 <p>Our study primarily focused on permaculture for sustained agriculture. Permaculture can be a best alternative for modern industrial and commercial based agriculture which has given a good yield at present but, it is deteriorating soil quality and other environmental aspects. More ever it can lead to a global threat in the future due to overuse and somewhere due to unutilized resources which may give rise to the food and economic insecurity. By compiling the different literatures, we reviewed that permaculture enriches soil quality by increasing organic matter in soil thus increasing water retention capacity, infiltration, nutrient availability, microbial activities and decreasing the erosion. Thus, it increases physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. It provides food and economic safety by providing diverse crops, increasing yield and income of farm and<br>providing least cost inputs with increasing output. It is an efficient in terms of resource use as it utilizes renewable resources and makes connections like a web among resources. This review can be useful information for students, research topic for permaculturists for making it smoother and other environmental enthusiast.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 167-173</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Devashish Bhandari Bishal Bista ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 167 173 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24647 Extending The Vase Life of Peruvian Lily (Alstroemeria Spp.) With 1‐Methylcyclopropene and Ascorbic Acid https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/23207 <p><em>Alstroemeria </em>spp. is one of the highly demanded cut flower in the local and global cut flower market. Short vase life of flowers and leaves, petal wilting, petal drop, and transparency of petals are major postharvest problems. The objective was to extend the vase life of <em>Alstroemeria</em> spp. with 1-methylcyclopropene and ascorbic acid. Freshly cut flowering stems of <em>Alstroemeria</em> spp. were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (0.25 ppm) and ascorbic acid (57 mM) alone and in combination of the two, for six hours. Distilled water was used as the control. Postharvest concentrations of anthocyanin, chlorophyll and glucose in flowers were best maintained when treated with a combination of 1‐methylcyclopropene and ascorbic acid, compared to all other treatments. Percentage fresh weight loss was same among treatments. The best treatment to extend vase life of <em>Alstroemeria</em> spp. is the combination of 1‐methylcyclopropene and ascorbic acid, which extended the vase life by additional seven days compared to the control.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 174-183</em></span></p> B.S. Obadamudalige Chalinda Koshitha Beneragama S.M.M.R. Mawalagedera ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 7 2 174 183 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.23207 Variability Study of Biofortified Bread Wheat Genotypes for Grain Zinc and Iron Concentration, Yield and Yield Associated Traits at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/23433 <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;"><span style="margin: 0px; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 9pt;">Bread wheat ( <em>Triticum aestivum </em>L.) is third major cereal crop of Nepal where <span style="margin: 0px;">cereal based</span> foods represent the largest proportion of the daily diet. Lack of diverse food habit in the country is resulting micronutrient deficiency. This could be addressed by introducing biofortified bread wheat genotypes. This field research was conducted at Agriculture Botany Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur to study the variability of biofortified bread wheat genotypes for grain zinc, iron, yield, yield attributes and identify high yielding genotypes with high grain zinc and iron concentration. 50 wheat genotypes (47 biofortified, 3 checks) were tested in alpha lattice design with two replications. Data on grain zinc, iron, yield and yield attributes were recorded and analyzed (α=5%). Genotypes differed significantly for the studied traits which provide an <span style="margin: 0px;">opportunity</span> to improve the existing germplasms for targeted traits and environment. Grain yield was correlated positively with <span style="margin: 0px;">effective</span> tiller, plant height, days to maturity, grains per spike and negatively with <span style="margin: 0px;">thousand grain</span> weight. Grain zinc and iron concentration were significantly positively correlated but had positive non-significant relation with grain yield suggesting simultaneous improvement of both micronutrients without compromising grain yield is possible. <span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</span>Effective tiller and peduncle length can be used as selection criteria for high grain yield and micronutrient concentration respectively. Superior genotypes containing higher grain iron, zinc and yield can be used as <span style="margin: 0px;">parent</span> in breeding for developing zinc and <span style="margin: 0px;">iron enriched</span> varieties. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">&nbsp;</p> Sapana Ghimire D.B. Thapa A. Paudel N.R. Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 7 2 184 194 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.23433 Construction of an Amperometric Pyruvate Biosensor Based on Enzyme Bound to A Nanocomposite and Its Comparison with Enzyme Nanoparticles Bound to Electrode https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24445 <p>An improved amperometric pyruvate biosensor was fabricated by immobilizing covalently commercial pyruvate oxidase (POx) from <em>Aerococcus </em>sps. onto nanocomposite of c-MWCNT (carboxylated multi- walled carbon nanotubes), copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and polyaniline (PANI) electrodeposited onto gold (Au) electrode. The copper nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV- visible spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction (XRD). The working electrode (POx/c-MWCNT/CuNPs/PANI/AuE was studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different stages of its construction. The biosensor showed optimum activity at a pH of 5.0 and 35°C and a linearity for pyruvate in the concentration range, 0.1 µM to 2000 µM. The analytical recovery of added pyruvate was 99.6% and 99.2%. The within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were 0.052% and as 0.022% respectively. There was a commendable correlation between sera pyruvate values as measured by standard spectrophotometric method and the present method. The biosensor was applied to measure sera pyruvate level and compared with that biosensor based on pyruvate oxidase nanoparticles covalently bound to Au electrode.</p> <p><em>Malik et al. (2019) Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): xxx-xxx</em></p> <p><strong>Graphic Abstract</strong></p> <p>Schematic representation of fabrication of POx/c-MWCNTs/CuNPs/PANI/AuE and electrochemical reactions involved in its response measurement (POx- Pyruvate oxidase; c-MWCNTs- Carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes; CuNPs- Copper nanoparticles; PANI- Polyaniline; AuE- Gold electrode).</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/upshrivastava/graphic_abstract.jpg"></p> Mansi Malik Reeti Chaudhary C. S. Pundir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 7 2 195 206 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24445 Intraspecific plasticity in circadian rhythms within Euglena gracilis strain Z https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24278 <p>Natural plasticity in overt circadian rhythms can be observed in various animals. Little is known about how this phenomenon help <em>Euglena gracilis</em> adapt to environmental stimuli. We used four groups of strain Z. Two groups were from our laboratory, Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> and Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub>; Third group was from the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan (Z<sub>NIES-48</sub>) and the other was from Osaka Prefecture University (Z<sub>Osaka</sub>). The latter two were grown photoautotrophically at a light intensity of 84 μmol m<sup>-2</sup> s<sup>-1</sup> (day-white type lamps) at 25<sup>°</sup>C with air bubbling, as were ours, for two months prior to experiments. Results showed that Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub> and Z<sub>Osaka </sub>grew faster than Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> and Z<sub>NIES-48</sub>. Upon transferring from light to darkness, population growth ceased within 8-10 h with the cell number increase in the dark of 41% in Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> and Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub>, 35% in Z<sub>Osaka </sub>and remarkably low 22% in Z<sub>NIES-48</sub>. Timing of cell division bursts in the circadian rhythm of cell population growth in 24 h light-dark cycles was the same in all four groups. Magnitudes of the rhythm were different: both Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> and Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub> completely doubled, but Z<sub>NIES-48 </sub>multiplied by 1.9, and Z<sub>Osaka</sub> multiplied feebly by 1.7. The photoinduction of commitment to cell division in DD followed a circadian rhythm. All four showed the same peak at subjective dusk, but the amplitudes differed in the order, Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub> &gt; Z<sub>Osaka </sub>&gt; Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> &gt;&gt; Z<sub>NIES-48</sub>. The resistance to photosensitization against Rose-Bengal follows a clear circadian rhythm in all substrains except in Z<sub>NIES-48</sub>. Z<sub>Obihiro1</sub> and Z<sub>Osaka</sub> showed the phasing similar to UV resistance rhythm, but Z<sub>Obihiro2</sub> did not. These results suggest the plasticity of circadian rhythms within a species, if not within a strain. Moreover, it is also apparent that different substrains/ecotypes present within the same Z strain.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 207-216</em></span></p> Chalinda Koshitha Beneragama R.M.S.R. Chamara G.D.K. Kumara K. Goto ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 7 2 207 216 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24278 Insect Pest Associated With Tomato In Local Vegetable Markets Of Sindh, Pakistan https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/23920 <p>Study was carried out on “Insect pests associated with tomato in local vegetable markets of Sindh, Pakistan” during November and December 2018. The insect pests’ infested-tomatoes are also sold in local vegetable markets and consume by people in Sindh, Pakistan. In present study was seen that the tomato fruit borer (caterpillar) fed symptoms, it had holed and bored, starting where the stem is attached to the fruit and these were ripped tomatoes and red colour. Insect infested tomatoes were collected; the thickness, length, the holes and inner fruit (interior) portions of the fruit damaged by the larvae were also measured and examined. A random selection of 30 vegetable vendor shops was selected in each city of Sindh. The largest pest infested tomato fruit was 30,120, the minimum was 2, 2 from the stock of 5, 5 kg, and 4, 7 green vegetable vendor shops there no pests found in tomato fruits. Overall, 243,995 insect-infested tomatoes were found in 305,515 kg, 30, 30 vegetable vender shops in Qasimabad and Shahdadkot. The maximum and minimum mean thicknesses and lengths of tomato fruits recorded from Qasimabad and Shahdadkot were 3.73, 3.31 cm, 3.06, 2.82 cm and 5.19, 4.75 cm, and 2.98, 3.7, respectively. The overall maximum and minimum thickness and tomato fruit length were 2.77, 3.83 cm and 2.47, 3.51 cm, respectively. The maximum and minimum mean ​​of tomato fruit hole and depth (internal feeding part) infested by insects were 0.73, 0.94 cm<sup>2</sup> and 0.43, 0.61 cm<sup>2</sup> and 1.07, 1.01 cm<sup>2</sup> and 0.4, 0.38 cm<sup>2</sup>, respectively. While, the Overall total average hole diameter depth of the insect-infested tomato fruit was 0.51, 1.12 cm<sup>2</sup> and the total depth was 0.75, 0.55 cm<sup>2</sup> of the Qasimabad and Shahdadkot recorded respectively.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 217-221</em></span></p> Abdul Ghaffar Khoso Saeed Ahmed Farrukh Asghar Mansab Khan Enayat Aziz Khalil Asghar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 7 2 217 221 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.23920 Benefit Cost Analysis of Different Rice Varieties in Kapilvastu District, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24210 <p>Rice is an annual plant belongs to family Poaceae. It is the major staple food crop of Nepal and can be grown from plain to mountainous regions of Nepal. The crop varieties differ from each other in terms of production cost, gross return and gross margin. The objective of this study was to analyze benefit cost ratio for production of different rice varieties. The study was carried out in Kapilvastu district of Nepal in 2018. A sample size of 120 respondents were selected randomly. Four different rice varieties: Gorakhnath, Radha-4, Ramdhan, and Sawa were used for the study. The primary data were collected through household survey using interview schedule. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel. The average cost of production was amounted to NRs. 77,100/ha for all four rice varieties. Sawa variety had the highest gross return (NRs. 1,01,212.5/ha). The benefit cost ratio was observed highest for Sawa (1.312) and lowest for Radha-4 variety (1.005). Sawa is the most economic rice variety in terms of gross and net production in the study area. The findings will help farmers to choose and cultivate rice variety with greater profitability. It is recommended that concerned authorities should give emphasis on subsidies, farmers training and ensuring floor price of rice.&nbsp;</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 222-226</em></span></p> Sundar Sapkota Sanjib Sapkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 7 2 222 226 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24210 Fodder Production and Livestock Rearing in Relation to Climate Change and Possible Adaptation Measures in Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/23973 <p>A study was conducted to find out the production potential, nutrient composition, and the variability of the most commonly available fodder trees along with the varying altitude to help optimize the dry matter requirement during winter lean period. The study was carried out in Lho and Prok Village Development Committee of Manaslu Conservation Area (MCA), located in Gorkha district of Nepal.The study was conducted in two parts: social and biological. Accordingly, a households (HHs) survey was conducted to collect primary data from 70 HHs, focusing to the perception of respondents on impacts of climatic variability to the feeding management. The next part consisted of understanding yield potential and nutrient composition of the four most commonly available fodder trees (<em>M. azedirach</em>, <em>M. alba</em>, <em>F. roxburghii</em>, <em>F. nemoralis</em>), within two altitudes range: (1500-2000 masl and 2000-2500 masl) by using a RCB design in 2*4 factorial combination of treatments, each replicated four times.&nbsp; &nbsp;Fresh yield and dry matter yield of the each fodder trees was significant (P&lt;0.01) between the altitude and within species. Fodder trees yield analysis revealed that the highest dry matter (DM) yield (28 kg/tree) was obtained for <em>F. roxburghii</em> but that remained statistically similar (P&gt;0.05) to the other treatment. On the other hand, most of the parameters: ether extract (EE), acid detergent lignin (ADL), acid detergent fibre (ADF), cell wall digestibility (CWD), relative digestibility (RD), digestible nutrient (TDN), and Calcium (Ca) among the treatments were highly significant (P&lt;0.01).</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 227-235</em></span></p> Bhojan Dhakal Naba Raj Devkota Sabita Subedi Chet Raj Upreti Maheswar Sapkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 7 2 227 235 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.23973 Genetic Diversity Analysis between Different Varieties of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Using SSR Markers https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24634 <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">The paper aims at evaluating genetic diversity among genomes of chickpea comprising of 5 different varieties with the help of simple sequence repeats (SSR) molecular markers. Genomic DNA isolated from all varieties was checked with 15 different SSR markers specific for ENDPOINT PCR using PCR based techniques. Amplification bands with different markers enabled identification of the genomic regions responsible for Drought Tolerance in chickpea. All 15 SSR markers chosen gave monomorphic bands.<span style="margin: 0px;">&nbsp; </span>A hierarchical tree was also constructed using UPGMA Dendogram for figuring out the exact genetic distance of cultivars using band amplification data. It depicted GUJ-1 and GUJ-2 are closest of all cultivars. GUJ-5 is at the center having GUJ-3 and UJJAVAL at an almost equal distance but GUJ-5 and GUJ-3 are more related. Physiological data also supported this genetic evidence</span>.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 236-242</em></span></p> Summy Yadav Vaidehi Shah Bhavya Mod ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 236 242 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24634 Genetic Variability and Path Analysis Studies in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24635 <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">The present study was carried out to investigate the correlation coefficient, path analysis and genetic variability among some barley varieties for nine characters in a Randomize Block Design (RBD) with three replications in three environments of Bangladesh. <span style="background: #d0cece; margin: 0px;">High genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) was obtained from </span>grain/ spike (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">29.89 %</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">), yield/ plant (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">28.72%</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">) and effective tiller/plant (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">21.86 %</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">) and spike length (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">13.56 %</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">). The characters with high GCV indicated high potential for selection. The highest heritability (Hb) was observed for 1000 seed weight (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">95.09) </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">followed by yield/ plant (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">93.98), </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">grain/ spike (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">92.09) </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">and spike length (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">69.93), </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">days to heading (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">72.65) </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">but the lowest Hb was identified for effective tiller/plant</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;"> (22.41)</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;"> followed by the plant height (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">34.21). </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">Those traits with higher heritability may be considered for selection. Grain/ spike had the highest positive direct effect (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">5.65</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">) on yield followed by 1000 seed weight (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">4.65)</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">, spike length (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">1.26), </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">yield/ plant (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">0.66), </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">days to heading (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">0.55) </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">and days to maturity (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">0.34). These parameters were identified as direct selection. </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">Direct negative effect on yield was shown by plant height (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">-0.32)</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;"> and effective tiller/plant (</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">-0.74). This was an indication of indirect selection</span>.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 243-247</em></span></p> Mohammad Quamrul Islam Matin Mohammad Amiruzzaman Md. Motasim Billah Most. Bilkis Banu Nazmun Naher Dilwar Ahmed Choudhury ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 243 247 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24635 Studies on Factors Affecting Pregnancy Rate after Treatment of Anestrus Buffaloes in Chitwan District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24645 <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">This study was designed to determine the effects of age, parity, feeding practice, Body Condition Score (BCS), blood nutritional parameters, types of anoestrus, and length of anoestrus on pregnancy rate of anoestrus buffaloes after their treatment with ovsynch protocol followed by fixed time artificial insemination. Blood samples were collected on the day ovsynch protocol and analyzed. The mean values of the nutritional parameters between different groups were compared by Students t test and pregnancy rate was compared by Fisher’s exact test or Chi-square test. The overall pregnancy rate in buffaloes was 28.6%, when checked on day 41 and 64.3% on day 102 of FTAI. Blood glucose, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus level was found to be significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) in pregnant than in non-pregnant buffaloes. Pregnancy rate was higher in silent estrus buffaloes. Buffaloes with BCS ≥3 had higher pregnancy rate than those with BCS &lt; 3. Similarly, pregnancy rate was higher in lactating than in non-lactating buffaloes. While young buffaloes of age &lt;10 year responded better than old buffaloes of age ≥10 year. Buffaloes which were free from gastrointestinal parasitic infection had higher pregnancy rate. In conclusion, ovsynch protocol produces a good pregnancy in anoestrus buffaloes; however, state of true anoestrus, older age and poor BCS with poor nutritional management adversely affect the pregnancy outcome. The role of blood nutritional parameters requires further clarification</span>.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 248-256</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Navaraj Chapagain Bhuminandan Devkota Gokarna Gautam Shyam Kishor Sah Dinesh Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 248 256 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24645 Resource Use Efficiency and Profitability of Maize Farming in Sindhuli, Nepal: Cobb-Douglas Production Function Analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24648 <p>The study was conducted to determine the resource use efficiency, profitability and demography of maize farming in Sindhuli district. This study was conducted in 120 maize producers, 60 from Kamalamai Municipality (KMC) and 60 from Marin rural municipality. Pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to randomly selected farmers. Maize producers were interviewed using face to face interview method in the month of October 2018. All the data were entered into SPSS and Microsoft excel and analysis was done by using Microsoft excel and SPSS. Cobb- Douglas production function was used to determine the resource use efficiency of maize production. Benefit cost ratio in the research area is 1.20 which indicates that maize production was profitable and farmers of Sindhuli get additional 20 paisa with investment of one rupee in maize farming. Productivity, cost and income per hectare of maize farming in Sindhuli was 1.98 tons, Rs 42423.3 and Rs 50805 respectively. 10% increase in chemical fertilizer, FYM and seed cost resulted in increase in income by 7.21%, 2.43% and 0.6% respectively. 10% increase in labor and animal power resulted into 0.2% and 0.07% decrease in output. For optimal allocation of resource expenditure on seed and chemical fertilizer were need to be increased by 89.93% each. Labor, animal power and FYM were over utilized resources for maize farming. The sum of coefficients was 0.983 which implied decreasing return to scale, 100% increase in all the factor of production included in the model would result in 98.30% increase in maize production.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 257-263</em></span></p> Bhishma Raj Dahal Swodesh Rijal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 248 256 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24648 Prevalence of Anemia Among Schedule Caste Women in Rural Area of Eastern Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24649 <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">Anemia of schedule caste women in Rural area ofeastern Nepal is a prominent problem in developing countries. On the present study is to determine the prevalence of anemia of schedule caste women of Baijnathpur, eastern Nepal.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">A Cross sectional study was conducted to the schedule caste non -pregnant women of the age group 20 - &gt;70 years during August - November 2015.A total 432 women were participant in the present study. Cyanmethamoglobin used for the determination of anaemia. The prevalence of anaemia was found to be 242(56%) out of N= 432 women. Anaemia was classified as per the world health organization (WHO), mild, moderate and severe. The highest prevalence of anaemia 66.7% was found at the age group of 50-59 years and second highest 59.3% was found at the age group of 20-29 years of the anaemic population. The mean and SD of haemoglobin were 11.49±2.05gm/dl and 10.14±1.57 gm/dl of total and anaemic population respectively</span></p> <p>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 264-268</em></span></p> Amar Kumar Sinha Chandra Prakash Gaire Babu Ram Pokhrel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 264 268 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24649 Factors Affecting Ginger Production in Surkhet District, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24650 <p>Ginger is a high value crop belongs to family Zingiberaceae. Ginger has multiple health benefits and can be easily grown in mid-hill regions of Nepal. The major challenge is the limited availability of information on factors affecting ginger yield. The objective of this project was to analyze different factors influencing ginger production. The study was conducted in Surkhet district of Nepal in 2018. A total of 100 farmers (60 and 40 from Barahtal and Chingad rural municipalities respectively) were selected using simple random sampling technique. Primary data were collected using interview schedule, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. The descriptive statistics, chi-square test and correlation were used to derive conclusion. The average age and land under ginger cultivation were 41 years and 0.093 hectare respectively. Average ginger production in the study area was 980 kg per ropani. There was a strong positive relationship between farm size and ginger production. Training, subsidy and labor crisis had positive association with ginger production. However, family size and years of schooling were not significant but positively correlated. It is recommended that concerned authorities should give emphasis on farmer training, extension services, and subsidy to enhance ginger production.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 269-273</em></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sudip Mahat Sundar Sapkota Sanjib Sapkota Krishna Katuwal ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 269 273 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24650 Environmental Impact On Morphological and Anatomical Structure of Ricinus communis L. Leaves Growing in Kathmandu, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24652 <p>The current study was done to examine the impact of environmental pollution on morphology and anatomy of leaf of <em>Ricinus communis </em>L. of Kathmandu. The comparative study was done between the plants of high polluted sites i.e Ringroad sides and less polluted sites i.e Raniban forest of Kathmandu. The plants from both sites showed visible morphological and anatomical changes in leaves. These both study sites were found with similar soil factors and climatic factors. Reductions in some morphological and anatomical features were observed in leaves growing in highly polluted site. Reduction in leaf area, petiole length, thickness of palisade layer and thickness of spongy parenchyma was noticed in the leaves from highly polluted sites of Kathmandu. Other morphological and anatomical features such as leaf dry mass content, stomata frequency, thickness of cuticle and size of epidermal cells were noticed to be increased in leaves from highly polluted sites.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 274-278</em></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Belai Meeta Singh Suwal Ratna Silwal Gautam Dikshya Manandhar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 274 278 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24652 Assessment of Maize Production and Adoption of Improved Maize Seeds in Tanahun District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24653 <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">The major objective of this study is to assess the status of maize production and adoption of improved maize seeds in Tanahun district. The study also aims to determine the factors affecting the adoption of the improved seeds. 100 maize farmers from four different local bodies of Tanahun were selected by the purposive sampling method for the household survey. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent samples <em>t</em>-test, one-way ANOVA, logit model and index score ranking method were used for the data analysis. <span style="margin: 0px;">The productivity</span> of maize and annual income from maize were </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">767.62 kg/ha and Rs 9500 higher for the farmers using improved seeds as compared to those using the local seeds. The mean annual household income of farmers replacing the seeds yearly was Rs 18983 higher than the farmers replacing the seeds rarely.</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;"> <span style="margin: 0px;">The frequency</span> of the agriculture technician support and the frequency of seed replacement with the improved seed were found to significantly determine the adoption of the improved maize seeds. Farmers receiving the regular technician support were 15.726 times more likely to adopt the improved seeds as compared to those receiving the technician support rarely or never. </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 9pt;">The adopters had 458.10 kg/ha higher productivity than the non-adopters. Lack of irrigation facility was found to be the major problem in maize cultivation whereas the lack of timely availability of improved seed was found to be the most important constraint for the adoption of improved seeds</span>.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 279-288</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kailash Prasad Pandey Bijay Shrestha Kushal Naharki Chitra Bahadur Kunwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-27 2019-06-27 7 2 279 288 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24653 The Socioeconomic analysis in poultry egg production in Dang valley https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/23579 <p><em>This study was carried out in Tulsipur sub-metropolitan city and Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city of Dang valley. It was aimed to analyze socioeconomic status of poultry egg producing farms and constraints limiting their operations. A sample size of 60 poultry egg producing farm were selected by simple random sampling technique. Data collected from the pretested questionnaire were analyzed using </em><em>Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel. The result revealed that in Tulsipur sub-metropolitan city the poultry layers farms have mean flock size of 3345 birds and in Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city mean flock size of 3666 was found. An average producer in the farms of Tulsipur sub-metropolitan was 40 and that of Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city was 36 years. The result revealed that majority (83.33%) of poultry layers farms are male dominant in research area, majority (86.66%) of the layers producers belongs to ethnicity brahmin/chhetry, majority (41.66%) of the poultry layers farms owners belongs to SLC level education,majority (90%) of the layers farm owners main occupation is agriculture,&nbsp; majority (96.66%) of the layers farms in the dang valley are individually owned,majority (95%) of the layers farms do not get any support from government, majority (90%) of the layers farm are found to supply egg regularly and BC ratio of Tulsipur sub-metropolitan and Ghorahi sub-metropolitan city was found to be 1.21 and 1.44 respectively. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the poultry egg producing farms are profitable and they possesses high growth potentials which are achievable through increased investment and proper management of identified constraints.&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;">Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 289-290</span></em></p> Anup Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-14 2019-06-14 7 2 289 290 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.23579 Characterization of Pigments from the Berries of Syzygium caryophyllatum: Novel Source of Anthocyanins https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJASBT/article/view/24631 <p>Extract was prepared from the pulp and peels of the <em>Syzygium caryophyllatum</em> berries. At pH ≤2, the extract showed prominent red coloration and at pH values above 7, the extract attained bluish-green coloration. These typical characteristics indicate presence of anthocyanin pigments in the berries. The yield of the anthocyanins was around 1.9mg per gram wet weight and, around 43% of the anthocyanin pigments appear to be present in polymerized forms.&nbsp;&nbsp; At pH 1.0, the pigments absorbed maximally at 515nm and at pH 9.0, the pigments were found to absorb to a maximum extent in the range of 380-400nm.&nbsp; The colors at alkaline pH were unstable, while the red coloration under acidic conditions was relatively stable when exposed to fluorescent light and temperature of 50°C. Mass spectrum of the extract showed predominance of malvidin and petunidine derivatives in the extract. <em>Syzygium caryophyllatum</em> berries can serve as reservoirs of anthocyanin pigments.</p> <p><span lang="EN-IN" style="margin: 0px; color: windowtext; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(2): 291-297</em></span></p> Premalatha Shetty Aveena Roche Sasidhar B Somappa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-26 2019-06-26 7 2 291 297 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i2.24631