International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> SEM-Biotech Publishing en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2091-2609 Mycotoxins: A Threat to Food Security and Health. <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Multicellular filamentous fungi grown on the surface and inside of moist food secretes toxins in the form of their secondary metabolites which are commonly called mycotoxins. The presence of mycotoxins in food has been a burning issue and a threat to food security and safety. The global population has sky-rocked continues to be, which has created a challenge of providing quality food to the consumers. Aflatoxins, prevalent in most of the food crops in Nepal as well have posed a risk to national food security. Moreover, the consumption of food products containing mycotoxins is a cause of several health hazards like cancer, gastrointestinal problems, and neuropsychiatric effects. Mycotoxins not only has affected humans but also animals. Prevention, decontamination, and inhibition of absorption of toxins have been done in order to manage and mitigate the effects of mycotoxins. Recent research on mycotoxins is focused on the development of new methods to detect and analyze masked mycotoxins obtained from various sources. This review shows the contribution of mycotoxin in the global food security issue as well as its deleterious effects in human and animal health.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 298-303</span></p> Sushant Puri Shubham Shingh Preeya Tiwari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 298 303 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.24651 Eco-Friendly Management of Diamondback Moth (Plutella xylostella L.) of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in Nepal <p>Cabbage is a popular cruciferous vegetable crop consumed for various purposes not only in the world, but also in Nepal. Among several pests, Diamondback moth (<em>Plutella xylostella.</em>L.) is a primary pest causing heavy loss of cabbage field each year in Nepal. Damage is caused by larvae. The trend of extensive and unscientific use of insecticide has resulted a devastating loss in cabbage production (31%-100%) and economic yield (US $4-US$5billion each year) on one hand and challenging the environment on the other hand. Thus integrated pest management practices, including botanical, biological, cultural methods and use of resistant varieties are effective. Annosom (extract of <em>Annona spp.</em>1%) and Neemix (extract of <em>Azadirachta indica, </em>60%w/w) are effective botanical pesticides. <em>Diadegma spp</em>, among various biological control agents, is effective. Two rows of mustard for every twenty-five rows of cabbage is effective trap cropping. Yellow sticky trap is best for DBM monitoring and control. The seasonal irrigation and rain interferes the mating and oviposition and thus control of the pest. Spinosad, Indoxacarb and Emamectin benzoate are mostly used insecticides for the control of this moth. Use of specific resistant varieties like, G 9101 and G 9619 and transgenic lines are effective but in Nepalese context, least adopted by Nepalese farmers.</p> <p>&nbsp;Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 304-308</p> Sovit Parajuli Sandip Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 304 308 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25701 Trichoderma and Its Prospects in Agriculture of Nepal: An Overview <p>In the world, the traditional agricultural practices are getting affected by various problems such as disease, pest, drought, decreased soil fertility due to use of hazardous chemical pesticides, pollution and global warming. As a result, there is a need for some eco-friendly bio-control agents that help in resolving the previous mentioned problems. The various types of biological control agents such as bacteria and fungi are involved in bio-control activity. Among them, fungal genus <em>Trichoderma </em>plays a major role in controlling the plant diseases. Species of <em>Trichoderma </em>are diverse fungal microbial community known and explored worldwide for their versatilities as biocontrol and growth promoting agents. These fungi reproduce asexually by production of conidia and chlamydospores and in wild habitats by ascospores. <em>Trichoderma</em> species are efficient mycoparasites and prolific producers of secondary metabolites, some of which have clinical importance. However, the ecological or biological significance of this metabolite diversity is sorely lagging behind the chemical significance. Several <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. positively affect plants by stimulating plant growth, and protecting plants from fungal and bacterial pathogens. They are used in biological plant protection as bio-fungicides as well as in bioremediation. A large number of research groups are working on various aspects of <em>Trichoderma</em> viz., diversity, ecology and their applications. The capacity of <em>Trichoderma</em> fungi to produce lytic enzymes is used in animal feed, and wine making and brewery industries. <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. are the most successful bio-control agents as more than 60% of the registered bio-fungicides used in today’s agriculture belongs to <em>Trichoderma </em>-based formulation. The increase in incidence and severity of diseases and emergence of new diseases causes the significant yield losses of different crops in Nepal. But the research and studies on plant diseases are limited.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 309-316</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nabin Pandey Madhusudhan Adhikhari Binod Bhantana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 309 316 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.24337 Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) Profile of cyanobacteria from Different Historical Kunds of Varanasi, India <p>Copious facts have demonstrated that UV radiation is harmful to cyanobacteria. Sun-screening compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) protect these organisms from deleterious UV radiation. MAAs absorb UV radiation in the range of 310 to 362 nm. These natural sunscreens obtained from cyanobacteria are excellent alternative to present day synthetic UV filters. In the present study, several cyanobacteria were collected from six historical Kunds of Varanasi, India. MAAs profile of these cyanobacteria was recorded with the help of UV-Vis spectroscopy, High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Various MAAs were identified as Porphyra-334 (λ<sub>max </sub>= 334 nm), Palythine (λ<sub>max </sub>= 320 nm), Asterina-330 (λ<sub>max </sub>= 330 nm), Mycosporine-glycine (λ<sub>max </sub>=310 nm) and Mycosporine-methylamine-serine (λ<sub>max </sub>=327 nm) having retention times (RT) of 3.62, 1.65, 1.53, 2.55 and 1.51 min, respectively, obtained from different cyanobacteria (<em>Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaenopsis</em> sp., <em>Merismopedia</em> sp., <em>Aulosira fertilissima, Rivularia</em> sp., <em>Phormidium</em> sp., <em>Nostoc</em> sp. and <em>Stigonema</em> sp.). It is concluded that these MAAs from different historical Kunds may provide protection to the cyanobacteria growing thereof from the adverse effect of harmful UV radiation. MAAs are considered to be potential bioactive compounds that are highly intriguing from biotechnological perspective.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 317-326</p> Sonal Mishra Abha Pandey Haseen Ahmed Deepak Kumar Vidya Singh Rajeshwar P. Sinha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 317 326 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25712 Clustering and Principal Component Analysis of Nerica Mutant Rice Lines Growing Under Rainfed Condition <p>A field experiment was conducted at subtropical region in Bangladesh to assess the contribution of morphological traits to variability in some NERICA mutant rice lines. The experiment was conducted following RCBD with three replications. Thirty-one NERICA rice genotypes (twenty-eight mutant lines along with three parents) of advanced generations were used. Data were collected on twelve morphological traits. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the first four components account for 80% of total variation giving a clear idea of the structure underlying the variables analyzed. This result was also supported by scree test. Cluster analysis using Ward's method classified the thirty-one genotypes into five distinct groups. The maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between clusters indicating the possibility of high heterosis if individuals from these clusters are cross-bred. The results of PCA were closely in line with those of the cluster analysis. These results can now be used by breeders to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties and new breeding protocols for rice improvement.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 327-334</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Md. Nuruzzaman Md. Shohel Rana Aleya Ferdausi Md. Monjurul Huda Lutful Hassan Shamsun Nahar Begum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 327 334 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25703 Comparative Study on Khar Mulching and Forest Litter Mulching: Soil Nutrient Dynamics in Ginger Cultivation <p>A study conducted to assess the fertility status under Khar(<em>Pragmites karka</em>) and forest litter mulching practices on ginger cultivation. Ginger field with mulching of Khar and ginger field with mulching of forest litter was identified as two strata to collect soil sample. Thirty soil samples collected from each mulching practices. Simple random sampling procedure was followed to collect soil sample within the strata. Soil fertility parameters such as soil pH, Soil organic carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium were analyzed for different mulching system. Mulching material significantly effect on Soil pH, Soil organic carbon and soil nitrogen. Soil acidity was found lower with forest litter mulch (5.53) but it was found higher for Khar mulch (5.78). Soil organic carbon was found higher in ginger field with Khar mulch (2.31%) and found lower with forest litter mulch (1.97%). Soil nitrogen level was found higher in ginger field with Khar mulch (0.20%) and found lower with forest litter mulch (0.17%). Soil available phosphorus and Potassium were not found significantly different in both type of mulching system. The result obtained from the study indicates that ginger field with Khar mulch result soil with higher soil organic carbon and Nitrogen. Mulching decision can also be made after testing the soil of respective ginger growing field. Appropriate liming could be done so that it could reduce the soil acidity problems.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 335-340</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dipendra Aryal Babu Ram Khanal Pawan Devkota Kiran Kumar Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 335 340 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.24482 Assessment of Soil Nutrient Status under Different Cropping Systems in Khotang, Nepal <p>Availability of plant nutrients in rhizosphere is directly influenced by types of crop grown and land use pattern. The experiment was conducted in Diktel Rupakot Majhuwagadhi Municipality, Khotang, Nepal to assess the soil nutrients dynamics as influenced by different cropping system. Five different cropping systems (Rice – Wheat, Maize – Millet, Maize – Vegetables, Ginger and Cardamom) were selected as treatments and all treatments were replicated for five times for blocking in Randomized Complete Block Design. Soil samples from 0-15 cm depth were collected from each site and evaluated for soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), and available potassium (K). All the tested parameters except N were found to be significantly affected by cropping system. Soil in all five cropping systems were found acidic (pH&lt;6.5) in nature with pH ranging from 5.180-6.640. The SOC was recorded highest (3.102%) from Cardamom based system and lowest amount of SOC was observed in Ginger based system. The highest amount of P (32.14 mg/kg) was reported in Maize – Vegetables cropping system and lowest P content (5.72 mg/kg) was recorded from Cardamom based system. P content in Ginger based system (31.51 mg/kg) was statistically at par with that of Rice – Wheat system. The highest K content (306.50 mg/kg) was recorded from Maize – Vegetable cropping system and lowest K content (34.80 mg/kg) was observed in Cardamom based system which is statistically similar to Rice –Wheat (35.70 mg/kg) and Maize –Millet systems (77.20 mg/kg). The result indicated that cropping systems have huge impact on plant nutrient dynamics in soil.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 341-346</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pawan Devkota Dipendra Aryal Baburam Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 341 346 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25697 Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic activity of rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (Bojho) in combination with different antimicrobial agents: Synergistic Effects <p><em>Acorus calamus</em> (sweet flag) is a monocot plant found in wetland, have the scented leaves and rhizomes. Various active bio-ingredients of <em>A. calamus</em> had been studied and characterized and some of them are known for antimicrobial and antitumor activities. The dry rhizomes were powdered ethanolic extraction was performed in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was dried and re-suspended to sterile distilled water and sterilized by membrane filtration. The synergist affects against bacteria, fungi, helminths were evaluated and cytotoxic assay was performed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of plant extract was found to be 50µg/ml for the vancomycin resistance <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, for extended spectrum beta lactamase <em>Escherichia coli</em>, Methicillin resistant <em>S. aureus</em>, were 100 µg/ml. Synergistically cefixime and cefpodoxime both antibiotics are found to be effective against all strains of <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E. coli </em>except VRSA. The antifungal characteristics were found to be effective when agar cup diffusion were performed in combination with fluconazole antifungal drug. The combination of plant extract was more effective anthelminthic drug than the anthelminthic drug alone. Similarly, the plant extract has lethal concentration 50 (LC<sub>50</sub>) was found to be 173.3 µg / ml and LC<sub>90</sub> was 555. 4 µg / ml on brine shrimp. The <em>A. calamus</em> has potential characteristics to be as antimicrobial and antitumor medicine when used synergistically with antimicrobial agents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hemanta Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 347 353 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25717 Morphological Study of Pollen Grains of Angiosperms <p>Pollen morphology of twelve species of angiosperms from Central Nepal was cytologically carried out in present investigation. In this investigation pollen morphology of <em>Bignonia venusta</em> Ker Gawl. and <em>Jacranda mimisifolia</em> D.Don from the family Bignoniaceae; <em>Brassica compestris </em>L. from Brassicaceae; <em>Cuphea hyssopifolia </em>Kunth. from Lythraceae; <em>Coriandrum sativum </em>L. from Apiaceae; <em>Crepis japonica </em>L<strong>.</strong> and <em>Dichrocephala integrifolia </em>(L f.) kunzte. from Asteraceae; <em>Delphinium ajacis </em>L. from Ranunculaceae; <em>Dianthus barbetus </em>L. from Caryophyllaceae; <em>Euphorbia Milii</em> Des Moul. and<em> Euphorbia pulcherima </em>L. from Euphorbiaceae and <em>Magnolia fuscata</em> from Magnoliaceae were studied. Shape of the pollen grains found to be mostly spheroidal, few circular, one elliptical, one triangular and one elongated in this study. Sculpture of exine wall found to be smooth, echidnae, tected, reticulated and perforated type. Aperture of the pollen grains found to be triporate to pentaporate. The large, medium and small sized pollen grains were observed in present research. The high diversty of sculpture type in pollen grains of angiosperms has been associated to diversity in pollination systems. Smooth pollen grains are linked with wind or water pollination while sculptured pollen grains associated with biotic pollination. The morphology of pollen grain is one of the significant tools in solving some taxonomic problems such as identification, tracing phylogenetic relationship on the family, generic or specific level and in plant systematic and evolution.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 354-358</p> Pushpa Karna Mallick ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 354 358 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25714 Comparative Evaluation of Broad Leaf Mustard (BLM) under Different Boron Concentrations in Outdoor Barrel Aquaponics at IAAS, Paklihawa <p>An experiment was conducted at IAAS Paklihawa, Bhairahawa from 6th October 2018 to 15<sup>th</sup> November 2018 (40 days). An open barrel Aquaponics system with a double factor RCBD type experimental design was used consisting of 3 replications and 2 factors under study. The two factors were boron concentrations (1%, 2% and 3%) and BLM varieties (<em>Marfa Chauda Paat, Manakamana</em> and chinese-430). <em>Marfa Chauda Paat</em> (47.35 gm.) was the highest yielding variety followed by <em>Manakamana</em> (36.42 gm.) and Chinese-430 (26.82 gm.). 1% Boron was found to be the most suitable concentration among the test concentrations for leaf yield. A maximum weight gain of the fish was observed in tank 3 (96.44%) followed by tank 1 (86.26%) and tank 2 (82.18%). An excellent survival percentage of fish was observed as 88.89%, 95.56% and 91.11% in tank 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Similarly, the Average Daily Growth Rate (ADGR) was recorded to be 126.5mg, 91.5mg and 128.25mg in tank 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The Specific Growth Rate (SGR %) was obtained to be 1.26, 1.38 and 1.46 for tank 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Furthermore, final harvest weight of fish was obtained to be 437g, 349.21g and 428.2g in tanks 1, 2 and 3 respectively.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 359-364</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sabita Gyawali Prashant Chaudhary Mohan Chaudhary Shailesh Gurung Rukmagat Pathak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 359 364 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25698 Influence of Integrated Nutrient Management Practices On Soil Properties and Yield of Potato (Solanum tuberosum. L) in an Inceptisol of Khajura, Banke <p>Field experiment was conducted at the research farm of Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), Khajura to evaluate the influence of integrated nutrient management options that could enhance the properties of soil and yield of potato under the different climatic conditions of Khajura. The experiment was started in November 2016 in randomized complete block design with different seven treatments of nutrients using Farm yard manure (FYM), Poultry manure (PM) Vermicompost (VC). Available N, P and K status in the soil increased gradually due to the application of inorganic and organic fertilizers. The plots receiving 50 % RDNPK through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN through PM registered the highest available N, P and K status in the soil. The highest pH (6.3) content in soil was found in plots treatments with poultry manure and inorganic fertilizers. Potato plots treated with FYM and inorganic fertilizers produced higher SOM content in soil after harvest (2.38%) as compared to control plots (2.09%). The treatments integrated with FYM show less bulk density than the control plot. Organic manures treated plots produce taller plants as compared plots receiving inorganic fertilizers only. Integrated use of 50 % recommended dose of NPK through inorganic fertilizers and remaining 50% RDN through PM produced higher numbers of tubers per plot (304 tubers per plot) and total tuber yield (22.86 tha<sup>-1</sup>).</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 365-369</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kishor Kafle Chandeshwar Parsad Shriwastav Madan Marasini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 365 369 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25134 Effect Of Ethephon Doses On Vegetative Characters, Sex Expression and Yield Of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Bhaktapur Local) In Resunga Municipality, Gulmi, Nepal <p>A study on the effect of ethephon doses on vegetative characters, sex expression and yield of cucumber (<em>Cucumis sativus</em> cv. Bhaktapur Local) was conducted in Gulmi, Nepal during 21<sup>st</sup> April to 24<sup>th</sup> August 2017. &nbsp;The experiment was laid in single factor Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replication and 5 treatments. Four different doses of ethephon 100, 200, 300 &amp; 400 ppm with control were applied. Two sprays of ethephon was made one at two true leaf stage and other at four true leaf stage. Ethephon was found to reduce the plant height compared to control, minimum (238.8 cm) with 400 ppm and maximum (310.4 cm) with the control. The number of nodes and branches per plant were found to be highest with 300 ppm. Ethephon was found to shift first male flowers and female flowers towards upper and lower nodes respectively. The plot treated with 300 ppm ethephon, bearing 20.31 female flowers per plant was found superior to other doses for increasing total female flowers. Maximum and minimum number of male flowers per plant was recorded with control(107 per plant) and 400 ppm (46.90 per plant) respectively. Similarly, 300 ppm of ethephon was found superior for reducing (male: female) sex ratio. Maximum yield 27.51 t/ha was recorded with 300 ppm and minimum yield of 17.48 t/ha with the control. 57% increment in the yield was observed with 300 ppm ethephon as compared to the control. Thus, proper use of ethephon is found to be beneficial to farmers.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 370-377</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Shiva Dhakal Mahesh Karki Pritee Subedi Aarati GC ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 370 377 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25284 Sero-Detection of Leptospira hardjo in Cattle of Bhaktapur District of Nepal <p><em>Leptospira hardjo </em>is the most commonly reported cause of leptospirosis among cattle globally. The objective of this study was to determine sero-detection of <em>Leptospira hardjo</em> in cattle of Bhaktapur district of Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted in cattle pockets located at 4 different village development committees (VDCs) in the Bhaktapur district of Nepal. The sample collection was done in cattle to determine the sero-detection of <em>Leptospira hardjo</em> from February 2014 to June 2014. A total of 176 serum samples were collected from four VDCs of Bhaktapur district namely Sipadol, Dhadikot, Duwakot and Nangkhel, selected purposively. Forty samples from Sipadol, 46 Dhadikot, 42 Duwakot and 48 from Nangkhel were collected. 5 ml of blood was collected aseptically from jugular vein using 5 ml sterile disposable syringe. After that blood was transferred to the plain vacutainer. The harvested sera were transferred to serum vials and stored at in -20˚c deep freeze of Central Veterinary Laboratory until used for ELISA test. For screening of <em>Leptospira hardjo</em>, the <em>Leptospira hardjo</em> antibody test kit, ELISA (Prionics, Netherlands) was used. ANOVA along with multiple comparison test Tukey was used to compare frequency of detection across different locations in Bhaktapur district using SAS 9.4. MS-Excel was used to manage ELISA data from four different VDCs and to extract information regarding frequency of detection. There was 5.11% sero-detection in cattle of Bhaktapur district. Location wise sero-detection was 5% in Sipadol, 4.3% in Dhadikot, 4.76% in Duwakot and 6.25% in Nangkhel. The study showed that the detection of <em>Leptospira hardjo</em> in cattle. There was no statistical difference (P&gt;0.05) between location suggesting that cattle in all areas are equally at risk of this pathogen. Further study is suggested on isolation and identification of disease in Nepal.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 378-381</p> Gaurav Rawal Denusha Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 378 381 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25713 Diagnostic Role of Ultrasonography in Right Iliac Fossa Pathologies <p>Ultrasound is often the imaging modality of choice in patients with acute right iliac fossa pain.&nbsp; Right iliac fossa pain remains the commonest clinical dilemma encountered by general surgeons. The management of acute right iliac fossa pain is audited, examining the relationship between symptom duration, use of pre-operative radiological imaging and patient outcome. <strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the diagnostic role of ultrasonography in Right Iliac Fossa pathologies. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Department of Radiology in Sir Ganga Ram Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Duration of study was from March 2018 to November 2018. 85 patients with Right Iliac Fossa pain selected through convenient sampling technique. Statistical software for social sciences (SPSS version 22.0) is used for the analysis of data. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results in the study reflect findings from high volume emergency surgical departments and patients of pain in right iliac fossa demonstrating that unfocussed abdominal and pelvic ultrasounds are not an appropriate use of resources in patients with Right iliac fossa pain.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 382-386</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mishal Javaid Ayesha Tariq Hiba Noreen Javaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 382 386 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.24908 Ethno-medicinal Species of Cassia (C. fistula, C. siamea, C. tora): Documentation and Metabolites Estimation <p>Different species of <em>Cassia</em> found in Jharkhand are consumed as daily vegetables have high nutritional value. Most of them are underutilized and display varied ethenomedicinal values. The work was carried out with an aim to document three ethno medicinal properties of three different species of <em>Cassia</em>, <em>Cassia fistula</em>, <em>Cassia siamea </em>and <em>Cassia tora. </em>The documentation was done among 100 tribal people residing in the area near Morabadi, Ranchi. The knowledge revealed that the three plants were used in almost every tribal houses as a dietary supplement and various medicinal uses. According to the Munda Vaidya’s the plant <em>Cassia</em> is of pitta nature and its different part have different uses. The root is used against tuberculosis glands, diabetes, as a tonic, the root and bark paste mixed in equal amount is used against snake bite.&nbsp; traditionally it is used as laxative, for the treatment of leprosy and various skin disorders.&nbsp; the present study aimed to screen and quantify primary and secondary metabolite by quantitative and qualitative method. The pigments (chlorophyll and carotenoid) were characterised by UV visible spectroscopy. Concentration of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and carotenoid was calculated by Arnon method (80% acetone extract). The spectrophotometric study of the different pigment of the three species of <em>Cassia</em>, <em>Cassia fistula</em> (chl-a 254.516, chl-b 305.741, total chl 533.7 carotenoid 10.6), <em>Cassia siamea </em><em>(</em>chl-a 257.88, chl-b 393.16, total chl 630.2&nbsp;&nbsp; carotenoid 9.395<em>),</em><em> Cassia tora (</em>chl-a 266.36, chl-b 271.96, total chl 538.32 carotenoid 16.3). The result revealed that chl-a was highest in <em>Cassia tora</em> followed by <em>Cassia siamea</em> and <em>Cassia fistula</em>. Chl-b pigment followed&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>C. siamea&gt;</em> <em>C. fistula</em>&gt;<em>C. tora</em> pattern, total chl <em>C. siemea</em>&gt;<em>C. tora</em>&gt;<em>C. fistula</em> and the carotenoid amount <em>C. tora</em>&nbsp; &gt; <em>C. fistula</em> &gt; <em>C. siamea</em>. In screening of secondary metabolites tannin, saponins alkaloids, terpenoids, resin Phyto-sterols were carried out on the aqueous extract showed +ve test for all except phyto-sterols and on the powdered specimen gave –ve result in aqueous, ethanol as well as acetone extract.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(3): 387-394</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> L. Rani A. Munjani G. Lakra A.K. Choudhury R.K. Pandey ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 7 3 387 394 10.3126/ijasbt.v7i3.25716