International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> SEM-Biotech Publishing en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2091-2609 Comparative Phytochemical Constituents of Extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum Grown in Anambra State, Nigeria <p><strong>Corrigendum:</strong></p> <p>First, middle and last name of two authors were not printed in proper order; hence, corrected in proper order.</p> <p>Anyaoha Victoria N. changed to<strong> “Anyaoha Victoria I.</strong>”</p> <p>Soludo Chukwuma O. changed to<strong> “Soludo Obumneme C.</strong>”</p> <p><em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> is a plant abundant in several phytochemicals, that can be extracted, purified, and packaged for the goal of promoting public health. In this study, the phytochemical composition of the leaf extracts of <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em> grown in Anambra State, Nigeria, was compared. <em>B. pinnatum</em> leaves were obtained from a farm in Anambra State, Nigeria. The leaves were processed and extracted using cold water and hot water extraction, methanol extraction, and ethanol extraction. The extraction processes were carried out following standard extraction methods. Preliminary qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to determine the presence and concentration of phytochemicals in the plants. Phytochemicals tested include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthocyanins, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and phlobatannins. All the tested phytochemicals were recovered in the solvent (methanol and ethanol) extracts; carbohydrates, reducing sugar, protein, and anthocyanin were absent in the aqueous (cold and hot water) extracts. Varying concentrations of the phytochemicals in the different extracts were recorded, and they range from 0.00±0.00% to 13.30±0.22%, with the highest concentration of the extracts recovered in the solvent (methanol and ethanol) extracts. This study revealed that the extraction method used can influence the type and concentration of phytochemicals recovered in <em>Bryophyllum pinnatum</em>. Therefore, the specific desired phytochemical should determine the extract method to use in any study.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 12(1): 1-7.</em></p> Ndirika D. Nnaebue Chikodili G. Anaukwu Victoria I. Anyaoha Obumneme C. Soludo Amarachukwu B. Isiaka Tobechukwu M.C. Ajogwu Samuel C. Onuorah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-04-11 2024-04-11 12 1 1 7 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.64330 Karyomorphology of Seven Different Angiospermic Plants <p>The focus of this study is on the karyomorphological examination of seven angiospermic plants: <em>Centaurea cyanus </em>L. belonging to the Cynareae tribe; <em>Coreopsis grandiflora</em> Nutt. ex Chapm. and <em>Eclipta prostrata</em> (Linn.) Linn. from the Heliantheae tribe; <em>Eupatorium adenophorum</em> Spreng from the Eupatorie tribe; <em>Gnaphalium affine</em> D. Don. from the Inuleae tribe; <em>Rhynchospermum verticillatum</em> Reinw. from the Astereae tribe; and <em>Tridax procumbens</em> L within the Asteraceae family. Cytological analysis was used to assess the chromosome count and karyomorphology of all seven plants studied in central Nepal. The somatic chromosomal number found in this inquiry was 2n=24 for <em>Centaurea cyanus</em>, which has the karyotype formula M<sub>12</sub>+ m<sub>6</sub>+sm<sub>2</sub>+ st<sub>4</sub>. Similarly, 2n=26 was found for <em>Coreopsis grandiflora</em>, which has the karyotype formula M<sub>14</sub>+sm<sub>12</sub> and 2n=22 for <em>Eclipta prostrata</em> which has the karyotype formula M<sub>14</sub>+sm<sub>6</sub>+st<sub>2</sub>. The karyotype formula for <em>Eupatorium adenophorum</em> is M<sub>4</sub>+m<sub>12</sub>+sm<sub>26</sub>+st<sub>8</sub> and 2n=50, while for <em>Gnaphalium affine</em>, it is M<sub>10</sub>+sm<sub>4</sub>, with a 2n=14 value. The karyotype formula for <em>Rhynchospermum verticillatum </em>is M<sub>4</sub>+ m<sub>8</sub>+ sm<sub>6</sub> with 2n = 18. For<em> Tridax procumbens</em> L, 2n = 26 whose karyotype formula is M<sub>18</sub>+m<sub>4</sub>+sm<sub>2</sub>+ st<sub>2</sub>.The examined taxa's total length varied from 0.3 µm to 2.6 µm.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 12(1): 8-18.</em></p> Pushpa Karna Mallick Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 12 1 8 18 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.64328 Stakeholder Analysis and Management for Promoting Small and Medium-Scale Vegetable Processing Technology in Nepal <p>This article explores the intricate landscape of stakeholder analysis and management within the framework of promoting small and medium-scale vegetable processing technology in Nepal. Given that agriculture engages a substantial 66% of the country's workforce, the escalating demand for vegetables has been met with challenges stemming from the lack of support for vegetable processing industries, resulting in food waste and financial setbacks for farmers. Addressing these issues, the article advocates for holistic backing and promotion of vegetable processing industries in Nepal. The methodology section delineates a mixed-methods approach for stakeholder analysis, employing documentary reviews, key informant interviews, and surveys to get information. It further explores the constitutional roles of different government levels and details the initiatives by the Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD) and other government agencies in propelling food processing technology. The stakeholder analysis provides a detailed examination of both internal and external stakeholders, categorizing them based on their power and interest. The power/interest grid and influence mapping assist in prioritizing stakeholder engagement and managing their expectations effectively. The article concludes by asserting that effective stakeholder management is crucial for addressing the challenges and promoting the growth of vegetable processing industries in Nepal.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 12(1): 19-28.</em></p> Prateek Joshi Sanjeev Kumar Karn Pramod Koirala Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 12 1 19 28 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.62737 Fabrication and Characterization of Non-Conventional Starch Based Biofilms Employing Different Plasticizers <p>Increasing stress on environmental awareness has promoted the use of alternative strategies for common petrochemical based plastic sources to environmentally friendly biofilms and packaging materials. Food by products and underutilised indigenous plants sources are rich in biopolymers which can naturally decompose. The present study focusses on preparations of bioplastics from unconventional starch sources of litchi seed and churkha tuber as novel initiative to combat environmental pollution along with valorisation of undervalued plant sources and agrobased wastes. Ternary blend films of poly vinyl alcohol, starch, plasticizers like (glycerol, sorbitol, mannitol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol), citric acid prepared by casting technique produced best result. Comparative study of test samples (TH11, TH12, TH13, TH14 etc) with standardized thin films (TH1, TH2, TH3 etc.) showed variation in appearance, water activity, thickness, since the starch differ in their compositions, gelatinization and gelation time and temperature. High amylose containing litchi seed starch forms firm and more flexible films in comparison to low amylose containing churkha tuber starch. Maximum hygroscopicity was recorded in case of TH1 (77.4%) while thickness was maximum in case of TH12 (0.18 mm). Micro structural analysis clearly showed the nature of crosslinking between starch molecule and different plasticizers. The sensory analysis of food packed with the best among the formularized thin films showed mild change in taste while the other parameters remain same as normal. Better acceptability was in case of TH12 wrapped food rather than TH1. Thus, fabrication of biodegradable packaging is considered as the most sustainable alternative for food preservation.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 12(1): 29-38.</em></p> Sutapa Laha Annalakshmi Chatterjee Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 12 1 29 38 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.64332 Community Health Profile of Selected Area of Birgunj Metropolitan City, Parsa <p><strong>Background:</strong> Community assessment is the basic foundation for promoting and improving the health of community populations. The objective of this survey is to appraise the health profile of the community and assist in promoting community health.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out from August 14, 2019, to September 21, 2019. The population of the study was residents of ward number 1, Chhapkaiya of Birgunj Metropolitan City, a Slum area of the ward selected purposively, where there were 200 houses and a total population was 1364. Data were collected using the interview technique. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The majority (79.0%) of respondents threw waste in an open field. Only 19.0% of respondents had used latrines. Most women (80.25%) became mothers at the age of fewer than 20 years. More than half (57.31%) of pregnant women had done an ANC visit up to the fourth time, among them, 90.0% of respondents had delivered in a government hospital 86.0% of the mothers had colostrum feeding practiced as well and 90.12% had done exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months. Female sterilisation (38%) were more common in the society. Above sixty percent (62.86%) of families, had done diarrheal management in the home of under 5 children.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The health profile of the Chhapkaiya community is satisfactory. All populations used safe water but open field defecation is prevalent and most of the population threw waste in the open field. The majority of the women became mothers below 20 years of age and home delivery is still practiced in this community.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. </em><em>Vol 12(1): 39-45.</em></p> Jamuna Bhattarai Angira Kumari Chaudhary Surya Koirala Ruby Shah Sabina Adhikari Nidhi Kamal Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 12 1 39 45 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.64326 Assessing the Clinical Outcomes of Voxelotor Treatment in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease <p>The results of Voxelotor treatment in Sickle Cell Disease, as assessed through clinical outcomes, demonstrated its efficacy in reducing hemolysis and improving hemoglobin levels. This effect can be attributed to Voxelotor's inhibition of HbS polymerization, thereby restoring the deformability and compliance of sickle RBCs. Our mathematical model provided mechanistic insights into how altered rheological properties of sickle RBCs impact their flow dynamics in microcirculation. Specifically, we observed that Voxelotor-induced improvements in RBC deformability and compliance lead to enhanced plasma film height in capillaries, promoting smoother blood flow and reducing the risk of vaso-occlusive events. We established a direct relationship between the molecular mechanism of Voxelotor action and its clinical outcomes. The mathematical model served as a bridge, elucidating how Voxelotor-induced changes in sickle RBC mechanics translate to improved microcirculatory flow and reduced vaso-occlusion. This holistic understanding not only validates the therapeutic efficacy of Voxelotor but also underscores the importance of considering biomechanical factors in evaluating treatment outcomes in SCD. Furthermore, this study highlighted the relevance of microfluidics based diagnostic tools in assessing the efficacy of Voxelotor treatment. By leveraging insights from our mathematical model, microfluidics devices can be designed to mimic physiological conditions and effectively evaluate the deformability of sickle RBCs before and after treatment. This integrated approach not only facilitates the development of personalized therapeutic interventions but also accelerates the translation of novel treatments, such as Voxelotor, from preclinical studies to clinical practice for the management of Sickle Cell Disease.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 12(1): 46-53.</em></p> Purnima Chaturvedi Sapna Ratan Shah Copyright (c) 2024 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 12 1 46 53 10.3126/ijasbt.v12i1.64057