International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> SEM-Biotech Publishing en-US International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2091-2609 Pre-leukemic Cell Detection and Leukemic Transformation of a Normal Marrow Cell: A Mini review <p>The hematopoietic cells are multipotent primitive cells, which differentiate into either common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor. However, if there an abnormality in this process of differentiation, condition of leukemia arises, which is the 11th leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide in the year 2018. These abnormalities are brought about by array of mutations occurring at cellular level. According to the two-hit model hypothesis, key oncogenic events are classified into two classes: class I mutations and class II mutations. Class I&nbsp; mutations are those that causes activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), FLT3, c-kit (KIT), and Ras signaling pathways thereby increasing proliferation rate of progenitor cells. Class II mutations include recurrent chromosomal abnormalities such as t(8; 21), inv(16), and t(15; 17), which result in fusion transcripts of RUNX1/ETO, CBF/MYH11, and PML/RAR, respectively that eventually impair hematopoietic differentiation. The factors associated with leukemia can be biological, chemical or socio-economical. The advancement in the researches on the topic have aided to the development of various technologies such as detection of DNMT3A and xenografts assays, in order to detect these mutations in pre-leukemic cells. This review aims to provide an introduction to the condition, its types and provide brief summary on genes and mutations responsible for the condition. The factors associated with leukemia and technologies involved in the detection of leukemia are also reviewed.</p> Bibek Rana Chhetri Rajat Thapa Dipika Shrestha Agrani Paudel Sandesh Adhikari Arjun Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 190 200 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.49499 In-Silico Structural and Functional Characterization of WsMYB44 Protein from Withania somnifera L. Dunal <p>The plant based MYB transcription factors have been extensively studied for structural and functional characterization. MYB protein is known to perform several molecular and biological processes including regulation of gene expression. In the current study, we have identified and characterized a R2R3 type MYB TF (WsMYB44) pertaining to root specific library from <em>Withania somnifera</em>. The phylogenetic studies of the identified protein sequence revealed its recent origin from <em>Nicotiana sp</em>., a member of Solanaceae family. Motif scans and domain analysis depicted strong conservation near signature R2 and R3 DNA binding domains which proved the specificity of the WsMYB44 protein. The modeled 3-D structure of protein showed significant binding affinity with the MYB binding DNA element C/TAACG/TG. The synergistic act of the predicted protein was proved by studying protein-protein interaction networks. Furthermore, Gene Ontology terms predicted nuclear localization of protein which was found to be involved in several defense related signaling cascades.</p> Lakee Sharma Bipin Maurya Shashi Pandey Rai Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 201 215 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.50850 Epidemiology of Camel Brucellosis Intended for Export from Kassala State – Eastern Sudan <p><strong>Summary</strong></p> <p>This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence rate of Brucellosis and to identify the risk factors for Brucella infection in camels intended for export from Kassala State. A total of 400 blood samples were collected for serum from all Kassala localities, tested using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay C.ELISA). The prevalence rate was (29.5 %) and (27.8%) based on the results of RBPT and C.ELISA respectively. According to sex, the prevalence rate of the disease was (30.4%) out of 335 in males and (24.6%) out of 65 in females. There were no clinical signs of camel's Brucellosis in all tested animals. The prevalence of the disease was (14.4%) in Rural KhashmElgerba, (15.3%) in North Delta, (8.5%) in Wad Elhilau, Rural Kassala (11.9%), Hamashkoreb (12.7%), Rustic Arouma (14.4%), Talkook (16.9%) and Atbra river locality (5.9%) with a significant statistical difference. Herds with more than 20 camels were more frequently affected. In this study the Seroprevalence of Brucella was (9.3 %) in young (1-2 years) and (23.7%) in adult camels (above 5 years). The results of the present study provide the status of seropositivity to Brucella in camels intended for export in Kassala State and the risk factors that contribute to prevalence of Brucellosis among camels. This situation requires more attention and effort to implement.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(4): 216-220.</em></p> Hussein Bashir Hatim Hamad Abraheem Maha Ibrahim Khogly Eslah Abedelhabib Dafaallh Salah Hassan Idris Hussam Aldeen Mustafa Abdelrazig Bilal Yassir Adam Shuaib Nada Elamein Mohammed Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 216 220 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.48495 Performance Evaluation of Papaya Genotypes in Nepal <p>Coordinated varietal trials (CVTs) were conducted to identify the high yielding papaya (Carica papaya L.) genotypes at different agro- climatic conditions with eight genotypes at Agriculture Research Station (ARS), Malepatan, Pokhara; Viuran, Nawalparasi and Parewatar, Dhading during 2006-2009 and seedling were transplanted at the time of October and experiment was designed in RCBD and replicated thrice. Observations were recorded on biological and socio-economic parameters and analyzed. The pooled data over year revealed that number of fruits, marketable yield, average weight and circumference of the fruits at ARS, Malepatan and marketable fruit yield and average weight of the fruit at Viuran, Nawalparasi and Parewatar, Dhading showed the highly significant differences among the tested genotypes. Days to first harvest and length of the fruits at ARS, Malepatan and days to flowering, first harvest and number of fruits per plant at Viuran, Nawalparasi and Parewatar, Dhading showed the significant differences within genotypes. While, non-significant difference was noticed under days to flowering at ARS, Malepatan. Genotypes Red Lady was found early in all location (295 days to harvest) and the highest production of the marketable fruit yield (104.22 t/ha) followed by Farm selection-1 (102.37 t/ha) and which was at par with each other. Farm selection-1 recorded in the highest number of fruits per plant (41.4), the average fruit weight (1.46 kg) followed by Red Lady (37 and 1.37 kg at ARS, Malepatan, Pokhara. Farmers and consumers preferred red Lady due to earliness, red flesh color and good storability.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(4): 221-224.</em></p> JN Chaudhary IP Gautam YR Bhusal T Gotame Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 221 224 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.50883 Evaluation on the Role of Different Production Factor on the Yield of Rapeseed <p>Rapeseed and mustard are third most important edible oilseeds of the world after soybean and palm oil. Among the factor the choice of fertilizer is also one of the major factors as rape seed is very much effective in up taking the nutrient from the soil.&nbsp; With the objective of finding the judicious use of the combination of chemical fertilizer and other organic fertilizer, experiment was conducted in Oilseed Research program, NARC. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design with seven treatments replicated thrice. The plot size was 15 m 2 with plant sown continuously in rows spaced 30 cm apart. Highest yield (396 kg/ha) was observed in treatment no. 7 (125% RDF) Lack of knowledge in the field of the optimum fertilizers use is hindrance in the soil health as well a crop productivity. Best combination of fertilizer and their optimum used can enrich the soil health as well as reduce the input cost and increase the yield.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bisheswar Prasad Yadav Pramod Wagle Santosh Rasaily Nabina B.K. Suvash Devkota Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 225 227 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.50901 Antimicrobial Assessment and Phytochemical Screening of Medicinal Plants and Ganoderma lucidum. <p>Nepal has always relied on traditional medicinal plants, herbs, and mushrooms that are locally available to treat numerous diseases. This study thus aimed to explore the antimicrobial properties of the plants and fungi that are commonly used as traditional medicines. Antimicrobial properties of 5 plants (<em>Curcuma caesia</em>. <em>Acorus calamus</em>, <em>Moringa oleifera</em>, <em>Terminalia chebula</em>, and <em>Tinospora</em> <em>cordifolia</em>) and 1 fungus (<em>Ganoderma lucidum</em>) were screened against 4 ATCC bacterial culture (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>). The extracts were prepared using Soxhlet’s apparatus in two solvents, i.e. ethanol and distilled water. Out of which, distilled water of <em>Acorus calamus</em> had the highest percentage yield. All extracts showed antimicrobial properties against <em>S.</em> <em>aureus</em>. The highest potential was observed in the ethanolic extract of <em>Curcuma caesia</em> against <em>S. aureus</em> with the zone of inhibition of 22mm The ethanolic extract of <em>Tinospora cordiofolia</em> showed promising antimicrobial against gram-negative bacteria<em>: E.coli</em>, <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>K. pneumoniae</em> with the zone of inhibition 15mm, 15mm and 14mm respectively. The distilled water extract of <em>Acorus calamus</em> showed the highest antimicrobial activity against <em>P. aeruginosa</em> with a zone of inhibition of 18mm. In the case of phytochemical screening, both the extracts of <em>Tinospora cordiofolia</em> showed the highest phytochemicals (Terpenoids, Saponins, Coumarin, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, and Tannins). The experiment confirmed the efficacy of selected plants and fungus extract as a natural antimicrobial against all the test organisms used, suggesting the possibility of employing them in novel drug development against the treatment of infectious diseases caused by the test organisms.</p> Rajat Thapa Rashika Maharjan Puja Tamang Priya Gautam Rachana Adhikari Sandesh Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 228 236 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.49508 Response of Sowing Dates, Crop Establishment Methods and Mulching on Growth, Productivity and Profitability of Spring Wheat at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal <p>Intensive tillage with no crop residue after rice harvest in conventional wheat cultivation increases the turn around time, delays sowing and affects the yield. A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of sowing dates, establishment methods and mulching and their interaction on growth, productivity and profitability of spring wheat at agronomy farm of AFU, Rampur Chitwan, Nepal from November 2020 to April 2021. The experiment was laid out in strip-split plot design, with three dates of sowing (20<sup>th</sup> November, 5<sup>th</sup> December and 20<sup>th</sup> December) in vertical plots, two establishment methods (Zero tillage and Conventional tillage) in horizontal plots and two levels of mulching (0 t ha<sup>-1</sup> and 5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> of rice straw mulch) in sub-plots and replicated thrice with Vijay as test variety. Data regarding the phenology, growth parameters, yield attributes and yield were recorded, analyzed and presented. The research results revealed that date of sowing and mulching significantly influenced phenology, growth, yield attributes, yield and their interactions. The higher grain yield was obtained in 5<sup>th</sup> December as well as 20<sup>th</sup> November sowing in conventional tillage with mulch (4511.49 &amp; 4492.12 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively). These grain yields were statistically at par with 5<sup>th</sup> December and 20<sup>th</sup> November sowing in zero tillage with mulch (4363.74 &amp; 4129.97 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> respectively). Net return and B:C ratio were significantly higher on 5<sup>th</sup> December and 20<sup>th</sup> November sowing with mulch in zero tillage than 20<sup>th</sup> December sowing in conventional tillage without mulch.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(4): 237-244.</em></p> <p> </p> Amrit Aryal Anil Balchhaudi Rabin Khadka Shrawan Kumar Sah Santosh Marahatta Tulsi Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 237 244 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.49803 Biofertilizer reduces the dependency on chemical fertilizer on wheat production <p>Scarce availability of chemical fertilizers threatens sustainability of wheat production in Nepal. Combined application of chemical and biofertilizer can reduce chemical fertilizer and enhance the yield under limited fertilizer availability. A field experiment was carried out to assess the combined application of chemical and biofertilizer on the growth and yield of spring wheat at Rampur, Chitwan from November 2020 to April 2021. The experiment was laid out in strip plot design with four nitrogen and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> levels (0, 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose) in vertical plots and three biofertilizer application methods (not applied, seed applied and soil applied) in horizontal plots with three replications. The research results revealed significant interaction between nitrogen and P<sub>2</sub>O­<sub>5</sub> levels and biofertilizer application methods. The highest grain yield (4624.48 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of wheat was obtained with 100% levels of N and P­­­<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> with soil applied biofertilizer at par with 75% levels of N and P­­­<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5 </sub>with soil applied biofertilizer (4457.54 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>). The total nitrogen uptake was higher in biofertilizer applied wheat as compared with no application of biofertilizer although statistically not significant. The yield increment in 100% and 75% N and P­­­<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> levels with soil applied biofertilizer over same level N and P­­­<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> with no biofertilizer application were 10.96% and 29.60% respectively. The higher gross return, net return and B:C ratio were obtained with 75% and 100% N and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> levels with soil and seed applied biofertilizers. The result indicates that 25% recommended dose of N and P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> could be reduced by soil application of biofertilizer without compromising the grain yield of wheat.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(4): 245-253.</em></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Rabin Khadka Anil Balchhaudi Amrit Aryal Shrawan Kumar Sah Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 245 253 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.49857 Factors Affecting Potato Marketed Surplus in Kavre District of Nepal <p>Potato is a staple food crop. It has been being a highly consumed food grown in all parts of Nepal. A study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the potato marketed surplus, taking randomly selected 100 potato growing households in Kavre district of Nepal. Face to face survey with semi structured questionnaire for primary data collection and secondary information was collected through review of relevant publications from the government authority. Descriptive statistics and econometric model were used for data analysis. The multiple linear regression model was used to identify the determinants of potato marketed surplus. It was revealed around 81% of the total potato production was usually sold to the market and the remaining 11% and 9% of potato were used for seed and home consumption respectively. The multiple regression model indicates that among the seven variables used namely area of potato production, NARC released potato varieties, experience of farmer, education level, price and selling to traders were significantly influenced to the marketed surplus of potato in Kavre. Farmers’ access to quality inputs services and capacity building training for enhanced production and strengthening backward and forward linkage for effective marketing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Meena Kharel Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 10 4 254 258 10.3126/ijasbt.v10i4.50882