International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> en-US (Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 30 Dec 2021 14:17:15 +0000 OJS 60 Influence of Seaweed (Padina antrillarum) Extract Foliar Application on Growth and Flowering of Roses Variety ‘Local’ <p>The Seaweed (<em>Padina antrillarum</em>) abundantly found in the coastal region of Eastern Sri Lanka. Seaweed contains a wide range of nutrients and hormones for plant growth. An experiment was conducted at the Crop Farm, Eastern University, Sri Lanka to assess the effects of seaweed (<em>Padina antrillarum</em>) extract on the flowering of roses var. ‘Local’ from July to September 2020. Four treatments were used in this experiment viz. 10% (T1), 20% (T2), and 30% (T3) seaweed extracts with control treatment (T4). Treatments were applied at once-a-week interval. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with three replications. All other management practices were followed uniformly. Measurements were done at once a month. Collected data were analyzed. The higher performances in measured parameters (plant height, leaf area, plant biomass, number of flowers per plant) were observed in T2. It showed that once a week application of 20% seaweed liquid extract had the potential to increase growth and flower production in roses. It might be due to the presence of nutrients and the growth hormones in seaweed extract and optimum concentration of seaweed extract received by plants at T2. In T1 and T3, plants received sub-optimum and higher concentration respectively. It could be the reason for the lowest performances in these treatments. From this experiment, it could be concluded that once a week application of 20% seaweed liquid extract of <em>Padina antrillarum</em> is suitable to increase flowering in roses of treatment tested.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> M.A.M.N. Kularathne, S. Srikrishnah, S. Sutharsan Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Traditional Methods of Controlling Striga on Cultivated Crops in Sudanian Agricultural Zone of Chad <p>The phytoparasite, <em>Striga spp</em>., is a major biotic constraint to cereals production in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was carried out at station of Bébédjia of Chadian Institute of Agronomic Research for the Development in Sudanian agricultural zone of Chad, on traditional methods of controlling <em>Striga</em> <em>spp</em>. This study helped to find out several methods of controlling <em>Striga</em> among which the most important is the agronomic method including organic and or mineral fertilization, associated crops, crop rotation and the use of false hosts and trap crops. Some farmers cultivated resistant varieties and early maturing varieties to control pest attack and some others used shea flour and herbicide treatment to reduce the effect of <em>Striga</em> on the farm. Most of these methods were applied by farmers from generation to generation, without a thorough study to understand their mechanism. Thus, the listed methods will be analysed by research in station to find out scientific explanations for each applied method. Then experiments will be carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of some methods previously identified by extension rural services in farmers’ area after improvement.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Gapili Naoura, Doyam Nodjasse Amos, Djinodji Reoungal, Djenaissem Alfred Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Effect of Essential Oils (Clove Oil, Castor Oil and Ginger Oil) Against Human Pathogenic Bacteria <p>Essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds which are produced as secondary metabolites by plants for their protection against various microorganisms as well as pests. A wide range of plants have been explored for their essential oils in the past few decades. The study was conducted to determine the antibacterial activity of essential oils against human pathogenic bacteria which were gram positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pyogenes</em>) as well as gram negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,</em> and <em>Shigella sonnei</em>). Five ml of three different oils, i.e. clove oil, castor oil, and ginger oil, were taken in a test tube so that each oil had four different concentrations. Four concentrations of (0, 25, 50 and 75) μL of oils were mixed with 1000, 975, 950 and 925 μL of DMSO respectively to make it a volume of 1ml. It was observed that clove oil was effective against the entire gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria that were used. The inhibition zone was greatest in the case of clove oil at 75 μL against <em>P.</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> (23 mm) and the smallest zone of inhibition was shown by castor oil against <em>K. pneumoniae</em> (12 mm). Other oils were sensitive as well as resistant to the bacteria. Hence, it is found that different oils have shown inhibitory activity towards different pathogens to a variable extent. However, clove oil was inhibitory to all the bacteria in all concentrations.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 250-255</em></p> <p> </p> Shraddha Dulal, Sujan Chaudhary, Chiranjibi Dangi, Shiv Nandan Sah Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Status of Vitamin D among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Care Centre in Rupandehi, Nepal <p>Serum vitamin D is one of the fat-soluble vitamin which has the role in maintenance of calcium and phosphorus levels and ultimately proper bone health and various physiological processes. Although many studies prevail hypovitaminosis D, we focused to find out the pattern of elevated or decreased serum vitamin D level as its deficiency and surplus have adverse effects to our health.. For this, a retrospective study was done from the records present in a hospital laboratory of Devdaha Medical College and Research Institute (DMCRI), Rupandehi, Nepal from January 2018 to December 2020 where 201 participants with 70.1% male and 29.9% female with different age groups were present. From total participants, 14.9% had deficient, 42.8% had insufficient, 35.3% had sufficient and 7% had high level of serum vitamin D. Male had 2.9% deficient and 14,9% insufficient vitamin D whereas female had 11.9% deficient, 27.8% insufficient and 7.0% surplus vitamin D. The greater prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in the females than the males could be overcome by the necessary strategies in the form of further studies and judicious supplementation vitamin D in the target population by monitoring the level of serum vitamin D.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 256-260.</em></p> Tirtha Narayan Shah, Amar Kumar Sinha, Krishna Kumar Jha, Ram Jiban Prasad Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Trap Crops for The Wheat Bug, Nysius huttoni Management: A Cage Study <p>The wheat bug, <em>Nysius huttoni</em>, is an endemic New Zealand insect pest. Its feeding can seriously reduce crop establishment in forage A cage study was conducted in Lincoln University, New Zealand to evaluate the pest’s host preferences on four plant species. Kale plants (<em>Brassica oleracea</em>) were used as a potentially susceptible control and other four trap plants were tested to evaluate as potential trap-plants. These were: <em>Lobularia maritima </em>(alyssum), <em>Triticum aestivum </em>(wheat), <em>Coriandrum sativum</em> (coriander) and <em>Trifolium repens</em> (white clover). The alyssum plant was more attractive to the wheat bug. The survival rate and preferences of the wheat bug was significantly better than other four plants. The deployment of such flowering trap crops can potentially trap the wheat bug and also provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) in an agro-ecosystem. The findings can be used to develop the wheat bug management protocol and also potentially provide ecosystem services in brassica fields.</p> Sundar Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Wed, 29 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Citrus Greening Disease and Its Possible Management Strategies in Nepal <p>Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is a devastating disease of citrus that has decimated several citrus orchards throughout the world. The disease is associated with three species of unculturable and phloem-limited bacteriae, <em>Candidatus </em>Liberibacter asiaticus,<em> Candidatus </em>Liberibacter africanus and <em>Candidatus </em>Liberibacter americanus. The most common species of bacteria found in Nepal is <em>Candidatus </em>Liberibacter asiaticus which is transmitted by an insect vector, Asian citrus psyllid (<em>Diaphorina citri</em>). This disease has been detected in several economically important citrus production areas of Nepal, which resulted in heavy yield loss. No cure for the disease has been discovered yet and it is essential to practice proper management strategies to maintain citrus health and sustain citrus production under HLB pressure. Several disease management approaches such as pathogen-free nursery establishment, use of disease tolerant rootstock cultivars, proper irrigation and nutrient supply, removal of HLB affected trees, and control of psyllid with frequent insecticide application are widely practiced throughout the world. This review article highlights the characteristics of the citrus greening disease and its insect vector and gives insights into their management techniques. Several technologically advanced options available to minimize the HLB infection might not be feasible currently in Nepal due to economic and topographic constraints. This article also aims to bring into focus the cost-effective methods that growers in Nepal can practice to mitigate the impact of HLB disease in their citrus orchards.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 9(4): 227-238.</em></p> Sameer Pokhrel, Swikriti Pandey, Ashish Ghimire, Savyata Kandel Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Thu, 30 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000