International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> en-US (Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:44:01 +0000 OJS 60 Enhancing Production Through Input Use Efficiency of Virus-Resistant Pune Selection-3 Papaya Variety <p>An experiment was carried out using virus-resistant papaya variety Pune Selection-3 to study the effect of different cultivation methods for enhanced production and input use efficiency at Horticultural Research Farm, RAU, Pusa during the year 2016-2019. The outcomes of raised bed cultivation (a), drip irrigation (b), fertigation (c), polyethylene mulching (d) along with micronutrient spray (e) were analyzed using different combinations of these parameters as treatments for growth, yield-related parameters, and fruit quality. Nutrient use efficiency was also assessed by examining various interactive components such as soil nutrient content, nutrient acquisition with nutrient content in the leaves, the efficiency of nutrient utilization informs of the biomass produced, fruit yield, and fruit nutritional quality. The plant height was maximum in T1 (155 cm) which was significantly higher than the plant of control treatment. The flowering time was found to be reduced in all treatments. However, total soluble sugar was higher in T3. Overall, when the B:C ratio was compared, the treatment (T1) showed a higher value along with a 2.38-fold fruit yield/plant and 0.89-fold increase in fruit yield per hectare. The nutritional quality of fruits enhanced in T1 treated plants having a 1.78-fold increment in flavonoid content, and 1.2-fold more lycopene. The phenolic content was also 1.8-fold higher than the control (T5). The result obtained in the present study demonstrates that with the implementation of a suitable fertigation system in papaya cultivation we can obtain papaya growth, fruit yield per plant, and fruit quality by targeting enhancement in cost: benefit ratio.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 84-92.</em></p> Sanjay Kumar Rai, Sanjay Kumar Singh, Arun Kumar, Apoorva Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Banana Production Status and Its Role on Income Generation and Livelihood Improvement in Chitwan, Nepal <p>The demand of banana fruit is ever increasing and Nepal's Terai region has immense potential for this high value crop. Government has kept it at top most priority where it can be grown like Chitwan district. This study examined the banana production, problems of banana production and about the livelihood improvement of banana farmers in Chitwan district, Province No.3 of Nepal during the year of 2022. Tharu were the dominant ethnic group of these villages. The numbers of respondents selected for this study belong between 22-59 years old. The major occupation of these respondents was farming 91.4 percent and 8 percent were in other services. A survey was conducted from a representative sample size of 60 banana growers. The sample was selected by using simple random sampling technique. Banana producers of Chitwan district are taking good benefit from the banana fruit as income was higher than the cost. It was found that from 1 bigha farmers can have income of Rs 650000 with the cost of Rs 345000. It was found that among different sources of credit, people were mostly reliant on their own fund. People's participation in various social groups such as savings and credit group, farmers group, water user group, cooperatives and other social groups have increased over the time. To enhance more banana production quantity and quality major problems of farmers should be dealt with, which would help to increase their earning resulting in higher living standard day by day and that way we can encourage more production.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 93-98.</em></p> Aakash Adhikari, Bipul Paudel, Ashim Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antioxidant activity of methanol crude extract of Aspilia africana leaves: an in vitro approach <p><em> Aspilia africana</em> (Compositae) is one of such plants considered of great importance in the pharmacopeia of traditional medicine. This study was carried out to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of its leaf methanol extract. leaf samples of <em>Aspilia africana</em> were collected, washed, air-dried, and processed to a fine powder in the microbiology laboratory of Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. Crude extract of the leaf samples was done by the cold maceration technique using methanol solvents. Phytochemical analysis of the carried out using previously described technique, and in vitro antibacterial activities of concentrations 1.625-100 mg/ml and a standard antibiotic (Streptomycin) were tested on <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA)<em>, Bacillus stereothemophilus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Serratia marcensens, Proteus mirabilis </em>by the agar diffusion test. The radical scavenging ability of the extract was determined using the stable radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate). The phytochemical analysis of the crude extract of both plants revealed the presence of saponins, tannin, resin, phlobatannins, and phenols. The <em>in-vitro</em> antibacterial test of the methanol crude extract using the agar well diffusion method showed broad-spectrum activity. With a minimum bactericidal concentration of 30 and 75 mg/mL for <em>Klebsiella pneumonia, and Bacillus subtilis respectively</em>. <em>In-vitro</em> antioxidant activities using 2, 2–diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay indicate that the methanol leaves extract had higher activity than 92.23 µg/mL compared to standard drugs (Ascorbic acid 1.07 mg/mL) and IC50 at 4.66. This study concluded that <em>Aspilia africana</em> methanol crude extract exhibits dosage-dependent antioxidant antibacterial potential.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 99-103.</em></p> Oluwarinu Adepoju, Joseph Omololu-Aso Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biodegradation of Organic Waste Using Bacillus Species Isolated From Soil <p>Organic waste can be enzymatically degraded by microbes. In this study, the <em>Bacillus</em> species were isolated from soil and identified as <em>Bacillus subtilis</em>, <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em>, <em>Bacillus macquariensis</em>, <em>Bacillus brevis</em>, and <em>Bacillus circulans</em> which were optimized considering pH (5, 7, 9) and temperature (37°C, 45°C, 55°C) for the maximum production of amylase, gelatinase, lipase, and cellulase, principally for the degradation of organic waste. The maximum production of amylase was found at 37°C with pH 7 and 9, gelatinase and lipase at 37°C with pH 5,7,9 by almost all identified species. Similarly, the production of cellulase was shown by <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> only at 45°C, pH 5. The degradation was confirmed by the analysis of the solid content of degraded waste. The maximum degradation of starch and lipid-containing waste was shown by <em>Bacillus macquariensis</em> whereas <em>Bacillus circulans</em> were able to degrade gelatin-containing waste effectively. <em>Bacillus</em> species showed a synergistic effect in biodegradation. <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> used in ratios 1:1 and 1:2 were found to be effective degraders of lipid and starch-containing waste respectively. <em>Bacillus macquariensis</em>, <em>Bacillus brevis</em>, and <em>Bacillus circulans</em> used in ratio 1:1:1 showed effective degradation of gelatin-containing waste. The degradation of the organic waste by multi-enzyme producer <em>Bacillus</em> species can be the most effective and eco-friendly method and their optimization for enzyme production can be beneficial for commercial enzyme production as well as for biotechnological applications.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 104-111.</em></p> Bibek Rana Chhetri, Preksha Silwal, Pooja Jyapu, Yumika Maharjan, Trishana Lamsal, Anup Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wild Floristic Diversity of Daman-Simbhanjyang Area, Makwanpur District, Central Nepal <p>A floristic study of an area is very crucial to determine the status of plant species of particular area or geographical region, as it reflects the whole plant diversity of that area. Our study aimed at identifying the floristic composition of Daman-Simbhanjyang area which included flowering plants, gymnosperms, pteridophytes and bryophytes at wild habitat. The present study has recorded altogether 189 plant species under 163 genera and 90 families. Out of 189 plant species (114 Dicots and 20 Monocots), 134 phanerogams were recorded under 112 genera and 55 families. Asteraceae was found to be the richest family with 14 species among dicots and Orchidaceae (8 spp.) among monocots. Moreover, 30 species of pteridophytes and 22 species of bryophytes were recorded under 28 genera from 15 families and 20 genera from 17 families respectively. However, only three species of gymnosperm were recorded under 3 genera and 3 families at wild habitat. Therefore, the present study has concluded Daman-Simbhanjyang area to be rich in plant species diversity which encompasses many high valued plant species that needs to be conserved and used in sustainable manner.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 112-123.</em></p> Gyanu Thapa Magar, Sujan Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Earthworm Diversity and Distribution in Kathmandu, Bagmati Province, Central Nepal <p>Earthworms are of ecological and economic significance and are directly related wit human health through biogeochemical cycle. Such a valuable faunal group needs immediate intensified taxonomic treatment in Nepal for their sustainable use, efficient commercial production and biodiversity conservation. Systematic random sampling was used for site selection and hand sorting method was used for sample collection from the field. Collected specimen were photographed in field and preserved in ethanol for lab study with tagging. In total, study reported eight species belonging to two families Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae. External morphological features helped on identification and taxonomic key preparation. Among two sites 6 species were common and abundantly recorded from almost habitats whereas, 1/1 species were different in each site with uncommon reporting from harsh environment. Cultivated crop land with litter and compost was known to be more diverse in species richness than other habitats. Detail taxonomic study and distribution mapping is an essential for Earthworms in Nepal to complete the global database and national soil engineer documentation for organic and healthy environment.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 124-133.</p> Ankit Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Pesticide Persistence in Agriculture and its hazardous effects on Environmental Components <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Pesticides are applied to protect crops from insects, weeds, and bacterial or fungal diseases during the growth. There would be a 78 percent loss of fruit output, a 54 percent loss of vegetable production, and a 32 percent loss of cereal production if pesticides were not used. When pesticides are applied to a target plant, they have the potential to enter the environment where they can affect non target organisms. Concerns have also been raised about pesticide currently uses and its impact on the environment with the possibility for hazardous or carcinogenic residues. This review paper provides basic information about the general types of pesticide in use and the role of pesticides in agriculture with its impact in environmental components.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US"><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 75-83.</em></span></p> Ronika Thapa, Anjal Nainabasti, Ashish Lamsal, Santoshi Malla, Bronika Thapa, Yushika Subedi, Shirish Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Problems of Sweet Orange A Case Study from Pyuthan Municipality, Pyuthan <p>In view of suitable climatic condition in mid hill of Nepal, sweet orange is emerging as a new enterprise for farmers, for which the government of Nepal has also given priority to this crop. In the light of these facts, a case study was conducted in Pyuthan municipality of Pyuthan district to identify the problems related to sweet orange in Pyuthan municipality. All of the farmers had their own land for Sweet orange production. Majority of the respondents (80%) had the annual income below NRs. 20000. Farmers were able to increase their higher education, household expenses, health and savings from Sweet orange production. Transportation, irrigation, citrus greening disorder and green stinky bug were major problem in Sweet orange production in study area. Study suggested that concerned stakeholders should focus their program on quality seedling production, input use, and human resource management, and scientific orchard management, capacity development of farmers, insect pest management, scientific value chain management and post-harvest loss reduction for overall development of sweet orange industry in Pyuthan district.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 10(2): 134-139.</em></p> Aakash Adhikari, Bigyan G.C. Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology Tue, 28 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000