International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> en-US <p>© International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology.</p>International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology is licensed under a <a title="CC-BY" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License</a>. (Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 28 Mar 2019 14:34:15 +0000 OJS 60 Fish Marketing System in Nepal: Present Status and Future Prospects <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Efficient fish marketing needed for the growth of fish production as well as development of fishery sector. Domestic fish markets development in the Nepal will plays a very crucial role in the development of fisheries sector. Fish marketing system development in Nepal is in infant stage. Fish marketing channel has not been systematic in Nepal. The fish marketing infrastructure and the facilities for the fish market should be developed by identifying the possible production and collection centers in the country. Live fish have getting higher price in the market and fish imported from India price is lesser than fresh wet fish of Nepal. Government policy needed to upgrade the existing fish marketing system to ensure supply of hygiene fresh fish and processed fish for consumers.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 1-5</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Md. Akbal Husen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Metagenomic Approach: Transforming In-Silico Research for Improved Biogas Production <p>The complexity of the microbial communities and metabolic pathways involved in the microbiological process of biogas production is poorly understood and numerous microorganisms in the fermentation sample of the biogas plant are still unclassified or unknown. The structure and function of microbial communities and the effects of the addition of trace elements are needed to be known, to control and channel the energy sources microbes produce and to capture and store the useful by-products or for targeted screening of novel enzymes. In this review, we discussed an emerging idea that Metagenome sequence data from a biogas-producing microbial community residing in a fermenter of a biogas plant provide the basis for a rational approach to improve the biotechnological process of biogas production. The composition and gene content of a biogas-producing consortium can be determined through metagenomic approach which allows the design of the optimal microbial community structure for any biogas plant for the significant progress in the efficacy and economic improvement of biogas production and biofertilizer of either balanced nutrition or rich in specific element for plant growth produced from the sludge of biogas plant. Biogas-producing microbial community from different production-scale biogas plants supplied with different raw materials as substrates can be analyzed by polyphasic approach to find out the best raw material composition for biogas production. The phylogenetic structure of the microbial community residing in a fermentation sample from a biogas plant can be analysed by an integrated approach using clone library sequences and metagenome sequence data obtained by 454-pyrosequencing.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 6-11</em></p> Roushney Fatima Mukti, Sanjida Sakhawat Sinthee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Woody Species Composition Analysis of Shawo Sacred Forest, Ethiopia <p><em>In sacred forests of indigenous communities, landscapes are deemed sacred and are protected through social norms and spiritual values. The main objective of this study was to analyze the woody species composition of Shawo forest and explore the traditional governing systems that safeguard the sacred forest up to the present. S</em><em>ystematic sampling method was used to collect data.</em><em> Accordingly, 42 quadrats each with 400 m<sup>2</sup> (20 m X 20 m)&nbsp; was laid along the 14 transect lines. All woody plant species were collected and identified in each of these quadrats. Vegetation parameters such as DBH an Height of each quadrat were recorded. Interview and group discussion were held with local community to gather socio-cultural information.</em><em> From the result,&nbsp; 16 plant species were found. The a</em><em>verage plant density was &nbsp;499 individual ha<sup>-1</sup> with &nbsp;DBH and H value of &nbsp;9.21 cm and 10.43 m respecitively.. The&nbsp; maximum mean plant height was 39.43 m (Syzygium guineense).The total basal area of all plant species was found to be 56.1 m<sup>2</sup>.ha<sup>-1</sup>. From the total plant species of Shawo forest Syzygium guineense has the largest basal area 35.77 m<sup>2</sup>.ha<sup>-1</sup> (63.77%) occurring in all 42 plots. The most important plant species of Shawo forest was Syzygium guineense with important value index (IVI) of 151.7 contributing to&nbsp; 50.57% of&nbsp; total IVI.</em><em> For future sustainability of Shawo forest, community traditional conservation practices should be appreciated and supported. </em></p> Samuel Tizazu Agidew, Alemayehu Hailemicael Mezgebe ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Schoolchildren of Kapan VDC, Kathmandu <p>The present study investigated the intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren of Kapan VDC, Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 330 schoolchildren were included in this study. Stool samples collected in clean, dry, screw-capped plastic containers were examined by formal-ether sedimentation technique. A total of 134 samples (40.6%) were positive for some kind of intestinal parasites. The percentage of monoparasitism (67.9%) were higher than multiparasitism (32.1%). <em>Giardia lamblia</em> (17.8%) and<em> Trichuris trichiura</em> (3.6%) were the commonest protozoa and helminthes respectively. Girls were marginally more infected (41.4%) than boys (39.8%) (p&gt;0.05). Children &lt;5 years were more infected (80.0%) than 5-10 years (36.0%) (p=0.001). Prevalence of parasitic infection rate was higher in family size &gt;5 (41.5%) than ≤5 (40.1%) (p=0.82). In ethnic wise distribution, incidence rate of parasites was higher in <em>Dalits</em> (71.4%) and the least in <em>Indo-Aryans</em> (33.1%) (p&lt;0.05). Children drinking water from groundwater source had marginally lower prevalence rate (31.3%) than who used tap water (58.4%) (p&lt;0.001). The higher infection rate (51.3%) was observed in children belonging to labour family and the least in the business family (33.3%) (p=0.032). The children who had taken anti-parasitic drug within past 6 months had lower prevalence rate (25%) than those who had not taken drugs (44.4%) (p=0.005).</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 22-26</em></p> Upama KC, Shiva Kumar Rai, Shaila Basnyat, Milan Upreti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 14 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Feeding Preference of Larvae and Adults of Zigzag Beetle on Sucking Insect Pests of Brinjal Under Lab. Condition at Tando Jam <p>Study was carried out on Feeding Preference of Larvae and Adults of Zigzag Beetle on Sucking Insect Pests of Brinjal Under Laboratory Conditions in 2013 at Tando Jam. Observations on feeding preference of Zigzag beetle shows that the highest feeding consumption of first instar larvae of Zigzag beetle were consumed 9.28±1.47aphids/day. Similarly on whiteflies the feeding rate was 7.56±1.05, and on thrips 5.28±0.98. The mean highest consumption of 1st instar was recorded on aphids, and lowest on. Similarly in the second instar larva the mean highest consumption rate during 24 hours was recorded on aphids. 19.21±1.97 / day followed by whiteflies 13.39±2.82/day and thrips 10.36±1.89/day. In case of third instar larvae the maximum feeding rate was recorded on aphids 35.26±2.06/day followed by whiteflies. 23.15±2.45/day and thrips 16.36±3.82/day. The fourth instar larvae of Zigzag beetle was consumed 52.69±3.89aphids/day followed by whiteflies 39.64±3.02/day and thrips 26.85±5.56/day. While the feeding preference rate of both male and female adults of Zigzag beetle also observed. The male adults of Zigzag beetle was 61.17±4.67 aphids/ day. On whiteflies was 42.89±4.12. Similarly on thrips was 32.56±6.26 thrips/ day. The mean aphid consumption by female adults was more on aphids 72.34±5.33 / day followed by whiteflies 47.23±4.93/day and thrips 37.89±7.19/day. The overall data indicated that fourth instar larvae of Zigzag beetle was more voracious feeder of different sucking insect pests of brinjal as compare to 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae and female adults of Zigzag beetle consumed more sucking pests of brinjal than male adults . However, there is no significant difference between both sexes. The data reveals that aphids was most preferred food and thrips was least preferred prey for Zigzag beetle.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 27-30</p> Abdul Ghaffar Khoso, Mansab Khan, Saeed Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 02 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Cymbopogon citratus Ethanolic Leaf Crude Extract against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from Kampala International University Teaching Hospital Western Campus, Uganda <p><em>Streptococcus pneumoniae</em> is the common cause of pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia and Septicemia among adults and children worldwide. Resistance to antimicrobials agents has been reported among <em>S.</em> <em>pneumoniae</em> which necessitate the need for alternative intervention such as ethno-medicinal plants. <em>Cymbopogon citratus </em>is an ethno-medicinal plant which is known to have pharmacological activities including antibacterial activity. This study aimed at determining the in vitro antibacterial activity of <em>C. citratus </em>ethanolic leaves crude extract against clinical isolates of <em>S. &nbsp;pneumoniae. </em>A fresh leaves of <em>C. citratus </em>were collected early in the morning; shed dried, pulverized and extracted using ethanol (96%) using standard extraction method. The antibacterial activity, Minimum Inhibitory and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations of <em>C. citratus </em>ethanolic leaves crude extract were determined against clinical isolates of <em>S. pneumoniae</em>. <em>C. citratus</em> ethanolic leaves extract crude showed antibacterial activity against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> at 500mg/ml concentration with mean and standard deviation zone of inhibition (26.33 ± 1.53 mm) in comparison with that of 250mg/ml concentration which gave 20.33 ± 2.08 mm mean and standard zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant crude extract against <em>S. pneumoniae</em> was 15.63 mg/ml while the minimum bactericidal concentration was 125mg/ml. The study found that <em>C. citratus </em>leaves ethanolic crude extract was active against <em>S. pneumoniae. </em>It is recommended that studies should be done focusing on isolation of specific phytochemicals of the <em>C. citratus </em>leaves crude extract and then determines their antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of<em> S. pneumoniae.</em></p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 31-38</em></p> Ibrahim Ntulume, Ninsiima Victoria, Abubakar Sunusi Adam, Adamu Almustapha Aliero ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Different Sources of Organic Manures in Growth and Yield of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) <p>A field experiment was conducted in an Inceptisols with sandy loam soil of the research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from October 2016 to January 2017 to evaluate the effects of different sources of organic manure in growth and yield of radish. The experiment was carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments (Poultry manure, goat manure, FYM, biogas byproduct, recommended dose of fertilizer and control) and was replicated four times. Pyuthane Red variety (released on 1994) of radish was used as a test crop. After analysis of primary nutrients of the organic manures, the amount was fixed on the basis of recommended nitrogen (100 kg N per hectare) as a reference value. The application of organic manures significantly increased the plant height, number of leaves, leaf breadth, root length, root diameter and biomass yield. The highest biomass yield (75.16 Mg/ha) and highest root yield (49.41 Mg/ha) was obtained from poultry manure application which was similar with recommended rate of fertilizer. The study suggested that application of poultry was found more beneficial and significantly improved growth and yield of radish.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 39-42</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Keshar Bahadur Khatri, Roshan Babu Ojha, Keshab Raj Pande, Babu Ram Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Serotyping Isolated Strains of Salmonella for Consomption in the Eastern Logone Province in Chad <p>The present work was carried out in the Doba petroleum basin, Eastern Logone Province, and focused on the serotyping of strains of salmonella isolated in well water, boreholes and rivers for the consumption of the population. The sampling was carried out according to a complete randomized device with 10 samples per source of water, making a total of 30 samples. Salmonellae were detected according to the French standard ISO 6579: 2002, followed by serotyping. The results of the biochemical identification test of the API 20 E gallery led, thanks to the Apiweb Tm-API 20E V4.1 site to Salmonella spp. The serotyping results revealed, according to the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor table, serovars Anatum, Mbandaka and Idikan. S. Anatum was detected in P4 well waters and F6 wells; S. Mbandaka, in F9 and R8 river water; and finally, S. Idikan, in F5 and R4 river water. These results show a homogeneous distribution of these serotypes in the different water sources of the study area. The presence of these pathogenic serotypes in drinking water sources attests that these waters are unhealthy in accordance with WHO's guidelines for drinking quality. Corrective measures are needed to improve the quality of these water rich in germs that may cause food poisoning.</p> T. Maoudombaye, A. Bodering, Mahamat Seid Ali Malloum, G. Ndoutamia, A. Ngakou ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Molasses and Organic Fertilizer in Soil fertility and Yield of Spinach in Khotang, Nepal <p>A field experiment was conducted at Diktel Rupakot Majhuwagadhi Municipality of Khotang district during April 14 to May 28 of 2018 to evaluate the effect of molasses and organic fertilizer in soil fertility and yield of Spinach (<em>Spinacia oleracea </em>var<em> 'patane local'</em>). The effect of molasses and organic fertilizer in soil fertility and yield of spinach was evaluated by using RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with five treatments and five replications. The five treatments were soil application of molasses, foliar application of molasses, molasses+organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer and controlled soil. The field was divided into 25 plots, each having an area of 1.2×1.2 m<sup>2</sup> and distance between each plot was 0.5m. Spacing of 30×15 cm<sup>2</sup> was maintained. The mean comparison was done through Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Molasses+organic fertilizer had highly significant result in soil organic carbon content (SOC), nitrogen, potassium, soil P<sup>H</sup> and yield of Spinach. Higher soil organic carbon (4.51%), nitrogen (0.24%), potassium (557.80 mg/kg) and yield (3.08kg) was obtained at molasses+organic fertilizer whereas soil application of molasses had significantly low P<sup>H </sup>(5.54). Poor soil fertility, lack of sustainable soil management, lack of chemical fertilizers was problems for declining crop productivity in Khotang district. The experiment suggests that, farmers could be benefitted by application of molasses and organic fertilizer as it improves soil fertility and increases the yield of spinach.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 49-53</p> Anish Pyakurel, Bhishma Raj Dahal, Swodesh Rijal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 GIS and Remote Sensing Supported Soil Erosion Assessment of Kamala River Watershed, Sindhuli, Nepal <p>This study analysed the situation of water-induced soil erosion in Kamala River watershed of Sindhuli, Nepal covering 23,194.33 hectares of land, extending from 85°58'11.6"E to 86°18'16.8"E longitude and 26°56'45.9"N to 27°5'44.4"N latitude. Revised universal soil loss equation was applied in GIS environment using the satellite-based data, field measurements, surveys and lab analysis. R factor predicted from the average annual precipitation. K factor based on the soil texture and organic carbon content. LS factors derived from the DEM of 20m resolution. C factor derived from the NDVI value extracted from Landsat 8 OLI imagery of the pre-monsoon season. P factor assigned according to the land cover of the study area. The study explored the massive diversity of erosion rates even within the narrow span of a landscape in the Churia range of the Himalayan foothills. As predisposed by the diversity of terrain and vegetation cover, and aggravated further by the dominance of silts in the texture of soils, soil erosion rate has been found to vary and noticeably occur in higher ranges of severity. Overall, total potential of soil loss in the watershed was 1.460 million tons/ year, out of which only 0.297 million tons of soil was estimated to be actually eroded from the watershed in the existing conditions. Conservation measures are advisable in the areas having severe soil loss. The resulting soil erosion rate map can be a guideline for developing sustainable land management strategy in the concerned and similar lower foothills of Himalayan mountain landscapes.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 54-61</p> Kamal Sah, Sushil Lamichhane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Production Economics and Determinants of Potato Production in Nuwakot, Nepal <p>A study was conducted for comparative analysis of demographic, production economics and determinants of potato production between Kakani rural municipality and Bidur municipality of Nuwakot district. Altogether 120 potato producers, 56 from Kakani and 64 from Bidur were randomly selected. Pretested semi-structured questionnaire was administered to randomly selected farmers. Potato growers were interviewed using face to face interview method in the month of October 2018. All the data were entered into SPSS and Microsoft excel and analysis was done by using Microsoft excel, STATA and SPSS. Average productivity in the research area was 14.69 ton per hectare. Average cost of production and profit was Rs 8614.61 per ropani and Rs 6083 per ropani respectively. B/C ratio in the research area was 1.71. 10% increase in organic manure (FYM and poultry manure), pesticide and tuber resulted in 1.88%, 1.99% and 0.05% increase in income respectively. 10% increase in labor and chemical fertilizer resulted into 0.1% and 0.5% decrease in output. Labor and chemical fertilizer was over utilized resource for potato production. The probability of cultivation of potato in large scale was found to be 56.92% higher for those with access to extensive service and 47.89% higher for those who have received training.&nbsp; Most of the farmers don not use improved seed thus distributing improved seed, providing training and extension services help to increase profit of potato production in Nuwakot district. 100% increase in all the factor of production would result in 32.39% increase in potato production.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 62-68</em></p> Bhishma Raj Dahal, Swodesh Rijal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Coffee Certification Among Rural Farm Households in Nepal <p>The study on value chain analysis of coffee was conducted in Palpa and Kaski districts, Nepal during June to August, 2016. The purposive and random sampling technique were used. Semi-structural interview with 160 households (HH) from Kaski and Palpa district (80 samples HH from each district) were conducted. In Palpa district, third party organic certification of coffee has been adopted from company initiation, whereas all coffee from Kaski district has gone through conventional market chain. The coffee cultivated land was 0.85 ropani which was higher among non-certified group (Kaski district) as compared to certified once (Palpa district). Average price of fresh cherry was NRs. 80 per kg which was lower for company initiative third party certification in Palpa (NRs.75/kg) than non-certified area in Kaski (NRs. 85/kg). Average productivity of coffee in study area was found 48 kg per ropani which was very less (13.05 kg/ropani) in certified area than non-certified area (82.96 kg/ropani). The low productivity of coffee and weak value chain structure of coffee was found in third party certified and conventional market chains. Education (49%) and access to credit (67%) were major contributing factors for organic certification of coffee. The land for coffee cultivation had positive and significant impact whereas private company based certification had negative impact on income from coffee subsector. Effective monitoring and premium assessment from certification scheme need to have judged from concerned stakeholders to increase the benefit from certification, to promote proper certification and in coffee market chain in Nepal.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 69-74</em></p> H.K. Poudel, R.R. Kattel, M.R. Poudel, S. Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Thermophilic Campylobacter Isolated from Water Used in Slaughter House of Kathmandu and Ruphendehi District, Nepal <p><em>Campylobacter</em> is a fastidious organism that is capable of surviving in wide range of environments and potentially can cause serious infection in human and animal which can commonly available in the different sources of water used for daily purpose. This research was conducted to figure out the prevalence of the thermophilic <em>Campylobacter</em> in the water used in various slaughter houses of Kathmandu and Ruphendehi district of Nepal. So a cross sectional study was conducted and 200 water samples (100 for each district) was collected aseptically and submitted to Bacteriological Unit for the confirmation. Isolation and identification of <em>Campylobacter</em> was being done as described by OIE Terrestrial Manual, 2004, Chapter 2.8.10. Laboratory finding was done to confirm the positive cases. The study revealed the prevalence status of <em>Campylobacter</em> in water used in the slaughter house of Ruphendehi district is 12% and Kathmandu Valley is 0.00%. Thus, Ruphendehi has comparatively more prevalence of <em>Campylobacter</em> than Kathmandu. The water samples tested were all from actual or potential water sources for the use in slaughter house, so there are clear implications for the transmission of <em>Campylobacter</em> spp. to human and animal suggesting further expanded research is required in this area.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 75-80</p> Dinesh Bhattarai, Nirajan Bhattarai, Rajani Osti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Bitter Leaves Extract on Bacteria Isolated from Soils of Some Mechanic and non-Mechanic Sites in Makurdi Metropolis <p>Effect of bitter leaves extract on bacteria isolated from soils of some mechanic and non- mechanic site in Makurdi metropolis was investigated<em>. </em>Forty (40) soil samples (20g each) were collected at the depth of 8-10cm from different mechanic shops in Makurdi metropolis (New garage, Kanshio and North bank) and soil from non-mechanic site. Fresh leaves of <em>Vernonia amygdalina</em> (bitter leaves) were purchased at Wadata market and identified at the Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Agriculture (FUAM). Serial dilution and pour plate technique was used for microbial analysis. Bacteria present were identified using cultural, morphological and biochemical techniques. Ethanol and methanol solvents were used to extract the bioactive constituents. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out on the bioactive components in the bitter leaves extracts. Susceptibility pattern of isolates were determined using Agar well diffusion assays. The genera <em>Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Proteus </em>and <em>Escherichia </em>were the predominant petroleum hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. &nbsp;Analysis from phytochemical screening showed that compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavanoids, terpenes, anthraquinones, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and phlobatannins were present. Alkaloids in the bitter leaves extract was more in quantity and quality as compared to other phytochemical components. Zones of inhibition of the plant extracts ranged between 20.00± 0.89mm - 32.78± 1.72mm for Methanol and 21.00± 2.37mm - 31.22± 2.05mm for Ethanol at 100mg/ml. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of both solvents ranged between 23.83± 3.23m/l and 50.00± 0.00m/l.The MBC values ranged from 50.00± 0.00mg/l to 100.00± 0.00 mg/l. Bacteria from the control site which had no hydrocarbon products contamination were more susceptible than those from the mechanic sites. Results from findings have shown that <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>(bitter leaves) has potentials to be used as an alternative source of antibacterial agents in the ever increasing menace of Multi-Drug Resistance.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 81-87</p> Grace Mwuese Gberikon, Fredrick Ityolumun Iyoula, Smart Tersagh Ichor ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Age and Frequency of Collection on Quality of Jersey Bulls Semen at National Livestock Breeding Center (NLBC), Nepal <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong>: To determine the effect of age and frequency of collection on quality parameters of Jersey bull semen at National Livestock Breeding Center (NLBC), Pokhara.</p> <p><strong><em>Materials and Methodology</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Nine Jersey bulls were selected randomly from NLBC. To obtain the effect of age, six bulls of three different age interval (3-4, 5-7 and 8-9 years) were selected randomly. Remaining three bulls were used to determine the effect of frequency of collection on semen quality. Studies were conducted for three months (Nov/Dec to Dec/Jan, 2016). Semen quality was analyzed using CASA system and SMILE software. ANOVA and paired t- tests were applied to find out level of significance. All the statistical analyses were done using SPSS 17.0</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong>: Sperm concentration, post- thaw motility, live sperm, and abnormal sperm were significantly affected by the age of the bulls. Semen quality was found superior in the bulls belonging to 5-7 years of age intervals. Significantly higher value for semen volume, sperm concentration and post- thaw motility was obtained on second collection (P&lt;0.05). However, volume initial motility, pre-filling motility, live sperm and abnormal sperm percentage did not differ significantly among different age intervals and between the frequencies of collection.</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em></strong>: Different quality parameters of semen like volume, concentration, initial motility, pre-filling motility, post thaw motility, live and normal spermatozoa percentages were higher in 5-7 years old bulls and in second collection of semen.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 88-95</p> S. Sankhi, K.R. Sapkota, B. Regmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Cultural and Biological Treatments in Managing Clubroot Disease of Cabbage in Sidhuwa, Nepal <p>The <em>Plasmodiophora brassicae</em> Woronin is an important soil pathogen that attacks brassicaceae family of plants. The ability of pathogen to survive in soil for many years as a resting structure even in the absence of suitable host has increased its threat by making it more devastating. Lower effectiveness of treatments applied so far and failure to completely eradicate the disease once it enters the field has posed more problems. The study was conducted at a disease infected field in Sidhuwa, Dhankuta. It was focused on the effectiveness of different cultural and biological treatments against clubroot disease under field conditions. The treatments; lime, combination of lime and vermicompost, Effective Microorganisms (EM) solution and <em>Trichoderma viride </em>were arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated four times. The yield and yield attributing parameters and clubroot scale were recorded at the time of harvest. Values like Disease Incidence, Disease Severity Index and Disease Control Percentage were calculated based on clubroot scale value. The treatments showed no significant influence on vegetative parameters of the plants and on disease incidence. However, the combined treatment of lime and vermicompost was found to be most effective regarding disease severity and disease control i.e. the least Disease Severity Index (31.25%) and highest Disease Control Percentage (50.94%) compared to the control were obtained from the combined treatment of lime and vermicompost. Effective Microorganisms showed the highest disease severity. The combination of lime and vermicompost used as a treatment yielded highest marketable head weight (1.779 kg) and head diameter (19.90 cm).</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 96-101</p> Ashish Ghimire, Sundarman Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Pollen Morphology of Angiosperms of Central Nepal <p>Morphological structures of pollen-grains of fifteen species of angiosperms collected from Central Nepal were cytologically carried out. Pollen structure of fifteen&nbsp; species viz. <em>Antirrhium majus</em> from family Plantaginaceae, <em>Brunfelsia pauciflora </em>and <em>Petunia hybrida </em>from Solanaceae<em>,</em> <em>Centurea cyanus </em>and<em> Chrysanthemum morifolium </em>from Asteraceae<em>, Malvaviscous</em>&nbsp; <em>arboreus</em> from Malvaceae,<em> Lantana camera </em>from Verbenaceae,<em> Chlorophytum comosum </em>from Asperagaceae<em>,</em><em> Oxalis europia </em>from Oxilidaceae,<em> Jasminum officinale </em>from Oleaceae<em>, Geranium roseous </em>from Geranaceae, <em>Mirabilis jalapa </em>from <em>Nyctaginaceae, </em><em>Phlox paniculata </em>from Polymoniaceae and <em>Tradescantia brivifolia </em>from commelinaceae studied in this investigation. Most of the structure of pollen found to be spheroidal, some irregular, oval, elongated and circular. The present study gives an account of variations of pollen grain structure within the angiosperms family. Triporate to polyprate aperture and echinate to smooth walled exine were observed in present study. Pollen morphology of the angiosperm is significantly helpful at the generic and specific level in plant taxonomy.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 102-107</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pushpa Karna Mallick ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal kidney length as a reliable parameter for estimation of gestation age in 2nd & 3rd trimester <p>The fetal Kidney length can be used in estimation of gestational age. In late 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester both kidneys can be visualized easily and can be measured accurately. In late 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester the fetal kidney length can be used as an investigational tool alone or may be in addition of other parameter in estimation of gestational age. The most commonly used parameters used by sonologist can predict gestational age in 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> trimester. But as pregnancy advances, the accuracy of these parameters decreased. The length of fetal kidneys in mm collaborates very nicely with gestational age in weeks</p> <p><strong><em>Objective</em></strong><strong>: </strong>To evaluate that fetal kidney length is a reliable parameter for gestational age estimation in 2<sup>nd</sup> and in 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong><em>Methods</em></strong><strong>: </strong>371 healthy, pregnant females with a normal fetus were included in this study. A standard 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester ultrasound examination was done. In addition to the standard biometric parameters, both fetal kidneys length were also measured. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong><em>Results</em></strong><strong>: </strong>This study finding confirmed that fetal kidney length can be used as standard parameters alone or in addition with other routine parameters for estimation of gestational age in late 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester. The Pearson correlation coefficient r=0.988 which showed a strong correlation with kidney length and gestational age and p value is (0.00)</p> <p><strong><em>Conclusion</em>: </strong>Fetal kidney length estimates gestational age as accurate as other standard traditional parameters. It is more accurate in late 2<sup>nd</sup> &amp; 3<sup>rd</sup> trimesters of pregnancy when other parameters are not much reliable. It is easy to detect and measure.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 108-113</p> Wafa Shaheen, Syed Amir Gilani, Zain-ul Hasan, Mehreen Fatima, Raham Bacha, Sajid Shaheen Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Impacts of Massive Earthquake 2015 AD on Coffee Production and Marketing in Western Hills of Nepal <p>This study was conducted in Gulmi and Palpa districts in western hills of Nepal in 2017 AD with the main objective&nbsp; to assess the impacts of earthquake in coffee production and marketing. One hundred and sixty coffee producers were selected by a three- stage sampling procedure. In this study only 6.9 % of coffee producers had said that they had experienced &nbsp;impacts of massive earthquake 2015 AD on coffee production and marketing. Among the coffee producers(6.9%) who said that they had experienced the impact of earthquake 2015 AD, majority (37%) of them said that they had suffered some minor (repairable) cracks in their houses and sheds while 27% of them had said that rate of drying of water sources is accelerated after earthquake leading to shortage water for drinking and irrrigating coffee fields. Since eathquake 2015AD had minor impacts on coffee production and marketing, pre earthquake preparedness like public awareness programs, quality construction practices, preparation of new codes and standards for infrastructure design and training coffee producers, entrepreneurs and other stakeholders should be done in the study area to cope with the unforeseen consequences of earthquake in future.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 114-119</p> Arjun Prasad Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Management of Obstructive Urolithiasis in a Male Buffalo Calf Using Tube Cystostomy Technique <p>A 3-month-old male Murrah crossbred buffalo calf was presented to Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Rampur, Chitwan with a history of anuria for the past 4 days. Physical examination was carried out to check the status of the urethra and urinary bladder. Ultrasonography revealed an intact distended bladder. Based on the history of anuria and above examinations, the condition was diagnosed as obstructive urolithiasis. Meloxicam (0.3 mg/kg) was injected intramuscularly as a preemptive analgesia and Streptomycin Sulphate (10 mg/kg) was administered intramusculary as a prophylactic antibiotic. The calf was sedated with Xylazine-HCl (0.2 mg/Kg) and analgesia was achieved with epidural administration of Lignocaine-HCl (3 ml) at lumbosacral space (L6-S1). The left ventral paramedian site was aseptically prepared and laparotomy surgery was performed. The subcutaneous tunnel was made to pass the leading edge of the catheter and outlet is affixed with skin by placing stay suture on the ventral aspect of the abdomen.&nbsp; The urinary bladder is identified, isolated and decompressed by aspirating with 60-CC syringe and the 3-way Folley catheter was introduced on the dorsal aspect of the urinary bladder. Peritoneum was sutured with Catgut # 2-0 in continuous suture pattern and all the muscle layers were sutured together with Catgut # 2 using modified ford lock sutures. Subcutaneous tissue was sutured with Catgut # 1 in continuous suture pattern and skin was sutured using nylon # 1 in simple interrupted pattern. The calf was placed in sternal recumbency till it gets recovered from the anesthesia. The urinary acidifier ammonium chloride (13g) twice a day daily orally upto 30 days was prescribed.&nbsp; The same antibiotic was administered once a day daily for 5 days and the wound was dressed daily with povidone iodine till complete healing of the wound. Finally, the skin suture was removed after 14 days.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 120-123</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saurav Shrestha, Bablu Thakur, Bharata Regmi, Manoj Kumar Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Carbon Sequestration in the Trees of Community Forest: <p>Carbon sequestration is one of the main ecosystem services in today’s condition. Estimation of above ground tree biomass and carbon stock is important as it gives ecological and economic benefits to the local people. This study was conducted in the Hasantar Community Forest (HCF) of Nagarjun Municipality, Kathmandu. Concentric circular plots of 12.62m radius were established in five different blocks of HCF for the study of tree species. The main objective of this study was to find out the Important Value Index (IVI), Above Ground Tree Biomass (AGTB) and carbon stocks tree species of HCF. This forest comprises the tree species of families like fagacaeae, moraceae, myrtaceae, fabaceae etc in dominant numbers. <em>Schima wallichii</em> was found ecologically most significant tree species as it possess highest IVI value. The carbon stock of this plant was found as&nbsp;&nbsp; 206.865 t/ha which comprises 27 % of total carbon in HCF. The total above ground tree carbon stock of HCF (55.4 ha.) was found 144.795 t/ha.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 7(1): 124-129</p> Ratna Silwal Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 26 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0000