International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology <p>An International online journal in the English language published quarterly (March. June, September and December) by SEM-Biotech Publishing. Full text articles available. Content also available on the journal's own <a title="IJASBT" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> en-US <p>© International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology.</p>International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology is licensed under a <a title="CC-BY" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License</a>. (Dr Umesh P. Shrivastava) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 02 Jan 2019 14:35:45 +0000 OJS 60 Isolation, Identification and Mass production of five Trichoderma spp. on Solid and Liquid Carrier Media for Commercialization <p><em>Trichoderma</em> spp. are fast growing fungi, widely used as bio-control agents for controlling soil borne diseases of plants, as well as growth promoters. The present investigation was carried out to isolate and identified fast growing <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. and mass production using low cost widely available solid and liquid carrier materials. Several fungal spp. were isolated and colony and microscopic characterization were observed in order to identify <em>Trichoderma</em> to generic levels following identification keys. Fast growing <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. were confirmed up to species level following ITS-PCR and sequencing. Identified five <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. were inoculated in solid (coir dust, saw dust and parboiled rice) and liquid (coconut water and rice washed water) carrier materials separately under sterile conditions. Viability and stability of each <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. was tested for 180 days at 40 days intervals by calculating the colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml). Twelve <em>Trichoderma </em>isolates were identified up to generic level and five <em>Trichoderma</em> isolates were identified as fast growing species based on their growth rates. Following molecular characterization, identities of these five <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. were confirmed as <em>T. viride,</em> <em>T. asperellum</em>, <em>T. virens, T. longibrachiatum </em>and <em>T. harzianum.</em><em> Trichoderma</em> spp<em>. </em>incubated in solid carrier materials showed higher (10<sup>6</sup> CFU/ml) values than the liquid carrier materials (10<sup>4 </sup>CFU/ml) after 180<sup>th</sup> days and it was significantly different. The highest stabilization potential was recorded for parboiled rice (5 x 10<sup>6 </sup>– 8 x 10<sup>6 </sup>CFU/ml) from day 20<sup>th</sup> to180<sup>th</sup> for all five <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. Locally available solid and liquid substrates can be used for the mass multiplication of selected<em> Trichoderma</em> spp<em>. </em>to maintain the viability and virulence for long term commercial availability.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 285-293</em></p> N. Hewavitharana, S.D.P. Kannangara, S.P. Senanayake ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Different Plant Materials and Their Antibacterial Activity <p>The green route of metal nanoparticles synthesis has received significant attention in recent years due to it's cost-effective, non-toxic and eco-friendly nature in comparison to other physical and chemical methods. This study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from bio-reduction of 1mM aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) by extracts prepared from three different plants namely, <em>Brassica oleracea</em> L<em>. var. italica Plenck </em>(Broccoli), <em>Capsicum annuum </em>L. (Chili) and <em>Parthenium hysterophorus </em>L. (Carrot grass). The synthesized Ag-NPs were characterized using UV- visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Ag-NPs synthesized showed the surface plasmon resonance with the appearance of absorption peaks around the range of 410-430 nm. The possible biomolecules involved in the reduction and the stabilization of synthesized Ag-NPs were found to be alcoholic, phenolic, amine and carbonyl groups. SEM study revealed that Ag-NPs were spherical in shape with varied size about 10-40 nm. Besides, the analysis of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ag-NPs was carried out. The Ag-NPs synthesized using <em>B. oleracea</em> extract showed the higher antioxidant activity than Ag-NPs synthesized from both <em>C. annuum</em> &amp; <em>P. hysterophorus</em> extracts. Ag-NPs exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli)</em> and Gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus) </em>bacteria<em>.</em> The higher antibacterial activity was shown by Ag-NPs synthesized from <em>P. hysterophorus</em> extract in comparison to Ag-NPs synthesized from both <em>C. annuum </em>&amp; <em>B. oleracea</em> extracts. Hence, it can be concluded that Ag-NPs synthesized following the green route could be the source for potential antioxidant and antibacterial agents.</p> <p><em>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 294-301</em></p> Dipesh Shahi, Elisha Bhattarai, Milan Poudel, Prarthana Pradhan, Raja Ram Pradhananga, Suvash Chandra Awal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Status of adoption of improved fish production technology in Rupandehi, Nepal <p>Aquaculture plays an important role to increase farm income and hence alleviate widespread poverty in the country. Fish is considered as the principal source of animal protein. The research was conducted to assess the status of adoption of improved fish production technologies available in the Rupandehi, Nepal. The research was designed to ascertain the socio-demographic characteristics of the farmers, determine available technologies on fish production, determine awareness and adoption of the available technologies and identify the major problems faced by farmers in using improved fish production technologies. Purposive sampling procedure was used to select 100 respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using frequency count, percentages, standard deviation and indexing. The result shows that average age of the respondents was 39.8 years. Eighty percent respondents had post-secondary school certificate. Major sources of information of fish farming were trainings and information and communication technologies. Average pond size of respondents was 0.8 ha. Most of the respondents were aware of the technologies and adopted them. Indexing showed that High cost of fish feed was ranked as the major problem followed by high cost of fingerlings and inadequate capital in using improved fish production technology.</p> Sudip Neupane, Kamala Gharti ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 14 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Exotic Sweet Orange Genotypes at Dhankuta, Nepal <p>The study was conducted to evaluate the varietal performance of sweet orange genotypes at National Citrus Research Program, Dhankuta, Nepal during 2015. Twenty 20 exotic as well as local genotypes planted in 2005 were evaluated for their fruit physio-chemical characteristics at their 10-years aged. Three genotypes: Malta Blood Red, Dhankuta Local and Valencia Late have resulted as superior genotypes for fruit yield characteristics. Some genotypes Delicious Seedless, Salustiana and Hamlin also exhibited excellent performance for their fruit size and weight; however these genotypes produced lower fruit number per plant. Pineapple, Meisheu-9, and Washington Navel had higher TSS. There was similar fruit maturity period commenced from 14 November to 28 December among the genotypes. Based on the results, the genotypes showing distinct characteristics of fruit yield and quality including fruit maturity period should be promoted to make variety diversity in Nepal.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 308-312</p> Amar Bahadur Pun, Manish Kumar Thakur ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 16 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Promising Rice Genotypes under Dry Direct Seeded Conditions as Affected by Varieties and Weed Control Methods <p>Dry direct seeded rice is an alternative to the farmers in the context of climate change and inputs scarcity especially labor. However, weeds are the major problem in dry direct seeded conditions competing with the different resources provided to the crop. Hence, field experiments were conducted for two consecutive years 2015 and 2016 in the experimental field of Rice Research Program, Hardinath, Dhanusha to identify the appropriate herbicides for DSR. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design and treatments were replicated thrice. Three varieties of rice namely Ciherang Sub-1, IET 16775 and Sukhkhadhan-3 were treated as main plot factors while five levels of weed control methods (Oxadiargyl @ 100 g a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by Fenoxaprop @ 90 g a.i./ha with safener, Pendimethalin @ 1000 g a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i/ha at three weeks after seeding, Pendimethalin @ 1000 g a.i./ha as pre-emergence followed by Pyrazosulfuron ethyl @ 25 g a.i.ha + Bispyribac sodium @ 25 g a.i./ha at three weeks after seeding, hand weeding and weedy check) were treated as sub-plot factors. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of weed control methods on yield and yield attributing parameters of the tested rice varieties was significant. Out of the tested treatments hand weeding yielded significantly higher grain yield (5.4 t/ha) followed by herbicides Pendimithalin fb Pyrazosulfuron ethyl + Bispyribac sodium; which reduced the weed density and was comparable with hand weeding. The interaction effect of weed control methods and varieties was found non-significant. Pendimithalin fb Pyrazosulfuron ethyl + Bispyribac sodium was found to control broad spectrum of weeds and also reduced the human labour drudgery and increasing the rice yield than the other herbicides in direct seeded rice.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 313-318</p> Dev Kumar Saphi, Dil Raj Yadav, Rajib Kumar Yadav, Rajendra Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Supply Chain Analysis of Rice Sub-Sector in Dang District, Nepal <p>Nepalese economy is dependent on a slow performing agriculture sector with the majority of the population relying on subsistence farming. A study was conducted to access the supply chain, present marketing situation of rice subsector in Dang district during May-September 2017. For this study, rice traders were grouped into 5 categories Producers, seed suppliers, millers &amp; traders, Wholesalers, and retailers. For the study, 105 respondents were selected which includes 75 rice producers, 5 seed suppliers, 5 millers &amp; traders, 5 wholesalers and 15 retailers. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excel were used for data entry and analysis. The findings of the study revealed that about 94.70% of paddy farmers used improved seeds and only 5.30% farmers used hybrid seeds belongs to grain producers for only home consumption. Cooperatives were the major source of seed supplier for 90.90% of seed producers and 45.45% of marketed surplus grain producers and 57.14% of grain producers for only home consumption retained their own seeds for cultivation. The average benefit-cost (B: C) ratio of the paddy farmers was found to be 1.14:1 in the study area. Majority of the paddy selling farmers 87.88% sold their produce from the house and remaining 12.12% sold in the market. The market margin was higher in seeds supply chain NRs 27 per Kg and least was in grains supply chain NRs 25 per Kg. Similarly, producer share was higher in seeds supply chain (50.90%) and least was in grains supply chain, 44.44 percent.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 319-326</p> Tulsi Laxmi Thapa, Chandan Bhattarai, Bishal Khatri, Keshav Bhusal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study on Dye Degradation by Leaf and Root Extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus L <p>The use of different dyes and pigments is increasing with the increase in industrialization leading to the high production of effluent. The effluent contaminated with dyes and dye-stuff has harmful effects on public health and the environment. Thus, the treatment of effluent is essential. Biological approaches are gaining much interest due to their cost-effective and eco-friendly nature over various physicochemical methods for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater. This study highlights on the biodegradation of congo red and malachite green by using leaf and root extracts of <em>Parthenium hysterophorus. </em>The extract and the dye were mixed in the ratio of 1:2 and incubated at 40ºC for 90 minutes. Decolorization assay was performed using UV visible spectrophotometer which indicated that decolorization was due to degradation of dyes into non-colored metabolites. The leaves extract exhibited higher decolorizing activity than roots extract. The maximum decolorization for leaves extract was 55.8% (congo red) and 51.6% (malachite green). Furthermore, phytotoxicity test was carried out to determine the effect of dyes and their degradation metabolites on seed germination and seedling growth of chickpea (<em>Cicer arietinum </em>L). The germination percentage and seedling growth were more in degradation metabolites than untreated dyes, indicating less toxic nature of degradation metabolites. Hence, it can be inferred that <em>P. hysterophorus </em>extracts can be used to treat dye wastewater and treated wastewater can be used for irrigation.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 327-331</p> Dipesh Shahi, Rajiv Sapkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Computational Biology Approach for Deciphering Etiological Pathway of Polygenic Diseases: Rheumatoid Arthritis <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) (OMIM ID: 180300) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease caused by immune reaction against the proliferating synovial fibroblasts. Nonsuppurative proliferation of synoviocytes frequently progresses to destroy the articular cartilages and underlying bone, resulting in permanent disability. Using system biology approach, candidate genes obtained from OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) and its interacting proteins were prioritized on the basis of three Gene Ontology terms (Molecular Function, Cellular component, and Biological Process) employing FunSimMat (Functional Similarity Matrix). Among the many, four prioritized proteins NFκBIL1, HCST, MICA, and MICB were selected. Amongst the prioritized genes, literature review suggested that NFκBIL-1 (Nuclear Factor-κ of B-cell Inhibitor Like protein-1) (UniProtKB ID: Q9UBC1) competes against SR (Ser-Arg) protein, ASF/SF2, in negatively regulating CD45RO gene expression in CD4 T-cells, whose overproduction would lead to cytokine outburst, thus leading to an immunological attack. ASF/SF2 mediated splicing variant, CD45RA, otherwise would have prevented overproduction of these cytokines. Overproduced cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-15 simultaneously induces inflammatory stress in the synovial membrane and activates stress induced MICA/B (UniProtKB ID: Q29983/Q29980) through downstream signaling following TNFR1-TRAF mediated signaling pathway. Synovial expression of MICA/B enables interaction with its ligand NKG2D associated with DAP10 (UniProt KB ID: Q9UBK5) amply present on CD8+ αβ T-cells, CD4+γδ T-cells, and NK cells, thus promoting cytolysis of MICA/B expressing synoviocytes along with further production of cytokines TNF-α and IL-15. Hence, alteration in NFκBIL-1 promoter induces MICA/B expression that leads in production of cytokines could be a probable cause of chronic RA.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 332--338</p> Rubin M. Tamrakar, Anushruti Sangami, Sunita Dangol, Pramod Aryal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Caponization on Growth and Meat Quality Parameters of Dual-Purpose Chicken <p>Caponization is a surgical technique that alters the sexual maturation of male chickens and improves quality characteristics of carcass and meat. The present experiment was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of caponization on body weight, carcass composition and meat quality of dual purpose chicken. A total of 48 dual-purpose breeds of Chicken, namely New Hampshire (NH) and Black Australorp (BA) were examined in a 2 × 2 factorial design each treatment having twelve birds till the age of 32 weeks. The results showed that the growth rate up until the age of 20 are not significant statistically which became significant afterwards (p&lt;0.01). Likewise, some desirable changes in body morphology, carcass quality (p&lt;0.05) and dressing out recovery were also observed. The hedonic ranking test also inferred that the meat from capons are liked by consumers highly significantly (p&lt;0.01). The results of this study indicate that the caponized&nbsp;chicken can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat. Based on the overall results patterns and indication of this study, a more detailed study to minutely study the fatty acid, amino acid and mineral profile along with evaluation of the proper age at which caponization can bring about the most desirable changes should be lined up.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 339-343</p> Tulasi Prasad Paudel, Bishwas Poudel, Damodar Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Economics of Potato Production in Rural Area of Ilam District, Nepal <p>Potato (<em>Solanum tuberosum</em>) is grown worldwide in more than 150 countries of the world as staple food including Nepal. It is important food crops for food security and fourth most important staple food in Nepal. It contributes 2.17 in Gross Domestic Products and 6.57 in Agriculture Gross Domestic Products. The NARC has established Agriculture Research Station in Jaubari Ilam in 2014 and conducting research mainly on potato. The main objective of this study was to identify the situation of potato cultivation in the vicinity of station and suggest future activities on potato research. The field study was conducted in surroundings of five locations of the station in the hills and mountain area. In each location 35 potato growing respondents were selected randomly for the semi-structured questionnaire survey. One focus group discussion was also made in each location for the triangulation of the household information. Data were analyzed using SPSS, Strata and excel software. The result shows that the average landholding of the respondents was 2.25 ha on which they used 0.218 ha for the potato and produce average of 1208 kg. The productivity in the area was 5.6 tons which is only about 40% of the national and district productivity.&nbsp; It was due to the use of local variety having low yielding and susceptible to disease like wart, late blight, and scab. The benefit cost of local cultivar found 0.68 whereas improved varieties 1.73. The regression model analysis shows that if improved variety planted by the farmers, there will be 21% increased production.&nbsp; Similarly, training also influence on increase the productivity by 33% whereas the membership of cooperative and group increases 34% of production.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 344-350</p> Keshav Prasad Shrestha, Surya Prasad Adhikari, Surendra Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Food and Nutritional Security Status: Assessment among Landless People in Chitwan, Nepal <p class="Body">Food insecurity, sadly still remains a concern with Nepal. The remote settlement of communities, harsh terrains, inequity in income generation have left millions of Nepalese experiencing some level of food insecurity mostly among marginalized population in both urban and rural settings. A pilot study was conducted within ninety households of four different locations with the purpose to assess various dimensions of food and nutritional security of the landless people living in undocumented land by purposive selection of Chitwan District of Nepal. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain primary data and secondary data was obtained from <em>Bharatpur </em>Municipality and <em>Madi</em> Agriculture Service Centre, Chitwan. Analysis revealed 57.77% household expressed themselves as food secured in terms of their production and source of income while 42.23% were food insecure. The most food insecure ethnic group was <em>Janajatis</em> (indigenous) (34.21%) followed by <em>Dalits</em> and <em>Brahmins </em>(15.78%).&nbsp; Similarly, 79.99% (36.66% male, 43.33% female) respondents were under-nutrition and 20.01% (5.56% male and 14.45% female) were nutritionally secured from calculation using Harris-Benedict principle based on net calories they obtained from their daily meal. Females were more insecure in terms of population size, education, skill, nutrition and diseases followed by males. Of those interviewed, 57.77% households lack production activity and were also food insufficient. Main source of income was off-farm work (40%) followed by remittance (35.56%). Various natural calamities were also the reason behind being landless in case of some households and they reportedly migrated from elsewhere. Still, peoples are involved in foraging and traditional farming activities with low output. Addressing agricultural production, nutrition awareness, climate change monitoring, livelihoods strengthening and disaster preparedness to ensure access to food is urgent need even in urban areas like Chitwan. Dependence on food import, shying from production activities, traditional food sources has to be addressed for Nepal’s struggle against food insecurity.</p> <p class="Body">Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 351-358</p> <p class="Body">&nbsp;</p> Dikshit Poudel, Suryamani Dhungana, Kalyani Mishra Tripathi, Krishna Kaphle, Shrawan Kumar Sah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 24 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Different Seed Rates and Knocking Down Days of Sesbania on Weed Density and Yield of Dry Direct Seeded Rice <p>The weed is a major constraint of dry-direct seeded rice (DDSR) due to change in establishment methods and shifting weed flora towards competitive grasses and sedges. To minimize the weed density, its species and dry weight with brown manuring and for optimizing the yield of DDSR, the experiment was conducted during monsoon season of 2014 at Chitwan, Nepal. The experiment was done using a strip plot design to find the optimum seed rate and killing date of <em>Sesbania</em> under rice-<em>Sesbania</em> co-culture. Among different seed rates (60, 80, 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and knocking down days (21, 28, 35 &amp; 42 DAS) of <em>Sesbania</em>, the optimum seed rate of <em>Sesbania</em> was 102 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>and killing date was 32 days. The individual plot size was 5 x 4 m<sup>2</sup>. The growing of <em>Sesbania</em> with 100 kg seeds ha<sup>-1</sup> along with its knocked down at 28 DAS was seen best to minimize the weeds having better performance of rice. The experiment clearly demonstrated the importance of brown manuring on effective control of weeds and on grain yield of rice under dry direct seeded rice.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 359-365</p> Sunil Kumar Chaudhary, Santosh Marahatta, Manisha Chaudhary ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Reference Intervals (RIs) of Lipid Parameters for Nepalese Population <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Reference interval (RIs) is the range of values provided by laboratory scientists in a convenient and practical form to support clinician in interpreting observed values for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of a disease. Laboratories in Nepal uses RIs, provided in the kit inserts by the manufacturers or from the scientific literature, established for western/European population. It is well known that population across the globe differs physiologically, genetically; race, ethnically, lifestyle, food habits and diet which have great impact on the reference values. Thus, it is inappropriate to use RIs that do not represent the local population. This approach highlights for establishing reference values in Nepalese population using the IFCC-CRIDL guidelines published in (C28-A3). <strong>Objectives: </strong>The objective of this study is to analyze blood lipids concentration in apparently healthy Nepalese population to set up reference values for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and compare with the internationally recommended values. <strong>Methods: </strong>Reference individuals selected from healthy volunteers according to the IFCC/C-RIDL protocol in (C28 –A3). Volunteers were requested to avoid excessive physical exertion/exercise/excessive eating and drinking and fast overnight for 10-12 hour. Blood samples were collected from 120 subjects from each five centers of the country between 7:00-10:00 am, serum were separated and refrigerated at -20 in a cryo-vials. Finally, 617 samples were transported to Yamaguchi University, Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Japan for analysis in dry Ice and 30 parameters were measured by fully automated biochemistry analyzer, Beckman Coulter (BC480) in the clinical laboratory. <strong>Results:</strong> A reference interval for each parameter was calculated from the 95% reference intervals ranging from 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles and, arithmetic mean <u>+</u> 2 SD were also calculated. The 95% reference range for total cholesterol (2.53-6.14), triglyceride was(0.42-3.32),for HDL Cholesterol was (0.28-1.46), for LDL was(1.05-4.00) and for VLDL was (0.054-0.92) for Nepalese population. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nepalese clinicians can take into consideration of reference lipid values of this study for diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of disease.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 366-372</p> R.V. Mahato, R.K. Singh, A. M. Dutta, K. Ichihara, M. Lamsal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Wine Sero-Status of Japanese Encephalitis among Kathmandu and Morang Districts of Nepal <p>Japanese Encephalitis (JE) a vector borne zoonoitc disease caused by arbovirus of Flavivirus and transmitted by Culex tritaeniorhynchus additionally pig acts as amplifying host for the virus. A total 115 swine serum samples 100 pig farmers from each district were tested against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. The collected samples were analyzed by using “Porcine Encephalitis B Virus Antibody Rapid Test Kit”. Among them 17% samples were positive for JE while 83% samples were negative for JE. Total 18% were positive for JE in Morang district while 115.4% were positive for Kathmandu district. There was no significant difference in prevalence of JE in these two districts (p&gt;0.05). In Kathmandu, the prevalence was 15.4% while in Morang it was slightly higher, 18%. 9.5% younger pigs of 3-9 months of age were positive for JE and 20.6% of age above 9 months were positive of JE but were no significant (p&gt;0.05). Similarly, 17.9% female pigs and 14.6% male pigs were positive for JE however difference was not significantly different. In case of breed, no association of pigs with seropositivity (p&gt;0.05), 7 (13.5%) out of 52 local breed pigs and 12 (19.1%) out of 63 were JE positive. The prevalence rate of JEV was higher in Morang district among study area which might be due to several factors like lack of education in pig farmers, non vaccinated pig population and lack of awareness regarding risk factor of JEV.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 373-378</p> A. Chapagain, S. Singh, D.B. Thapa, D. Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Fetal Transverse Cerebellar Diameter (TCD) Measurement for Prediction of Gestational Age in 2nd and 3rd Trimesters of Pregnancy <p>Prediction of gestational age based on sonographic fetal parameters is perhaps the cornerstone in modern obstetrics. The transverse cerebellar diameter serves as a reliable predictor of GA in the fetus and is a standard against which abnormalities in other fetal parameters can be compared. A variety of sonographic fetal biometric parameters can be used to assess gestational age in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The TCD is an additional biometric parameter against which aberrations in other fetal parameters can be compared.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the predictability of GA calculated by fetal TCD measured in 2<sup>nd </sup>&amp; 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester of pregnancy on ultrasound.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was an cross-sectional study with a sample size 371 healthy, pregnant females with a normal fetus included aged 18 to 40 years, conducted in Gilani ultrasound center ferozpur road lahore. A standard 2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> trimester ultrasound examination was done. In addition to the standard biometric parameters, the transcerebellar diameter was also measured. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient method was applied at a significance level of 1% (α = 0.01).using statistical software SPSS version 23.0. It was observed that BPD and TCD had a statistically significant, strong, linear correlation (r=0.976), GA of FL (r=0.978), LMP (r=0.976) P value (0.000) were considered significant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The TCD is a reliable parameter for the determination of GA in the&nbsp; 2<sup>nd </sup>&amp; 3<sup>rd</sup> &nbsp;trimesters of pregnancy.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 379-385</p> Saira Iram, Syed Amir Gilani, Zain-ul Hassan, Mehreen Fatima, Raham Bacha, Sajid Shaheen Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Enhancement of Substrate Decomposition through Potential Hydrolytic Bacteria for Cumulative Biogas Production <p>Scenarios focus on the practical behavior of anaerobic decomposition systems to enhance biogas production, in addition to assure economic progression and ecological sustainability. The present study has framed to identify the potential hydrolytic bacteria from five different sources since principally the efficacy of hydrolytic bacteria determines the rate of hydrolysis of anaerobic decomposition and thereby biogas production. Among the 40 dominant bacteria isolated from diverse bases, 10 isolates were selected as efficient through preliminary screening.&nbsp; Consequently, the premier enzyme activity obtained from the isolate G5 obtained from goat rumen fluid for cellulase (44.16±1.00 U/ml), protease (260.63±1.35 U/ml) and lipase (33.20 ± 0.81 U/ml). Morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that G5 is <em>Bacillus sp.</em> DDG5 (KM093856.1). A range of pH (7.0-7.5) and temperature (40<sup>o</sup>C) was sufficient for the highest activity of hydrolytic enzymes experienced. Biogas production using cow dung showed an improved efficiency of 9.54 % in <em>Bacillus sp. </em>DDG5 treated tank (70.16 ± 1.54 %) in contrast to control (58.13 ± 1.02%) at 30<sup>th</sup> day. However, this study established that <em>Bacillus sp. </em>DDG5 obtained from goat rumen fluid is the promising hydrolytic bacteria, since it can be applied for proficient hydrolysis of various organic materials to enhance methane production in outlook.</p> <p>Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 6(4): 386-396</p> D. Divya, L. R. Gopinath, S. Sreeremya, S. Indran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 28 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0000