International Journal of Environment 2019-10-16T17:13:12+00:00 Govinda Bhandari Open Journal Systems <p>Published by Progressive Sustainable Developers Nepal (PSD-Nepal). &nbsp;</p> <p>We are seeking submissions for this journal. We recommend that you review the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about">About the Journal</a> page for the journal's section policies, as well as the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about/submissions#authorGuidelines">Author Guidelines</a>. Authors should submit their manuscripts to the Editor whose details can be found on the <a title="Contact" href="/index.php/IJE/about/contact">Contact</a> page.</p> <p>On 6th March 2017, IJE was included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> Pesticide Residues: The hidden reality in Nepalese vegetables 2019-10-16T17:13:04+00:00 Govinda Bhandari 2019-10-02T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sustainable Marketing – A Path to Follow 2019-10-16T17:13:06+00:00 Mehraz Boolaky 2019-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Correlation and Partitioning of Some Heavy Metals in Aquatic Media Around a Make Shift Crude Oil Refining Area 2019-10-16T17:13:12+00:00 Howard Ibigoni Clinton Abiodun Iyabode Khadijat <p>The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentration levels of some heavy metals and their relationships between the bottom sediments, its overlaying (bottom) water and the surface water of the study area in Andoni local Government of Rivers State, Nigeria (Long.7° 20' 48.639''E and Lat.4 29 20.169N) using standard methods of analysis. The mean result showed variation patterns (P&lt;0.05) of the metals in each of the medium as - surface water – Mg&gt;N=Cu=Zn&gt;Pb=Cd&gt;V; bottom water – Mg&gt;Cu&gt;Ni=Zn&gt;Pb=Cd&gt;V and bottom sediments – Mg=Zn&gt;Pb&gt;Cd&gt;Cu=Ni&gt;V, while that of the media for each metal is Sediment &gt;&gt; Bottom water=Surface water. The sediments of the study area had more positive significant correlations among metal pairs than others indicating that metals were more bound to the sediments than in the water columns. V-Cd, V-Pb and V-Ni showed significant positive correlations in the water columns indicating that their input sources may likely be the same, which could have been from petroleum related activities. The level of contamination of the study area is relatively high when compared to related studies within and outside the region. It is therefore recommended that the activities of this make-shift refining of crude oil in the area should be stopped by the relevant regulatory agencies and also further studies on other media should be carried out.</p> 2019-09-07T10:34:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hygiene Practices and Airborne Microbial Concentrations in Restaurants 2019-10-16T17:13:11+00:00 Bashar Haruna Gulumbe Abdullahi Hassan Kawo Mohammed Bashar Danlami Muhammad Bello <p>&nbsp;This study was carried out to evaluate bioaerosol concentrations in the indoor air and the hygiene practices of restaurants to highlight the exposure risks and improve food safety in restaurants. Using depositional sampling techniques, air samples were collected from each restaurant kitchen and dining room and aerobically cultured. Hygiene/sanitary conditions were assessed using observation schedules and questionnaires. Meteorological parameters were also monitored during air sampling. The results revealed that bacterial and fungal concentrations (CFU m<sup>-3</sup>) ranged from 1.07×10<sup>3</sup>‒1.36×10<sup>4</sup> and 8.2×10<sup>1</sup>‒5.76×10<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Regarding the sanitary conditions of the restaurants, 3.5% of the kitchens were in good sanitary condition, and the food was adequately protected from flies in only 14% of the kitchens. Only 3.5% of the food handlers had attended food hygiene basic training, up to 33% of the food handlers had no education at all, and only 0.10% had medical certifications. High microbial counts and the poor sanitary conditions and personal hygiene practices observed in this study not only indicate a strong need for improved hygiene but also constitute a serious potential health hazards.</p> 2019-09-07T12:05:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Diversity Among Old Local Grape Cultivars in South of Syria 2019-10-16T17:13:10+00:00 Bayan M. Muzher Ola T. Al-Halabi <p>&nbsp;This investigation was carried out in Sweida governorate of Syria from 2014 to 2015. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the genetic diversity among 17 old local grape cultivars using morphological traits and SSR molecular markers. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of morphological traits revealed that four main components were accountable for 50.34 % of variance, with Eigen values of 16.77%, 13.31%, 10.59% and 9.67%, respectively. While distribution of cultivars was found significantly dependent of first and second components, which separated Aswad Sharar and Derbly cultivars rather than other studied cultivars. Hierarchical cluster of morphological traits showed high diversity among studied cultivars. On the other hand, molecular characterization was conducted using eight informative SSR primer pairs, polymorphism was detected by seven SSR's primers. As a result, 18 polymorphic alleles were revealed with a polymorphism percentage of 100%, which reflected the genetic variation among studied cultivars. Genetic similarity was achieved, where 0.875 was the highest between Zeiny and Khedry cultivars, while the other two cultivars Ebeidy and AhmarMokamaa showed the lowest genetic similarity as 0.077. Cluster analysis of SSR markers grouped the studied cultivars into three clusters as per Jaccard coefficient. The first cluster grouped Ebeidy, Aswad Helwany and Derbly cultivars together, the second cluster contained two cultivars Beiady and Alb Atair, while the third cluster contained the remaining cultivars. Consequently, the results showed high diversity among studied cultivars, and some morphological traits were useful for cultivar discrimination.</p> 2019-09-07T12:25:43+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Flood Hazard and Agriculture Damage Under Climate Change in the Bagmati River Basin of Nepal 2019-10-16T17:13:09+00:00 Badri Bhakta Shrestha <p>Assessment of flood hazard and damage is a prerequisite for flood risk management in the river basins. The mitigation plans for flood risk management are mostly evaluated in quantified terms as it is important in decision making process. Therefore, analysis of flood hazards and quantitative assessment of potential flood damage is very essential for mitigating and managing flood risk. This study focused on assessment of flood hazard and quantitative agricultural damage in the Bagmati River basin including Lal Bakaiya River basin of Nepal under climate change conditions. Flood hazards were simulated using Rainfall Runoff Inundation (RRI) model. MRI-AGCM3.2S precipitation outputs of present and future climate scenarios were used to simulate flood hazards, flood inundation depth, and duration. Flood damage was assessed in the agricultural sector, focusing on flood damage to rice crops. The flood damage assessment was conducted by defining flood damage to rice crops as a function of flood depth, duration, and growth stage of rice plants and using depth-duration-damage function curves for each growth stage of rice plants. The hazard simulation and damage assessment were conducted for 50- and 100-year return period cases. The results show that flood inundation area and agricultural damage area may increase in the future by 41.09 % and 39.05 % in the case of 50-year flood, while 44.98 % and 40.76 % in the case of 100-year flood. The sensitivity to changes in flood extent area and damage with the intensity of return period was also analyzed.</p> 2019-09-07T12:40:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of Hematological and Biochemical Profiles of Tannery Workers Exposed to Chromium in Hazaribagh, Bangladesh 2019-10-16T17:13:07+00:00 Adua Rahman Md. Fahimur Rahman Jobaida Akther A. H. M. Nurun Nabi Laila N. Islam <p>Occupational exposure to chromium used in mineral tanning processes cause adverse health effects on workers of leather tanning industries. This study aimed to evaluate the hematological and biochemical profiles in tannery workers of Hazaribagh, Bangladesh compared with a control group. A total of 225 participants, 121 tannery workers and 104 controls, were enrolled. All subjects completed interviewer-administered questionnaires; their physical health was examined, blood samples were collected and the hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. The tannery workers had mean duration of work exposure at tanneries for 13.1±9.7 years, and working hours per day of 10.7±2.3 which were significantly higher than 7.6±2.2 of the controls. Previous results showed long-term exposed tannery workers had significantly higher serum chromium concentrations than controls. The tanners had dermatological problems, infections on body surfaces, and respiratory ailments, among other complaints. The red blood cell count, hematocrit (48.91 %) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (29.39 g/dL) were lower in tannery workers but hemoglobin (14.58±1.30 g/dL) was significantly lower than in the controls (15.96±0.88 g/dL). The tanners had significantly lower neutrophil (51.31 %), higher lymphocyte (41.82 %), monocyte (2.44 %) and eosinophil (4.17 %) counts. Their mean creatinine and alkaline phosphatase values were normal but markers of liver damage, alanine transaminase (42.7±39.3 U/L) and aspartate transaminase (44.3±20.5 U/L), and liver dysfunction marker - bilirubin (1.04±0.85 mg/dL) levels were significantly higher. These findings suggest that exposure to chromium poses serious threats to the health of tannery workers who are at risk of toxicity related liver damage and hematological disorders.</p> 2019-09-08T09:17:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Feeding Habits of Different Fish Species in Negombo Lagoon 2019-10-16T17:13:08+00:00 Neetha Punchihewa M.P.C. Silva <p>To investigate the feeding habits of different fish species in Negombo lagoon, fish species were collected from Kadolkele and Liyanagemulla sites during February 2015 to July 2015 using a drag net. Collected specimens were preserved in 5% formalin. Later, the fish specimens were dissected, and stomach contents were mixed with water to make a suspension. One ml of suspension was added to the Sedgewick Rafter cell, and examined under the light microscope. The occurrence %, volume %, numbers %, and the Relative Importance Values (RIV) were calculated. The gut contents of 62 samples from 12 fish species were analyzed; 11 species were found to feed on mangroves, 10 on seagrasses, and 8 on filamentous algae. 13 food items were identified. Most of the analysed fish were categorized as omnivores and opportunistic feeders. The juvenile fish mainly feed on a combination of mangroves, seagrasses and filamentous algae. Apart from plant matter, the juvenile fish were found to feed upon <em>Cyclops </em>sp. and mysids. Although <em>Hemirhamphus marginatus </em>is an omnivore, it specially fed on mangroves, seagrasses and filamentous algae. Furthermore, <em>H. marginatus </em>consumed common food items in both habitats except mangroves and molluscs, and the shifting of its diet was depended on the availability of food. The broadest niche breadth was recorded by <em>H. marginatus </em>and the shortest niche breadth by the herbivorous fish species, <em>Siganus vermiculatus </em>and <em>Liza macrolepis</em>. <em>Caranx sexfasciatus </em>exhibited an ontogenetic shift in their diet. The smaller <em>C. sexfasciatus </em>was a carnivore and the larger individuals of the same species were herbivores.</p> 2019-09-08T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Problems and Challenges to Determine Pesticide Residues in Nepal 2019-10-16T17:13:05+00:00 Bibek Raj Bhattarai Babita Aryal Bikash Adhikari Niranjan Parajuli <p>Nepal is predominately an agrarian country where still the majority of the total population rely on agriculture (Adhikari, 2018). The productivity of agriculture should be augmented to fulfill the increasing demand for food. Despite countless efforts, the agriculture sector could not come across to accomplish the global market for foodstuffs due to climate change. By which, plants will be attacked by various insects, funguses, and microorganisms. To tackle such problems, pesticides are being widely used to defend and block agriculture products from harmful organisms. But due to lack of public awareness, large numbers of farmers have been using pesticides as medicine - a conviction implanted in their mind (Pingali et al., 1995).</p> 2019-09-27T13:04:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##