International Journal of Environment <p>Published by Progressive Sustainable Developers Nepal (PSD-Nepal). &nbsp;</p> <p>We are seeking submissions for this journal. We recommend that you review the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about">About the Journal</a> page for the journal's section policies, as well as the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about/submissions#authorGuidelines">Author Guidelines</a>. Authors should submit their manuscripts to the Editor whose details can be found on the <a title="Contact" href="/index.php/IJE/about/contact">Contact</a> page.</p> <p>On 6th March 2017, IJE was included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> Progressive Sustainable Developers Nepal (PSD-Nepal) en-US International Journal of Environment 2091-2854 <p>The author(s) acknowledge that the manuscript submitted is his/her/their own original work; all authors participated in the work in a substantive way and are prepared to take public responsibility for the work; all authors have seen and approved the manuscript as submitted;&nbsp; the manuscript has not been published and is not being submitted or considered for publication elsewhere; the text, illustrations, and any other materials included in the manuscript do not infringe(plagiarism) upon any existing copyright or other rights of anyone.</p> <p>Notwithstanding the above, the Contributor(s) or, if applicable the Contributor’s Employer, retain(s) all proprietary rights other than copyright, such as Patent rights; to use, free of charge, all parts of this article for the author’s future works in books, lectures, classroom teaching or oral presentations; the right to reproduce the article for their own purposes provided the copies are not offered for sale.</p> <p><strong>The copyright to the contribution identified is transferred to IJE.</strong></p> Ecology of Persian Walnut (Juglans regia L.) in Western Bhutan <p>In Bhutan the Persian Walnut (<em>Juglans regia</em> L.) is highly valued for its timber and is listed under special class in Royalty on Forest Products of Bhutan. Possessing high timber and other medicinal values, the ecology of the species in the country was poorly understood. The study aimed to understand the ecological requirements and habitat modeling of the species in Bhutan. A purposive non-probability sampling was adopted in natural habitats of the species in four districts (Gasa, Punakha, Wangdue Phodrang, and Dagana) of the country. Plot size of 20 m X 20 m (major plot) for tree and understory and 2 m X 2 m for ground cover were used to collect vegetation data. Soil samples were collected from the center of the major plot at a depth of 25 - 30 cm. A total of 163 plant species belonging to 74 families were recorded from the study plots. Pearson and Kendal correlation of CCA Ordination showed moderate influence of slope (<em>r</em> = .66) followed by altitude (<em>r </em>=.55). Annual mean temperature and rainfall showed moderately negative correlation with the growth and distribution of <em>J. regia</em> (<em>r</em> =. -54 and -.64) in the study area. Despite, scattered distribution of <em>J. regia</em> in the country an area of 7146.53 km<sup>2</sup> which accounts for 18.61% of the country’s total area was found to be suitable for the growth and development of the species which can be used for protection and management of species in future.</p> Laxmi Sagar Jambay Ngawang Gyeltshen Bhakta Bdr Ghalley Sonam Yonten Namkha Gyeltshen Rupesh Subedi Rinchen Dorji Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 1 22 10.3126/ije.v11i2.43844 Estimation of surface PM2.5 with MODIS Aerosol optical depth and source identification using trajectory analysis: A case of Hyderabad City, India <p>Satellite measurements are important for quantifying the ground observations and atmosphere columnar properties like Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) especially in developing countries like India. In this study Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieval’s AOD product has been used having 3 km and 10 km spatial resolution from terra and aqua satellites, The MODIS AOD data and meteorological parameters from May 2017 to May 2019 were used. The Multiple linear regression method is implemented in this study. The study concluded that there is a good agreement in the prediction of PM<sub>2.5</sub> at Zoopark location, whereas in other monitoring locations the agreement between AOD and measured PM<sub>2.5</sub> is relatively poor. The particulate matter (PM) concentrations are influenced by the local source regions and the long-range transport of pollutant through the wind, whereas the source regions identified based on the Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF), Concentration-Weighted Trajectory (CWT) and Cluster analysis indicate the dominant source regions. Results indicate that the Central India and East Indian regions are more dominating source regions at Hyderabad location in the winter season. It was found that the lower altitude layer showed the major source of local regions nearby receptor. The cluster analysis indicates that the high intensity from the East Indian regions. This paper not only demonstrates reasonable prediction accuracy but also provides the model uncertainties which lays foundation for further study.</p> Selvetikar Ashok M. Chandra Sekhar D Rama Bhupal Reddy Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 23 52 10.3126/ije.v11i2.44538 Evaluation of the status of water quality of three swimming pools in Bujumbura city, Burundi <p>Poor water quality is problematic for the health of public swimmers. This study focused on the water quality of three main swimming pools coded as MS, ES and HC in the city of Bujumbura, Burundi. Water samples were collected from June to the end of August 2020 and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, nitrates, free chlorine and microbiological parameters (total coliforms and faecal coliforms). Our results indicated that 2/3 of the sampling days showed pH &gt;7.8 and pH&lt;7.2 in the MS and HC pools, respectively. All these pools exhibited high turbidity whereas ES manifested very high value (6.05NTU). Free chlorine appeared very low in the MS pool with contamination by total coliforms (&lt;1MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 1.17x10<sup>7</sup>MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup>, &lt;1MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 6.32x10<sup>6</sup>MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup>, and &lt; 1MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 5x10<sup>2</sup> MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup>) for MS, ES, and HC respectively. Both MS and ES pools revealed higher thermotolerant coliforms contamination of (&lt;1MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 2.18x10<sup>4</sup>MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup>) in MS and (&lt;1MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 2.32x10<sup>4</sup>MPN 1mL<sup>-1</sup>) in ES, but the HC pool showed a single contamination case with values of &lt;1UFC 1mL<sup>-1</sup> and 5UFC1mL<sup>-1</sup> throughout the sampling period. Additionally, extreme concentrations of nitrates (104.89 mgL<sup>-1</sup>) were observed at the ES pool. The findings showed a non-compliance with WHO standards for all three swimming pools and therefore advocates for an urgent need to monitor and treat or change the water frequently for quality assurance of swimming pools.</p> Christophe Niyungeko Jonas Ntirampeba Prudence Bararunyeretse Benjamin Makimilua Tiimub Manassé Nihorimbere Pierre Ntakiyiruta Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 53 70 10.3126/ije.v11i2.44652 Perception of local people and visitors towards ecotourism development in Jagadishpur reservoir <p>Ecotourism promotes stewardship of natural and cultural resources. However, local people and tourists' opinions are necessary to promote ecotourism development. This study attempts to identify prospective ecotourism products and assess local and visitor perceptions towards ecotourism development in the Jagadishpur reservoir. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 50 local households, 65 visitors, and 7 key informants. We used Friedman's rank test to determine the preferences for ecotourism products, and Fisher's exact test to quantify locals and visitors' perceptions of ecotourism. The findings showed that lakes/scenic beauty, and bird watching are the highest rated ecotourism products by locals and visitors, respectively. Local people and visitors perceived picnic spots and view towers as additional ecotourism products for ecotourism development, respectively. The perceptions of locals and visitors showed no significant difference that the area is suitable for ecotourism, biodiversity conservation, and livelihood promotion of locals. However, a significant difference was found in the perception between locals and visitors of the culture and tradition. The study showed that local people and visitors both are positive for ecotourism development in terms of suitability, livelihood, and biodiversity conservation. Detailed understanding and prioritized ecotourism products can contribute to ecotourism promotion more effectively. Furthermore, more research on the feasibility of identified ecotourism products and the effectiveness of fund allocation for ecotourism products are urgently needed to develop wetland tourism in a sustainable way.</p> Bishal Aryal Vivek Thapa Chhetri Pramisha Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 71 85 10.3126/ije.v11i2.44768 Occurrence of Elevated Nitrogenous and Phosphorus in Groundwater Sources Used in Unplanned Settlements, Dar Es Salaam - Tanzania <p>Groundwater in unplanned settlements is stressed by multiple pollution sources threatening health of consumers. Elevated nitrogen and phosphorus affect the quality of groundwater as they leach through the soil to groundwater. This study aimed at establishing variations of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds in 75 boreholes used in 8 unplanned settlements in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Laboratory analysis using Spectrophotometer DR/4000 was conducted at Ardhi University. Principal Component Analysis was conducted by using Paleontological Statistics (PAST) software, version 3.08 and statistical significance set at p &lt; 0.05. Results indicated that about 84% and 73.3% of sampled boreholes during wet and dry seasons, respectively had nitrate nitrogen greater than WHO recommendations for drinking water quality standards. Concentration of NO<sub>2</sub>-N showed that 12% and 14.7% of sampled boreholes during wet and dry seasons, respectively were greater than 0.9 mg/L TZS (574:2016) recommended guidelines. Phosphate concentration was greater than 2.2 mg/L TZS (574:2016) recommended guidelines in 49.3% and 12% of sampled boreholes during both wet and dry seasons, respectively. These results indicated that consuming such polluted water may be unsafe to infants and older people and therefore alternative drinking water source is recommended.</p> Leopord Sibomana Leonard Rubhera R.A.M. Mato Mengiseny E. Kaseva Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 86 104 10.3126/ije.v11i2.46304 Effect of Recurrent Irrigation with Treated Sewage from Anaerobic Digester Coupled with Anaerobic Baffled Reactor on Soil Fertility <p>Growing recognition of treated wastewater as a resource is among the factors influencing its reuse in agriculture worldwide. Long-term effect of irrigation with treated wastewater on soil is widely reported; however, the effect of irrigated farming cycles with treated sewage on soil fertility is rarely reported. In this study, greenhouse maize plot experiment, consisting of triplicate plots irrigated with treated sewage and tap water was conducted for three consecutive farming cycles. Soil was sampled for analysis at the depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm after every farming cycle. After the third farming cycle, pH and organic matter content increased significantly (P≤0.05) at all depths; NO<sub>3</sub>-N and PO<sub>4</sub>-P increased at 0-20 cm, though was not significant (P≥0.05); while EC and TDS decreased at all depths. With exception of pH, soil organic matter content, NO<sub>3</sub>-N, and PO<sub>4</sub>-P, were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in plots irrigated with treated sewage for all cycles; while EC and TDS were only significant after the second farming cycle. Variation of soil parameters was not consistent with the irrigated farming cycles.&nbsp;Irrigation with treated sewage improved soil PO<sub>4</sub>-P and organic matter content but posed soil alkalinity, thus pH amendment is needed after the third farming cycle.</p> Jonas G. Balengayabo Gabriel R. Kassenga Shabaan M. Mgana Fredrick Salukele Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 105 123 10.3126/ije.v11i2.46898 The Shelf Life of Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Treated with Extracts of Two Medicinal Plants: Azadirachta indica and Vernonia amygdalina <p>Tomato remains one of the most nutritive edible berries but challenged by incessant attack and spoilage by fungi among others. The negative effects of synthetic preservatives have shifted attention to bio-preservatives. This study investigated the shelf-life of post-harvest tomato fruits treated with the two medicinal plants: <em>Azadirachta indica </em>(neem leaf) and <em>Vernonia amygdalina </em>(bitter leaf) extracts. Fresh tomato fruits and leaves of both plants were sourced from Lokoja. The leaves were air-dried, pulverized and extracted with distilled water and absolute ethanol. The extracts were analyzed phytochemically and graded concentrations (2.5 g/mL - 10.0 g/mL) were applied to the tomato samples in five replications each. Weight loss, appearance of fungal mycelia and deteriorations on the tomato samples were monitored for 30 days. Fungal isolates from the deteriorated samples were recovered and subjected to <em>in vitro </em>inhibitory activities. Alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids and tannins were present in both extracts, except for <em>A. indica</em>, where saponins was not detected. Both extracts significantly (p<strong>&lt;</strong>0.05) reduce the weight loss (63.4 %) and extended the shelf life of the tomato fruits to 24 days at 10.0 g/mL. <em>Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer </em>and <em>Alternaria alternata </em>were recovered from the spoilt tomatoes<em>. </em>The most and least susceptible isolates were <em>R. stolonifera </em>(84.56 %) and <em>A. niger </em>(71.45 %), respectively. The bioactivities of both extracts were not significantly different (p<strong>&gt;</strong>0.05) from each other. These findings suggest that relatively higher concentrations of both plant extracts could be potential bio-preservatives to extend the shelf life of post-harvest tomatoes.</p> J. C. Okolo J. C. Igborgbor E. M. Eze G. I. Ogu G. U. Jonah Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 124 140 10.3126/ije.v11i2.48653 Assessment of freshwater plant diversity and local difference in freshwater plant use knowledge in Punakha district, Bhutan <p>Freshwater plants play a paramount role in an aquatic ecosystem. However, only limited studies have been carried out on freshwater plants. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the diversity of freshwater plants in different freshwater bodies of Punakha District, the correlation of freshwater plant species with the environmental variables, and the local community difference in freshwater plant use knowledge in Punakha district. A total of 20 water bodies were selected using a stratified sampling method. Area-based surveys were employed to assess the plant species from a total of 80 plots, each with the quadrat of 5 m x 5 m. Environmental variables such as altitude, water depth, water velocity, temperature, precipitation and evapotranspiration were measured. The study recorded a total of 72 freshwater plant species distributed among 57 genera and 37 families. Shannon-Weiner diversity index revealed high diversity of freshwater plants from ponds (H’ = 3.3) followed by ditches (H’ = 3.16), streams (H’ = 3.07) and lakes (H’ = 2.83). The study revealed the decrease of freshwater plant species with an increase in the water velocity, depth and altitude. There was a significant association between respondents’ freshwater plant use knowledge with gender (x<sup>2</sup> (1) = 6.04, p = .014), age (x<sup>2</sup> (1) = 13.21, p = .000) and education level (x<sup>2</sup> (1) = 4.53, p = .003). Females and illiterate respondents with aged 31 years old and above had more knowledge on freshwater plant use compared to males and educated respondents with aged 30 years old and below.</p> Tenzin Dema Tshering Pem Jambay Sangay Tshomo Sonam Tshering Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Environment 2022-10-07 2022-10-07 11 2 141 159 10.3126/ije.v11i2.47619