International Journal of Environment <p>Published by Progressive Sustainable Developers Nepal (PSD-Nepal). &nbsp;</p> <p>We are seeking submissions for this journal. We recommend that you review the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about">About the Journal</a> page for the journal's section policies, as well as the <a href="/index.php/IJE/about/submissions#authorGuidelines">Author Guidelines</a>. Authors should submit their manuscripts to the Editor whose details can be found on the <a title="Contact" href="/index.php/IJE/about/contact">Contact</a> page.</p> <p>On 6th March 2017, IJE was included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> en-US <p>The author(s) acknowledge that the manuscript submitted is his/her/their own original work; all authors participated in the work in a substantive way and are prepared to take public responsibility for the work; all authors have seen and approved the manuscript as submitted;&nbsp; the manuscript has not been published and is not being submitted or considered for publication elsewhere; the text, illustrations, and any other materials included in the manuscript do not infringe(plagiarism) upon any existing copyright or other rights of anyone.</p> <p>Notwithstanding the above, the Contributor(s) or, if applicable the Contributor’s Employer, retain(s) all proprietary rights other than copyright, such as Patent rights; to use, free of charge, all parts of this article for the author’s future works in books, lectures, classroom teaching or oral presentations; the right to reproduce the article for their own purposes provided the copies are not offered for sale.</p> <p><strong>The copyright to the contribution identified is transferred to IJE.</strong></p> (Govinda Bhandari) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 02 Feb 2022 13:25:34 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of Factors Affecting Willingness To Pay/Accept: A Study From Begnas Watershed, Nepal <p>This study prioritized five major ecosystem services from the watershed which included clean and silt less water, conservation and biodiversity, fresh environment, tourism, and beautiful landscape. Among these ecosystem services, the fresh environment was ranked first based on respondent’s importance. We conducted multiple focus group discussions, key informant surveys, a household survey, and performed statistical analysis to derive results. About 120 respondents were surveyed, out of which 60 were from upstream and 60 were from the downstream community. The majority of the respondents agreed to participate in the PES mechanism for the conservation of watersheds. The present study has estimated average WTP NRs 114.51/ropani/year/HH and WTA of NRs118.18/ropani/year/HH for conservation of watershed. The probit model was adopted to identify the factors affecting people to pay or accept for ecosystem services. Respondent’s socio-economic characteristics such as gender (female), household income, higher education level, and people involved in agriculture and tourism had a positive impact on willingness to pay in downstream community, while the variables occupation (agriculture and tourism) and property size only had a positive relationship with a willingness to accept in upstream community. Our findings showed the feasibility to initiate and implement the PES mechanism in this watershed and the result of this study could also be used to design a long-term wetland management plan in the future to preserve the wetland. Moreover, time and again studies on the monetary values for ecosystem services are also recommended to assess the varying behavior of the people with time and development.</p> Sanjay Poudel, Suman Bhattarai, Siddhartha Regmi, Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Farmers’ Perception on Potato Pests and Yield Loss Assessment by Red Ant and White Grub on Potato in Ramechhap, Nepal <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and practices of potato growing farmers’ on the details of potato pests in Gokulganga Rural Municipality of the Ramechhap district. Fifty farmers’ were randomly selected and interviewed using structured open-ended questionnaire for collecting the information. Similarly, field yield loss by red ant and white grub on Cardinal and Rosita variety was assessed from one meter square area of thirty fields of the survey site. Survey revealed red ant followed by white grub were the major pest of potato. The average percentage yield loss by the red ant and white grub was 17.3% and 10.5%, respectively. It was also found that, Rosita variety was better in terms of yield than Cardinal. The percentage yield loss on Cardinal and Rosita variety was 15.59% and 6.11% by red ant and 2.01% and 4.16% by white grub, respectively. There is not significant difference in yield loss by red ant and white grub in between Cardinal and Rosita variety. The correlation between white grub population and percentage yield loss is moderately positive in both Cardinal (0.448) and Rosita (0.246) variety whereas correlation between red ant population and percentage yield loss is negative in Cardinal (-0.15) and less positive in Rosita (0.023) variety. Farmers’ knowledge and practices on potato pest management and field loss information can be useful to design integrated pest management strategy for potato pest management.</span></p> Santosh Khadka, Madhav Koirala, Susmita Tiwari, Sundar Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating Habitat of Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis Undulata) Through Trending of Vegetation Activity in Cholistan Desert of Pakistan <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">In the present study, the habitat of Houbara Bustard was evaluated in Lal Suhanra National Park (LSNP) of Cholistan desert, Pakistan using remote sensing data of LANDSAT-5 and MODIS hyper-temporal vegetation index data of 2000-2012 period. Trend analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was performed using seasonal Mann-Kendall test to understand the distribution and projected status of the habitat. Over 76% area of the LSNP comprising of sand dunes, sandy/open shrubs, sandy (barren) and open shrubs was identified as the most suitable habitat for Houbara. Majority of the LSNP area exhibited stable trend in land cover/vegetation activity, e.g. about 7% land cover indicated progressive and 4% regressive trend, while 89% land cover exhibited stability (significant at p&lt;0.05) in the LSNP. The progressive trending was likely because of increase in rainfall, while the regressive trending was due to increase in sunlight. The &lt;1% regressive trend observed in classes like sand dunes, sandy/open shrubs, sandy (barren) and open shrubs points toward sustainability of the habitat in the LSNP. The MODIS based VI and time series proved useful in inferring trends in the vegetation activity in this region. Seasonal changes in the habitat of Houbara need regular monitoring and an in-depth research in context of future changes in climate and land use. A participatory approach based on concerted efforts would be effective in conserving this precious bird and its habitat on long-term basis in the region in future.</span></p> Rabia Mukhtar, Sunaina Abbas, Zafeer Saqib, Arshad Ashraf Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Antioxidants and Antimicrobial Properties of Indigenous Plants: Elaeocarpus sphaericus and Ficus religiosa <p class="Default"><em><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Elaeocarpus sphaericus </span></em><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">(Rudraksha) and <em>Ficus religiosa </em>(Peepal) are the two different indigenous and religious plants found in Nepal. These plants are rich in antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was done to determine the antioxidants, anti-microbial properties, as well as to analyze the various phytochemicals found in the methanolic extracts of leaves of the sampled plants. The Antioxidants levels were determined by the DPPH Scavenging Assay. The methanolic extracts of the plants showed antioxidant properties i.e., 98.01 and 122.3 μg/ml for Rudraksha and Peepal, respectively. Likewise, the Antibiotic Susceptibility test was performed by Well-Diffusion assay in Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates. The zone of inhibition against the Gram-negative (<em>Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa)</em>, and Gram-positive (<em>Staphylococcus aureus, </em>and <em>Bacillus cereus) </em>bacterial isolates were observed, supporting the antimicrobial activity of the plant. Additionally, various qualitative tests were performed for determining the presence/absence of the phytochemicals. Both Peepal and Rudraksha extracts gave positive tests for Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Cyclic glycosides, volatile oils, tannins, flavonoids, phenols, anthraquinone, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, and reducing sugars, and phenols. Likewise, Saponins were found to be positive only in Peepal extracts with negative result for Phlabotannins and proteins. Thus, this research will help for utilizing the two religiously important plants i.e. Rudraksha and Peepal, for further researches in the medical field and preparation of various ayurvedic medicines.</span></p> Barsha Koirala, Evance Pakuwal, Hookman Jimi Rai, Angela Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Habitat Use, Feeding Behaviour and Conservation Threats of Black-Necked Cranes at Gangtey-Phobji Valley, Wangdue Phodrang, Bhutan <p>Black-necked Cranes are revered as sacred birds and are considered the epitome in their biological range. They function as an umbrella species in terms of ecology ensuring that biodiversity is protected across a wider range of habitats. The study was carried out at Gangtey-Phobji valley to determine the habitat use, feeding behaviour and conservation threats of the Black-necked crane. Stratified non-random sampling was used and plot sizes of 1 x 1 m<sup>2</sup> for herbs and 5 x 5 m<sup>2</sup> for shrubs were used for determining the habitat use and feeding behaviour. To understand the conservation threats, a total of 129 households were surveyed. PC-ORD software was used for cluster analysis and to compute the indicator species of the habitat. A total of 50 herbs and 10 shrubs belonging to 37 families were recorded from the study area. <em>Yushania microphylla</em>, <em>Juncus chrysocarpus</em>, <em>Rosa sericea </em>and <em>Rhododendron thomsonii </em>were the indicator species of the preferred habitat. The peak flying hours were at around 08:00 a.m. and 05:00 p.m. The foraging was intensive from 09:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. and 03:00 p.m. to 04:00 p.m. The social (31%) and natural (31%) threats were found to be the most serious threats, followed by political threats (30%). Habitat degradation triggered by anthropogenic activities was the main threat. The cranes preferred the artificial roosts over natural ones recommending more artificial roosts for its conservation. The protection of habitats by limiting the farm road within the habitat, managing waste and stray dogs were deemed crucial.</p> Gyeltshen Dorji, Ugyen Dorji Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on the Removal of Sr(II) Ions from Water Using Carbonized Orange Juice Residue <p>The adsorbent for Sr(II) ion removal was prepared from orange juice residue (OJR) after carbonization at 800°C. An energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopic analysis showed the existence of trace amounts of P, Na, K, and Fe together with C and Ca in the examined sample of COJR. The adsorption parameters such as effect of pH, contact time, initial Sr(II) concentration and adsorbent dosage were studied. COJR selectively adsorbed Sr(II) from the mixed solution containing Sr(II) and Cs(I). Experimental data obtained for the adsorption of Sr(II) were analyzed by using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and the data were well fitted with both the models with R<sup>2</sup> higher than 0.98. Adsorption equilibrium was achieved within one hour by using a 24.3 mg/L Sr(II) solution at a solid-liquid ratio of 1g/L. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q<sub>max</sub>) and adsorption equilibrium constant (b) of COJR for Sr(II) ion were found to be 322.58 mmol/kg and 1.93 L/mmol, respectively. The concentration of Sr(II) was successfully lowered down to the EPA standard (4 mg/L) by using COJR dosage higher than 4 g/L. The adsorbed Sr(II) could be successfully desorbed using a dilute (0.5M) solution of hydrochloric acid. These results indicated that COJR investigated in this study showed a high affinity for Sr(II) ion thus it is expected to be employed as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Sr(II) ions from polluted water.</p> Hari Paudyal, Bimala Pangeni, Prabin Basnet, Katsutoshi Inoue Copyright (c) 2021 International Journal of Environment Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000