International Journal of Life Sciences <p><strong>This content for this journal will no longer be updated on NepJOL. We are in the process of transferring the content to the journal's own website.</strong></p> en-US Copyright reserved © International Journal of Life Sciences (Managing Editor) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Effect of Drought Stress and its Mechanism in Plants <p>Drought is the most important abiotic factor limiting growth, adversely affect growth and crop production. Stresses, resulting in the non-normal physiological processes that influence one or a combination of biological and environmental factors. Stress can damage which has occurred as a result of an abnormal metabolism and may reduce growth, plant death or the death of the plant develops. Production is limited by environmental stresses, according to different scholars estimates, only 10 percent of the world's arable land is free from Stress, in general, a major factor in the difference between yield and potential performance, environmental stresses. Drought and stress is the most common environmental stresses that almost 25 percent of agricultural lands for agricultural farm products in the world is limited. Drought risk to successful production of crops worldwide and occurs when a combination of physical and environmental factors causing stress in plants and thus reduce production.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 1-6</p> Amin Fathi, Davood Barari Tari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:47 +0000 Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize Genotypes for Grain Yield in Mid Hill Districts of Nepal <p>The present study pertaining to the identification of high yielding quality protein maize genotypes was conducted under coordinated varietal trials (CVT) at Khumaltar (Lalitpur) and Kabre (Dolakha) from 2011 to 2012 summer season and under coordinated farmers' field trials (CFFT) at Lumle (Kaski), Kimugaun (Dailekh) and Kabre (Dolakha) in 2011 summer season and at Dailekh and Kabre in 2012 summer season. The results of these trials showed that the genotypes namely Obatanpa followed by S99TLWQ-B and S01SIYQ produced the highest grain yield under coordinated varietal trials and genotypes namely S99TLYQ-B followed by S01SIWQ-3 and Poshilo Makai-1 produced the highest grain yield under coordinated farmers' field trials across testing sites and years. It is suggested that the superior genotypes derived from CFFT could be released and then recommended to farmers of mid hills of Nepal.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 7-9</p> Jiban Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:48 +0000 Five Species of Plant Parasitic Nematodes (Order: Tylenchidae) Affecting Vegetable Crops of Nepal <p>During a survey for plant parasitic nematodes affecting various vegetable crops grown in three hilly districts surrounding Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, five species of order Tylenchidae are reported for the first time from Nepal.The nematode species are <em>Hoplolaimus indicus</em>, <em>Tylenchorhynchus mashhoodi</em>, <em>Helicotylenchus incisus</em>, <em>Microposthonia paraxestis </em>and <em>Hemicriconemoides cocophilus</em>.All the species are illustrated with line diagrams and described with their morphometric data along with localities and host plants.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 10-16</p> Arvind K. Keshari, Ranjana Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:48 +0000 Expressed Emotion and Hallucination Proneness: The Mediating Role of Metacognitive Beliefs <p>This study was designed to examine the mediating role of meta-cognitions in the relationship between perceived expressed emotions and hallucination proneness in a non-clinical sample. The study sample (n = 432 university students) was selected through a stratified cluster sampling procedure and measures of perceived expressed emotions, metacognitive beliefs and hallucination proneness were administered. Two dimensions of expressed emotion, perceived irritability and perceived intrusion, and two metacognitive beliefs, beliefs about uncontrollability and danger and beliefs about cognitive confidence were found to be associated with hallucination proneness. However, only negative beliefs about uncontrollability of thoughts mediated the relationship between perceived intrusiveness and hallucination proneness. Findings imply the experience of real or perceived parental intrusiveness may activate negative beliefs about thoughts concerning uncontrollability and danger, which in turn, leads to hallucinatory experiences as a coping strategy and contributes to the persistence of real or perceived career intrusiveness.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 17-24</p> Usha Barahmand, Ruhollah Heydari Sheikhahmad ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:49 +0000 Genetic Bases of Root System Architecture in Durum Wheat Seedlings <p>Root system architecture (RSA) traits are characterized by constitutive genetic inheritance components which may enable to predict the root phenotypes based on genetic information. The research presented in this study aimed at the identification of traits and genes that underlie root system architecture (RSA) in a population of 176 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross between two durum wheat cvs. Meridiana and Claudio, in order to eventually contribute to the genetic improvement of this species. The following seedling-stage RSA traits were: primary root length, seminal root length, total root length, diameter of primary and seminal roots. Results of ANOVA showed a significant difference among durum wheat cultivars for all traits and the largest heritability was observed for total root length (30.7%). In total, 14 novel QTLs for RSA traits were identified, and both parents contributed favorable alleles to the population.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 25-28</p> Ghasemali Nazemi, Silvio Salvi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:49 +0000 The Effects of a Three-Month College Football Practice on Apo-proteins A and B of Inactive Young Men <p>This modern age is experiencing increased cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality rates due to inert lifestyles and bad nutrition habits along with stress. Apo lipoproteins A and B are among the most important prognosticating factors of cardiac diseases. Therefore, the present study attempts to study the effects of a three-month college football practice on changes in Apo proteins A and B in inactive young men. Through a public call, 30 subjects were selected randomly from male college students and were divided into two control and experimental groups of 15. The experimental group participated in 3 sessions of exercising per week and the control group had not practice at all. 24 hours before the first and 24 hours after the last exercise session, 10 cc blood samples were taken from both groups after 12 hours of fasting from the left arm vessel. These samples were centrifuged to separate the serum and kept at -70° c to be analyzed at a laboratory. In order to compare Apo proteins A and B of the posttest in both groups, covariance analysis was utilized. Results revealed that physical activities in the form of three-month college football practice change Apo protein A and B levels in blood serum in pre and posttests of experimental group significantly. Yet, the study failed to find significant differences in the level of Apo protein A and B of control and experimental groups.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 29-34</p> Karim Salehzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:50 +0000 Evaluation of Growth and Survival of Artemia franciscana fed with Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella capsulata <p><em>Artemia franciscana </em>was fed for seven days with 11.7, 23.4 and 46.8 mg l-1. d-1 (ash-free dry weight) of <em>Nannochloropsis oculata </em>and <em>Chlorella capsulata</em>, to evaluate the food value of these two microalgae. Survival was similar, close to or greater than 90% in all cases, but there were significant differences in growth beginning on the third day. The final ash-free dry weight of <em>A. franciscana </em>fed with <em>N. oculata </em>was seven times greater than with <em>C. capsulata </em>and the respective developmental stages were between instar 14 and 16 and from 8 to 9. Food ingestion was similar with the two diets, but the mean gross growth efficiencies were 80% with <em>N. oculata </em>and 7% with <em>C. capsulata</em>, indicating a poor assimilation of <em>C. capsulata</em>. Therefore, <em>C. capsulata </em>cannot be considered as a suitable diet for <em>A. franciscana</em>, because the amount of energy obtained is not sufficient to sustain normal growth.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 35-39</p> Alireza Salarzadeh, Elham Nahidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:50 +0000 The Effect of Temperature and Salinity on the Growth of Skeletonema costatum and Chlorella capsulata in vitro <p>Salinity and temperature are two of the major factors controlling the growth rate of microalgae. In this study, the effect of salinity and temperature on the growth of marine microalgae; <em>Chlorella capsulata </em>and <em>Skeletonema costatum </em>were investigated to optimize the microalgal biomass production. These species were cultured at different salinities (20, 25 and 30 ‰) and temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C). <em>Skeletonema costatum </em>and <em>Chlorella capsulata </em>had significantly higher (p&lt;0.05) growth rate when cultured at salinities of 30 and 25 ‰, respectively. In terms of temperature, the highest (p&lt;0.05) growth rate was observed in <em>Skeletonema costatum </em>and <em>Chlorella capsulata </em>cultivated at temperatures of 30 and 25°C, respectively. This study indicated that <em>Skeletonema costatum </em>was suitable to marine condition, whereas <em>Chlorella capsulata </em>showed optimum growth at lower salinity and temperature. In addition, can be concluded, <em>Chlorella capsulata </em>and <em>Skeletonema costatum </em>can be considered as suitable species for large outdoor micro algal cultivation.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 40-44</p> Esmat Ebrahimi, Alireza Salarzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:51 +0000 The Causal Relationship Between of Perceived Teacher Affective Support with English Performance Mediated by Academic Enjoy, Academic Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation Strategies <p>Current research aims to examine the causal model of the perceived Affective support of teacher with performance in English by mediation of academic Enjoy, self-efficacy and Self-Regulation in the first grade high school male students in Ahvaz by pathway analysis methods. One hundred and eighty first grades of high school male students in Ahvaz were selected using multistage (proportion) sampling method. The results of pathway analysis showed that the exogenous variable of perceived affective support of teacher is not significantly, directly related to endogenous variable of performance in English but is significantly related by mediating of academic enjoy, Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 45-50</p> Hakim Sahaghi, Sirous Allipour ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:52 +0000 A Qualitative Exploration of Married Students Attitudes toward Marriage <p>The purpose of this paper is to clarify of experience process and formation of the attitudes to marriage in married students. The sample of the study consisted of 18 married students who were selected by purposive sampling. This paper was a qualitative study and content analysis kind. The data was collected by the in-depth and semi-structured interview. When the data reached to the data saturation; after that the data was analyzed by content analysis method. 588 concepts in primary coding, 81 subthemes in open coding, and 15 final and main themes in Axial coding were extracted from the analysis of obtained data. The findings of study showed needing the young men and women to financial and moral supports, supporting of government in cultural and social planning, importance of adherence or weakness toward religious, traditional, and ethnic values in youth's attitude to marriage.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 51-57</p> Ali Mohammadi, Reza Khojastehmehr, Zabihollah Abbas Pour, Loghman Tabeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:52 +0000 Assessment of Some Physiological Traits in Spring Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Cultivars under Water Stress <p>This research was conducted in 2013 to investigate changes in some physiological traits of spring safflower cultivars (C1; Faraman, C2; Goldasht; C3; Sina and C4; Soffeh) under different irrigation treatments (I1, I2, I3, I4 for irrigation after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively). The experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replicates. Relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and total chlorophyll decreased, but leaf temperature, proline content and soluble carbohydrate content of all safflower cultivars increased with decreasing water availability. The highest increment in proline content and a sharp decline in total chlorophyll due to water deficit was recorded for Goldasht, indicating that this cultivar is less tolerant to drought stress. In contrast, Sina had the lowest proline content and the highest soluble carbohydrate content under all irrigation treatments.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 58-64</p> Morad Mohammadi, Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani, Saeid Zehtab-Salmasi, Safar Nasrollahzade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:53 +0000 Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Toxicity on the Kidney of Male Rats <p>Nanoparticles have many characteristics that make them suitable for biological and medical applications. These special features cause some adverse effects. Despite the widespread use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, few studies were conducted on the toxicity of these nanoparticles in biological systems. In this study, the effects of intraperitoneal injections of TiO2 nanoparticles (30,50,70 mg/kg ) were investigated on kidney function and histology. The creatinine levels did not change but the amount of urea and uric acid showed the significant changes in comparison with control group. But, by passing the time, the uric acid changes back to normal. In kidney tissue, the changes such as deposition of hyaline-like materials, the swelling, dilatation of Bowman's capsule and degenerations were seen. It seems by passing time, The temporary disorders have been removed and the renal function has returned toward normal. However, further investigations are needed to measure the oxidative stress.</p><p>International Journal of Life Sciences 10 (1) : 2016; 65-69</p> Fatemeh Mohammadi Fartkhooni, Ali Noori, Abdolrasool Mohammadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Feb 2016 12:30:53 +0000