International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health <p>IJOSH is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal (OHSSN).</a></p> <p>International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (IJOSH) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal covering occupational health and safety-related disciplines (occupational health, safety, and workers' health, including homemakers and students). IJOSH is published quarterly. It provides occupational health physicians, doctors, nurses, engineers, ergonomists, and a wide range of occupational hygiene, health, and safety professionals with a dependable single source of proficiently written legal, practical, and management occupational health information. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p>IJOSH is indexed in the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>, <a href=";db=edsdoj&amp;an=edsdoj.1a01ce819c274020938084d6644a4ffc" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EBSCO</a>, <a href=";wdOrigin=BROWSELINK" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE)</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCI Journal</a>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago,</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>.</p> <p><strong>IJOSH does not collaborate with any international conferences and publication houses, and please do not contact us for the same.</strong></p> Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal en-US International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 2738-9707 Application of Machine Learning Modeling for the Upstream Oil and Gas Industry Injury Rate Prediction <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Yearly, the International Labor Organization report indicates many workplace accident occurrences. The degree of the happenings depends on the workplace environment setting and the incident regulatory measures implemented. By the nature of its work environment, the oil and gas upstream sector is susceptible to high incident rates. In the current fierce business competition and practices, improving productivity, quality, and other processes, such as Safety, is vital. Implementing well-designed safety procedures is the key to managing and reducing the risk level of workplace incidents.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Recently, the application of Machine learning (ML) modeling for accident/injury prediction has been reported in the construction, mining, transport, and health sectors. Likewise, the objective of this paper was to implement three machine-learning-based models to predict injury rates in a drilling operation. The petroleum safety authority of Norway provided the datasets. First, the dataset was pre-processed, and then the selected features and target dataset were used for the modeling. Finally, the model prediction and performance accuracy analysis were performed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results showed that multivariable regression (MVR), Random Forest (RF), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) machine learning algorithms-based models predict the test data with R<sup>2</sup> values of 0.9576, 0.793, and 0.97036, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As the common saying goes, 'prevention is better than cure.' For this, implementing methods such as improved work processes and Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) mitigation procedures, workplace injuries, and accidents allow for reducing the risk level of workplace injuries. The application of integrated machine learning tools, along with carefully built-in workplace accident database implementation, will provide early detection and possible remedial precautions that can be taken to prevent workplace injuries/accidents/fatalities. However, extensive research and development are required to deploy the method in real life. Combining Machine Learning modeling and carefully designed safety measures is vital for successful and robust predictive tools.</p> Desalegn Yeshitila Daniel Kitaw Mesfin Belayneh Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 152 165 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.52668 COVID-19 pandemic and perceived stress in Information Technology professionals <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a pandemic was declared by WHO on 11 March 2020. The lockdown had an evident impact on various sectors including the Information Technology sector. Few studies have been conducted to find out the levels of stress in Information Technology professionals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, all employees of Information Technology companies were informed to work remotely at their homes without any prior information, training and mental acceptance i.e. ‘work from home’. Information technology professionals have occupational stress &amp;working from home during COVID-19 has added mental stress. The present study was planned to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived stress in Information Technology professionals.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The present study was a cross-sectional observational study. Volunteers of the Information Technology sector (n=200) of either sex in the age group of 25 to 55 years participated in the study. PSS was administered through Google Forms and scores were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The association of various stressors with PSS was done which showed a significantly positive association. The mean PSS score of subjects was 23.53 ± 7.39. Twelve (6%) employees had mild, twenty (60%) had moderate and sixty-eight (34%) had high stress levels. This study explored that IT professionals experienced an additional level of stress during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study concluded statistically significant moderate levels of stress in IT professionals of either sex with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Saira Bano Nimty Raina Ambardar Anuradha Rajiv Joshi Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 166 173 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.47140 Estimation of Atraumatic Hip Microinstability Among Long Distance Truck Drivers in Western Maharashtra : A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Hip micro-instability is an upcoming concern and is gaining acceptance as an important contributing factor for hip joint dysfunction among adults and is a major risk factor for the development of early osteoarthritis. Around 20-25% of people at the age of 50 suffer hip pain and knee pain because of chronic wear and tear of joint articular cartilage. is typically described as painful extra-physiologic hip movements, either alone or in combination with symptoms of unstable hip joints. Truck drivers travel long routes for an extensive duration of time with their hips in an ergonomically compromised position. Occupational stress can cause pain which is an effect of vibrational forces and postural stress. Investigation suggests that hip musculoskeletal pain as a whole is one of the main causes of hip micro-instability. Hence, it is important to evaluate the presence of hip micro-instability among long-distance truck drivers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted from 4 May 2023 in a rural tertiary care hospital in Karad for about 6 months. Wherein a total of 103 long-distance truck drivers were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria which included truck drivers by occupation within the age group of 35-45 years, working for more than 12 hours in a day and for 5 days/week with no history of trauma. They were assessed by using the Anterior Apprehension Test, Prone Apprehension Test, and AB-HEER test. The data was then analyzed using statistical procedures, and the results were obtained.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The present study shows that over 12% of participants showed positive results for hip micro-instability. A significant positive correlation was observed between the number of years of driving in relation to pain <em>(P value &lt; 0.0001)</em>. On assessment, there was an increase in flexion, adduction, and internal rotation ranges which hence revealed anterior hip micro-instability (P value = 0.0121) as compared to extension, abduction and external rotation ranges which revealed posterior instability.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study concluded that over 12% of participants showed positive results for hip micro-instability. Also, anterior hip micro-instability was more as compared to posterior hip micro-instability amongst the truck drivers due to capsular relaxation which was affected due to prolonged hours of poor ergonomics. This study also showed the existence of micro-instability despite the presence or absence of ligamentous laxity.</p> Shivani Kadam Sandeep Shinde Shivanee Dalvi Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 174 185 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.51635 Health Effects of Pesticides among Small Scale Farmers in an Urban Municipality of Nepal: A Descriptive Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Pesticides cause short-term as well as long-term health effects. Agriculture workers are at high risk of effect. So, this study aimed to identify the health effects of pesticides among small-scale farmers in the municipality of Bhaktapur, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a community-based cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in all wards of Changunarayan Municipality, Bhaktapur, Nepal. Farmers of selected households who adopted agriculture as their main occupation were included in this study. The sample size for the study was 132. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to determine the farmer from each ward and simple random sampling was used to reach every respondent. Face-to-face interview technique and semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test was applied to measure an association between selected variables.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All of the farmers used pesticides and about two-thirds 74(64.9%) experienced both immediate as well as delayed symptoms due to the use of pesticides. Majority of them showed general symptoms such as eye irritation 87(76.3%), difficulty in breathing 70(61.4%) and fatigue 55(48.2%). There was an association between the frequency of exposure and health effects due to pesticide use which was found to be statistically significant at a significance level with <em>p</em>-value 0.042.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Health effects such as skin rashes, effects on the eyes, and respiratory system were reported. The most prevalent effects were eye irritation, difficulty in breathing, and itching of the skin. Training on pesticide use and awareness should be conducted by municipalities to reduce the effects.</p> Nishchal Thapa Anil Paudel Rajesh Karki Maheshor Kaphle Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 186 193 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.50924 Laboratory Risk Analysis in a Branch Hospital: The L-type Matrix <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Laboratory workers are often exposed to various risk factors, which can be classified as biological, physical, chemical, psychosocial, and ergonomic. This study aims to conduct a risk analysis in the workers of microbiology and biochemistry laboratories of a branch hospital in Istanbul, Türkiye to identify occupational health and safety risks and provide recommendations for measures to be taken.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The investigators conducted the risk analysis with a five-person team including occupational health and safety experts, a laboratory manager, and technicians. Risk assessments were performed using the L-type matrix 5x5 diagram. The level of risk was determined with the product of probability and severity.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Risk analysis in the microbiology laboratory showed ten risk factors. Three of them had moderate level scores as following "working with xylene", “continuous standing work” and "insufficient free space". The remaining risks have low-risk scores, including "working in a noisy environment, "microscope light and ambient light", "working with blood", "working with feces", "non-ergonomic chairs", "insufficient airflow in the environment" and "continuous presence in a closed space". In the biochemistry laboratory, four were classified as moderate risk, including working in constant standing, exposure to bodily fluids, blood tests for bacteria and viruses and non-ergonomic furniture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The priority should be to minimize the risks associated with contact with blood and body fluids. This could involve the implementation of strict safety measures and protocols, as well as providing appropriate personal protective equipment to all personnel who may encounter these fluids.</p> Fatma Kantaş Yılmaz Saadet Karakuş Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 194 200 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.53996 Micronuclei in the exfoliated oral epithelial cell: a cross-sectional study in Peruvian artisanal miners <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Artisanal mining in Peru is an activity that generates a risk of exposure to different compounds, among which mercury and particulate matter stand out. The use of laboratory indicators to assess genotoxicity induced by work activity is a priority need. Our objective was to determine the micronucleus count in buccal cells of artisanal miners in Peru during 2020.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> We designed a cross-sectional study where 80 artisanal miners were evaluated who underwent scraping in the inner area of the cheek to obtain epithelial cells that were stained with Feulgen's staining, and micronuclei and nuclear alterations were identified on a count of 2000 cells.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> We found that the mean micronucleus count was 27.5±8.0 (CI95: 25.7 – 29.3, min. 15, max. 48). For the other nuclear alterations such as nucleoplasmic bridges, budding, and binucleation, only up to one alteration was evidenced for each total count. The number of years of work (p=0.004) and age (p&lt;0.001) were the only variables associated with the micronucleus count.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The nuclear alterations in buccal cells of artisanal miners exposed to particulate material were micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, budding, and binucleations, the most frequent being the presence of micronuclei, with a mean value of 27.5 micronuclei per 2000 cells counted.</p> Blanca Pizarro-Rojas Jhonatan Rabanal-Sanchez Fernando Soncco-Llulluy Jaime Rosales-Rimache Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 201 207 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.56004 Multicenter investigation of moral distress among physicians and its impact on the intention to leave working position <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The evidence concerning Moral Distress (MD) among physicians is limited, while such data are absent for physicians working in the Greek National Health System (GNHS). The purpose of this study is the investigation of MD among physicians in Greece and the validation Moral Distress Scale-Revised (MDS-R) as a reliable method for the measurement of MD in the Greek language.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a multicenter study in which 200 physicians of all specialties and degrees participated. A self-reporting questionnaire was used. The MDS-R questionnaire is constituted of 21 items that describe conditions met in clinical practice, aiming to investigate the frequency and intensity of such cases. The questionnaire was translated and validated in the Greek language.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The test-retest procedure was undergone in a sample of 18 physicians and it was found significant and high agreement in all of the MD scale items. Therefore, all 21 items of the MDS-R questionnaire were found suitable for inclusion in the Greek version of MDS-R. A model of four main factors emerged after the analysis of the results with a total variance of 46,8% and all these factors were correlated with each other. MD was detected to a significant degree in more than half participants. The incidence and intensity of MD were higher in physicians who worked in general hospitals compared to those working in cancer hospitals, which is reported for the first time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The Greek version of MDS-R is a valid and reliable instrument for the investigation of MD among Greek physicians. Moral distress impacts the Greek physicians but the degree depends on the working position. Moral distress is also associated with leaving a working position among Greek physicians.</p> Nikolaos Schizas Athanasios Nazos Ioanna Schiza Georgia Nazou Alkis Apostolopoulos Ioannis Anagnostopoulos Dimitrios C. Angouras Dimitrios Paliouras Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 208 217 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.47182 Practices of Personal Protective Measures against SARS-Cov-2 among Undergraduate Medical Students in South India <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The use of personal protective measures holds relevance despite mass immunization coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in the population. This is because vaccination only gives protection from severe COVID-19 and does not prevent the risk of infection. Medical students can be vital in training people in infection control practices. The study aimed to assess the practices of undergraduate medical students regarding personal protective measures against COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was done among first to final-year students at a private medical college in Mangalore. Data were collected using a Microsoft form.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the 302 participants was 21.2±1.6 years. The majority of them were females [179 (59.3%)]. Face mask was worn by 295(97.7%) participants. Non-recommended types of face masks like using cloth masks [108 (36.6%)] and handkerchiefs [7 (2.4%)] were reported by participants. 35 (11.9%) of them wore the face mask incorrectly. Periodicity of replacement of disposable type masks was not done every day by 181(61.4%) participants. 142(48.1%) of them did not dispose of masks whenever they became moist on every occasion. Only 79 (26.8%) always practiced proper disposal of face masks. Hand sanitizer to disinfect hands was always used by 102 (33.8%) participants. Only 42 (13.9%) participants practiced correct practice of hygiene hand wash always. Only 58 (19.2%) participants had a good level of practice. Practice level was significantly poorer among males and first-year students.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Several gaps in preventive practices against COVID-19 were identified, particularly among males and first-year students. These issues need to be addressed among medical students in future training programs.</p> Nitin Joseph Eshani Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 218 227 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.55315 Prevalence of Accidents and Injuries and Related Factors of Fishermen Fishing Offshore in the North of Vietnam <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Seafaring, particularly offshore fishing, exposes fishermen to various occupational risks leading to diseases and injuries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of occupational risks, injury accidents, and contributing factors among offshore fishers in North Vietnam, to develop evidence-based recommendations to enhance their safety and well-being.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 420 fishermen with a minimum of two years of experience. Interviews were conducted between 2018 and 2020.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings indicated that there is a 41.7% prevalence of accidents and an average injury rate of 280.2 per person per year. Most incidents occurred at night with 104 cases (59.4%), slips and falls 48 cases (27.4%), broken winch lines 40 cases (22.9%), and ship collisions 14 cases (8.0%) being the primary causes. The most common injuries included soft wounds in 92 cases (52.5%) and sprains/dislocations in 14 cases (8.0%). Fishermen with fewer than 10 years of experience exhibited a higher accident risk (odds ratio = 1.54; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-2.72), as did those in the role of a fisherman (odds ratio: 1.68; CI: 0.97-2.94) and those working without labor protection (odds ratio: 3.68; CI: 1.05-12.93).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Lack of labor protection equipment increased the risk by 3.68 times, and fishermen in the friend group had a 2.02 times higher risk of injury. Addressing these risks requires adherence to labor protection regulations and safe working procedures.</p> Van Tam Nguyen Bao Nam Nguyen Truong Son Nguyen Quynh Chi Tran Van Hoa Ho Hai Ha Nguyen Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 228 236 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.56367 Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Laundry Workers in North Sulawesi Province, Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a serious problem that can affect the health and productivity of laundry workers. Workers who experience such disorders may experience pain, muscle stiffness, joint inflammation, and even serious injury. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among laundry workers in North Sulawesi.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study is a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey conducted in March 2023 – April 2023 in Minahasa District North Sulawesi Province, specifically Tondano-Tomohon City. A total sample of 225 laundry workers was taken using the convenient sampling technique. The questionnaire used to assess WMSDs was the Nordic Body Map. The chi-square test was applied to find the association between age and musculoskeletal disorders among laundry workers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Complaints felt in all parts of the worker's body 5.38% were very painful, 17.81% were painful, 36.39% were rather painful, and 39.67% were not painful. The body part that experienced the most complaints of severe pain was back at 10.2%, feeling pain was the waist at 37.3%, feeling pain was the right arm at 47.1%, and no pain was the left elbow at 71.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the study population was significantly associated with age, sex, nutritional status, and work experience with musculoskeletal complaints (p&lt;0.05). While there is no relationship between work duration and education level with musculoskeletal complaints (p&gt;0.05). Therefore, appropriate interventions need to be made to improve working conditions, protect workers' health, and minimize the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the laundry industry.</p> I Wayan Gede Suarjana Ni Luh Gede Aris Maytadewi Negara Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 237 246 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.60842 Safety measures in the workplace: a case study of Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) vehicle plate manufacturing plant, Ojodu – Lagos, Nigeria <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hazards associated with vehicle number plate manufacturing processes in developing countries have not been well elucidated. There is a need to investigate hazards in the vehicle number plate manufacturing plant. The study aimed to identify self-reported hazards in the vehicle plate manufacturing factory, explore their effect on workers’ health and recommend mitigation strategies.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study of workers in the vehicle plate manufacturing plant was done to identify hazards, protective measures and self-reported effects on workers’ health. Biochemical analysis of blood samples was also done and outliers were noted. ANOVA test was performed to determine differences in mean values of selected biochemical parameters. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Exposure to toxic chemicals 38(69%), excessive noise 36 (65%) and heat 28 (51%) were the major hazards in the factory. Major health problems were stress and fatigue 41 (71%), skin disorders 28 (51%), respiratory problems 18 (33%) and hearing loss 16 (29%). More than one quarter, 17 (30 %) of the workers admitted not using personal protective equipment (PPE) regularly. Periodic medical tests were not done for 13 (24%) of the workers. Potassium (3%), Urea (10%), Creatinine (7%), Aspartate transaminase (18%) and Alanine transaminase (8%) were elevated among the workers but no significant association could be established between elevated levels and work post.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Workers in the plate number manufacturing plant were mostly exposed to toxic chemicals and noise. Elevated electrolyte levels cut across departments<strong>. </strong> There is a need for better enforcement of safety rules, and periodic medical examinations should be conducted more consistently.</p> David U Adje Chisom Judith Anyalebechi Felicia E Williams Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 247 258 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.52192 Ergonomic Risk Identification and Postural Analysis in Electrical Transformers Manufacturing Company located in Southern India <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Musculoskeletal disorders are the major factors resulting in discomfort at work in manufacturing industries to workers and these conditions contribute to the poor health of the workforce, subsequently to lower productivity. Therefore, the design of a workstation based on Ergonomic principles is becoming significant to reduce the effects of MSD. This study aimed to identify and assess the ergonomic risks associated with the work tasks in the company through posture analysis and develop recommendations for reducing those risks.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>About 36 manufacturing workers from five sections were randomly selected for the cross-sectional study. The chosen team members were from Core building, Core winding, Assembly, Tanking and Tank fabrication sections with experience of more than two years. The presence of MSDs was assessed using a Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. For postural analysis, Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) were utilized. Few selected postures were analysed using CATIAV5 software and improvements reducing the risks of postures were recommended.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All of the 36 workers selected for the study were male with a mean age of 32 years and, average experience of 10 years, and 75% of workers had normal body mass index. The MSD questionnaire indicated discomfort of 86% mostly in the lower back portion of the body. The combined findings of RULA and REBA showed that about 44% of postures were in the high-risk group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Well-defined ergonomic interventions such as redesigning the workstation are suggested to reduce awkward postures and manual handling risks, leading to improvement in job performance and productivity.</p> Vidyadhar G Biradar S S Hebbal S M Qutubuddin Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 144 151 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.53692 Major Hazard Competent Person Profession in Malaysia: A document analysis of trends and demands <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Malaysian Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazard (CIMAH) Regulations introduced in 1996 resulted in the creation ‘Major Hazard Competent Person’ (MHCP) profession. However, after two decades of its establishment, there has been limited study conducted on this specific profession. The objectives of this study are to analyze 1) the trend of application and passing rates of MHCP registrations; and 2) the trend of Major Hazard Installations (MHI) registrations, and its relationship with the available supply of registered MHCP.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study used a document review approach, involving the extraction, examination, and interpretation of data from both published and unpublished documents by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), the regulatory body responsible for overseeing both MHCP and MHI registration status in Malaysia. The study looks into data from 1996 (beginning of 1996 CIMAH Regulation) to 2023, though the available data found and analyzed were from 1998 to 2021.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study reveals a concerning lack of growth in the number of professionals being certified as MHCP, despite an increase in the number of MHIs over the past two decades. Potential causes of this shortage identified include a demanding certification process, limited availability of MHCP competency courses, and a lack of clear career paths and growth opportunities in the profession.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> The inadequate supply of MHCPs could potentially undermine their ability to provide sufficient coverage for MHIs, indirectly jeopardizing the quality of risk management in major hazard facilities. Therefore, there is merit in periodically reviewing the regulations and reforming the MHCP profession in response to changing trends.</p> Rasyimawati Mat Rashid Radin Zaid Radin Umar Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 259 267 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.52503 Mental Health and Well-being of Healthcare Professionals Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic in Canada <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The COVID-19 pandemic posed unique challenges to healthcare professionals (HCPs) with increased risk of mental health and well-being globally. However, the psychological impact of the pandemic on the mental health and well-being of HCPs in Canada is not fully understood. This paper critically reviews broadly available literature on the mental health and psychosocial status of HCPs amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A comprehensive online search was conducted using the guidelines outlined by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination for combining the findings of diverse primary studies within a single review. Online search was conducted through databases such as AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine), Embase, Global Health, Ovid Healthstar, Mental Measurements Yearbook, EBM Reviews - ACP Journal Club, EBM Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process, In-Data-Review, and Google Scholar for the period between March 2020 and May 2023. Twenty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed systematically using a thematic analysis approach to identify the main themes across studies. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The analysis uncovers three key themes: 1) HCPs face diverse mental health impacts during the pandemic; 2) HCPs are dissatisfied with organizational approaches to COVID-19; and 3) HCPs express concerns about personal well-being and the safety of others during the pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>These findings emphasize the need for HCPs to cope effectively with stressors for their own, their patients, and their families' well-being. Therefore, future research should prioritize the ways in which HCPs can maintain their emotional, mental, and psychological well-being.</p> Karun Kishor Karki Anjelica Shrestha Rahul Jain Riham Al-Saadi Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 268 281 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.55959 Riding to the Rescue: A Comprehensive Review of Health and Safety Measures in Ambulance Cars <p>Paramedics are registered health professionals in numerous countries. Whilst ambulance services must prioritize their patients, they also require personnel to be healthy to perform at their utmost to provide optimal patient care. Ambulance transport is associated with predictable and likely preventable occupant hazards. Ambulance services provide care 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and shift work is known to be a risk factor for poor health. Working unsociable hours has detrimental consequences on the health and well-being of healthcare workers and can ultimately result in compromised patient care. Ambulance service utilization rates are high, with paramedics working in unpredictable environments, and undertaking complex clinical and manual handling tasks whilst caring for critically unwell patients; thus, there are several reasons postulated for poor health in this professional group. These include injuries, serious infections, high rates of musculoskeletal diseases, stress, and mental health problems. This review article aims to identify the occupational risks in an ambulance service, assess their impact on the health of employees, and explore control measures that can be implemented to reduce the risks and improve the safety of healthcare workers and patients.</p> Amna M Almaazmi Shamma H Alhammadi Amna A Al Ali Najat I Alzaabi Joelle Makoukji Kiklikian Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 14 2 282 293 10.3126/ijosh.v14i2.55311