International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health <p>International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (IJOSH) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal covering occupational health and safety related disciplines. It provides occupational health physicians, doctors, nurses, engineers, ergonomists, and a wide range of occupational hygiene, health and safety professionals with a dependable single source of proficiently written legal, practical and management occupational health information. IJOSH is published tri-annually.</p> <p>IJOSH is the official journal of the Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. </p> Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal en-US International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 2738-9707 Human Machine Interaction (HMI) in Offshore Drilling - oil rig workers’ opinion about their interaction with machines <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>There are huge numbers of drilling platforms in the world and once the worker on those platforms meet with an accident, the situation could be very serious. The consequence of this could be environmental, economic and in some cases fatal. Middle East, being one of the oil rich regions hence some of the largest operator works here. Companies here own various types of jack up rigs ranging from old generation rigs to the latest cyber-rig. This paper addresses what oil rig workers have to say about their interaction with machines, and how Human Machine Interaction (HMI) in Offshore Drilling can be improved with design.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A case study approach was undertaken The analysis in this paper draws on the interviews conducted with two different employees involved in operating the drilling operations conducted in the driller’s cabin of newly designed offshore rigs. A semi-structured approach was adopted, using themes identified through analysis of the preceding. The interviews were transcribed by the research team. Each interview was analyzed thematically with existing system and reported discrepancy</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study on Human Machine Interaction (HMI) and Human Factor regarding this has been conducted in the latest generation cyber rigs. There are many aspects of HMI and ergonomics but in this study a special concentration has been given to deal with the ergonomic standpoint and evaluates the drillers console controls.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>When comparison is done with the existing machinery, few modifications can be thought of for better human machine interaction. A better human machine interaction system will ensure a more productive environment for the oil-rig workers.</p> AH Siddique T Shamsi M Hasan Copyright (c) 2021 AH Siddique, T Shamsi, M Hasan 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 181 191 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39812 Use of Nutritional Supplements Among Gym Clubs Participants in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Using dietary supplements has gained interest amongst people who desire to enhance their body composition. However, there are scant published data regarding the use of nutritional supplements and gym users. This study is to assess the intake of nutritional and dietary supplements among gym members in Sulaymaniyah city, Iraqi Kurdistan.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The results of this study are based on the responses of one hundred gym members (aged over 18 years) to a self-manage questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Almost half of the sample reported taking nutritional supplements and hormones. Thirty percent of the participants were consuming different protein powders. Most dietary supplement users noticed some side effects. Supplement users should always consult their physicians and been under the supervision of professional trainers and medical practitioners. In this manner, dietary supplements should not cause any side effects such as hypertension, hepatic disturbance, kidney disorders, hepatic, kidney disturbance, and muscle pain. However, some people (gym participants) may experience allergies, upset stomach/abdominal pain, and frequent urination.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The usage rate of fitness supplements is very high, and the users are not aware of the potential consequences or dangers of unsupervised practice or unprescribed products. Therefore, there is an immediate need to promote consumers’ awareness of this issue, and the latest scientific data must be provided to users and coaches concerning consuming supplements.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> AA Mahmood JM Hadi IQ Maolood Copyright (c) 2021 AA Mahmood, JM Hadi, IQ Maolood 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 121 128 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39763 Prevalence of Protective Measures and Accident Among Motorcycle Riders with Road Safety Compliance in a Nigerian Semi-Urban Community <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The operation of commercial motorcycles has eased transport difficulties, but an increased rate of road traffic collisions, injuries, and deaths deserve attention. This study aimed to evaluate compliance with road safety preventive measures and accident prevalence among motorcycle riders in Ado-Odo Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey that employed a structured questionnaire for collecting information related to compliance to protective measures and accident prevalence. A stratified random sampling technique was used to identify respondents from 20 motorcycle parks. Also, a multistage probability sampling method was used to select 374 respondents from all motorcycle parks listed. Data analysis was done using IBM-SPSS version 25.0</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 374 respondents, 69.0% owned motorcycles and 31.0% hired/rented theirs. Less than half (45.7%) of all riders were aware of the implications (health, financial, and psychological) of a motorcycle accident (MCA). Only 39.5% of owners and 59.5% rented/hire knew the implications (p&lt;0.001). Helmet use was significantly higher among owners (76.4%) than hired/rented (55.2%), p&lt;0.001. More owners (70.9%) had protective jackets than rented/hired (57.8%) (p&lt;0.05). Availability of bright/reflective clothing was poor (45.7%) though significantly higher among owners (50.0%) than rented/hired (36.2%) (p&lt;0.05). Overall accident prevalence was 45.2%, significantly higher among rented/hired riders (56.0%) than owners (40.3%) (p&lt;0.005). Respondents aged 18-24 years were more involved in MCA (52.9%) than the other age groups (p&lt;0.05). Respondents with no formal education had more accidents (73.1%) than the educated (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The knowledge of the consequences of motorcycle accidents was limited among motorcycle riders in Ado-Odo, and the prevalence of accidents was significantly higher among riders who rented/hired motorcycles than owners. Therefore, there is a need for accident documentation and cost implication of motorcycle accidents in the local government areas; this will help policymakers design intervention programs. Also, there is a need for regular training of the riders on road safety measures and the associated benefits.</p> OL Afelumo OP Abiodun FO Sanni Copyright (c) 2021 OL Afelumo, OP Abiodun, FO Sanni 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 129 138 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39764 Occupational Health and Safety Hazards among Workers in Laboratory Animal Research Facilities in Singapore and Philippines <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>All workers, regardless of occupation are vulnerable to various hazards present at work. This study was carried out to determine the commonly encountered occupational hazard of laboratory animal workers in Singapore and the Philippines. Moreover, to determine the percentage of hazard exposure according to the workers’ personal profile, work profile, and frequency of exposure.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>All members of the Association for Laboratory Animal Science of Singapore (n=150) and the Philippines (n=130) were invited in an online survey administered anonymously via email. Only those respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria (i.e. 18 years old and above and working in direct contact to animals and its environment) were included in the analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Laboratory animal workers experienced all hazards identified in the laboratory animal facilities. The three most common hazards encountered by workers based on the mean (M) and median (Mdn) number of exposures were animal-related injuries (M= 1.269, Mdn= 1), ergonomics (M= 1.067, Mdn= 0) and sharp-related injuries (M= 0.885, Mdn=1). There was no significant difference noted between these three hazards when compared to one another. These hazards were consistent regardless of age, gender, education, job, biosafety level of the facility, years of experience and type of animal exposures.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Laboratory animal workers in Singapore and the Philippines are exposed to various hazards in the workplace. Younger workers, and workers with higher day-to-day exposure to laboratory animals, should be prioritized for information dissemination, training, and supervision.</p> JI Bibay JD Agapito Copyright (c) 2021 JI Bibay, JD Agapito 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 139 147 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39765 The Relationship Between Organizational Safety Culture and Organization Safety Performance. The Mediating Role of Safety Management System <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Safety performance is defined as efforts undertaken by organizations with the crucial aim of curtailing accidents and injuries to workers. It plays a crucial role in an organization aiming to achieve an anticipated outcome. A plethora of studies have found positive association between safety culture and safety performance of organizations. However, little is known on how the mechanism through which organizational safety culture exerts its influence on safety performance. Thus, this study investigates the indirect effect of safety management system in the relationship between organizational safety culture and safety performance.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study employs the use of a 5-point Likert questionnaire to collect data from 134 respondents who are head of safety officers in F&amp;B industries located in Lagos, Nigeria. SmartPLS 2.0 was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Results from path analysis revealed that safety culture and safety management system positively relate to safety performance. Furthermore, the mediation analysis indicated an indirect effect of safety management system in the relationship between safety culture and safety performance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is concluded that though safety culture has a significant positive relationship on safety performance, however its effect will be more if F&amp;B organizations create and constantly implement a robust safety management system.</p> VO Otitolaiye FS Abd Aziz M Munauwar F Omer Copyright (c) 2021 VO Otitolaiye, FS Abd Aziz, M Munauwar, F Omer 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 148 157 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39766 Use of personal protective equipment among waste workers of Sisdol landfill site of Nepal <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Solid waste management is a major issue in Nepal with Kathmandu valley generating the highest amount of solid waste. After recovery, the solid waste generated in Kathmandu valley is transferred to the Sisdol landfill site. There are waste workers in Sisdol landfill site who sustain their livelihood by collecting recyclables from those wastes. Personal protective equipment (PPE) is necessary to protect the frontline waste workers against infection. In addition, the waste workers need to know the proper usage of PPE in order to protect themselves from contamination. This study aimed to assess the awareness and proper usage of PPE along with the challenges faced by the waste workers at Sisdol landfill site.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from landfill waste workers of Sisdol located at Kakani Rural Municipality in Nuwakot district of Nepal. A convenience sampling method was used based on the availability of landfill waste workers on that day and their willingness to participate. The data was collected using the structured questionnaire and personal interview of available waste workers.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study comprised of 65% female and 35% male waste workers. The highest percentage of waste workers belong to 27-37 age group occupying 43% of total respondents.&nbsp; Around 92% waste workers had participated in any orientation/training or session related to PPE and its usage. About 60% landfill waste workers were found only using mask and gloves.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is small number of waste workers who wish to wear full set of PPE. Most of them only like to wear mask and gloves. The gender, age group and the education level of waste workers had no association with the usage of PPE during the work.</p> A Khanal A Sondhi S Giri Copyright (c) 2021 A Khanal, A Sondhi, S Giri 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 158 164 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39768 Job Satisfaction among School Teachers in Duwakot, Bhaktapur District, Nepal <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Job satisfaction is one of the determinant factors for professionals. The job satisfaction concerning school teachers reflects their strong motivation towards their job. This study aimed to measure the job satisfaction among teachers of Government and Private schools of &nbsp;Changu Narayan Municipality.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was done at seven government and five private schools of wards no. 1 and 2 of Changu Narayan Municipality Bhaktapur District, Nepal over one month (20<sup>th</sup> April - 19<sup>th</sup> May 2021). Schools of Changu Narayan Municipality Ward No. 1 and 2 were purposively selected. The data was collected through validated questionnaire on Job Description Index (JDI)<sup>8</sup> which consists of 17 domains. Data were entered in Excel and data analysis was done in SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The overall job satisfaction was 65.77±11.52 which indicates that the majority of teachers were highly satisfied with their job.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>&nbsp;The findings of this study indicate job satisfaction among&nbsp; school level teachers was satisfied in their occupation especially in teaching profession. The domain sources of job satisfaction in school teachers appear to be work itself, coworker, relationship with students and sense of achievement. Whereas motivation in profession is most likely to be less job satisfaction among Government and Private schools.</p> P Manandhar N Manandhar SK Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 P Manandhar, N Manandhar, SK Joshi 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 165 169 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39769 Impact of COVID-19 on employees’ emotional health: A conceptual model <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has wrecked havoc on the mankind and caused dramatic disruptions in personal and professional lives of the people. With economies at the verge of collapse, businesses pushed to a standstill, forced alterations in work environment, and uncertainty about the future, this global health crisis has severely impacted employees and organizations. The virus has not only impacted employees physically but also psychologically as they experienced plethora of intense emotional fluctuations. In this regard, the present study aims to synthesize and analyze the existing literature on the subject and present a conceptual framework to aid understanding of the emotional repercussions of pandemic for employees and organizations at large. The extensive review of literature suggests that the perilous crisis resulted in numerous negative emotional outcomes which majorly converge into three i.e. stress, burnout, and depression. This emotional turmoil gets further reflected in employees’ performance at work and thus a conceptual model is developed to holistically capture and present such varied impacts of pandemic on employees. The study also posits that the deleterious emotional impacts can have grave ramifications for the organizations and thus, seek immediate attention of the organizational leaders, managers, and policy makers. Against this backdrop, the practical implications of the study are mentioned and recommendations are made, that may help employees and organizations to survive and sustain any such future crisis situations.</p> M Babbar I Khanna Baba M Majid Copyright (c) 2021 M Babbar, I Khanna, Baba M Majid 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 11 3 170 180 10.3126/ijosh.v11i3.39770