International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH <p>International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (IJOSH) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal covering occupational health and safety-related disciplines (occupational health, safety, and workers' health including homemakers and students). It provides occupational health physicians, doctors, nurses, engineers, ergonomists, and a wide range of occupational hygiene, health, and safety professionals with a dependable single source of proficiently written legal, practical, and management occupational health information. IJOSH is published quarterly.</p> <p>IJOSH is the official journal of the Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. </p> Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal en-US International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health 2738-9707 Stress Prevalence and associated Factors among Bank Employees in Niamey, Niger https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/39315 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The difficulties associated with the financial crisis have led to deep restructuring in the banking sector. The consequences are the emergence of stress among employees. The objective of this study was to assess job stress and related factors among bank workers in Niamey.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study conducted from 24 February to 23 August 2020 among bank workers in Niamey, Niger. A random draw of one agency per bank from four banks of the city, followed by a thorough recruitment of employees from the four selected agencies, was carried out. Stress was measured using the Karasek and Siegrist model. The data had been analyzed with the Epi info7.2 software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 275 employees had been included. The average age was 38.09 ± 7.1 years. They were 152 men (55.27%), a sex ratio of 1.23. Half (50.55%) were executing agents; 30.91% worked more than 5 days a week. The prevalence of stress was 21.90% and 28%, respectively, according to the Siegrist and Karasek models. Work more than 5 days per week (p=0.0254; OR=2.75), feeling job insecurity (p=0.0047; OR=6.99) with the desire to change jobs (p&lt;0.0041; OR=2.90) were associated with stress. On the other hand, male (p=0.0084; OR=0.42 and feeling satisfied with work (p=0.000; OR=0.10) were protective.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The prevalence of stress in the banking sector in Niger is high. Measures to reduce the number of working days; ensuring job stability; to reward employees and support women's work are necessary to reduce stress.</p> Rose Mikponhoue Antoine Vikkey Hinson Ali Djibo Ismaël Mênonli Adjobimey Paul Ahoumenou Ayelo Copyright (c) 2022 Rose Mikponhoue, Antoine Vikkey Hinson, Ali Djibo Ismaël, Mênonli Adjobimey, Paul Ahoumenou Ayelo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 67 74 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.39315 Effect of spinal extension exercises on mechanical low back pain in work from home IT professionals in India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/39022 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Prolonged sitting with awkward posture and long working hours are the predisposing factors for developing Mechanical Low Back Pain (LBP) in IT professionals. Poor dynamic trunk extension performance is associated with back-related permanent work disability and recurrence of LBP. The purpose of this study was to find and analyze the effect of spinal Extension exercises on Mechanical Low Back Pain in work from home IT professionals.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In this comparative study, 50 work from home IT professionals from various companies were approached through emails. Subjects were randomized into two groups: Group A (n=25) was study group, and Group B (n=25) was control group. Subjects from both groups exercised three times per week for 4 months and followed the ergonomics. Pain intensity, functional disability, and strength of back extensor muscle were assessed at baseline and at the end of week 4. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Group A had lower pain intensity (3.24 ± 1.45 vs 4.76 ± 1.53) and functional disability (4.24 ± 2.14 vs 11.44 ± 1.75) and significantly higher back extensor strength (25.44 ± 4.3 vs 22.24 ± 4.58; <em>P</em>&lt;0.05) than Group B at the end of week 4. <strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Spinal Extension Exercises should be incorporated in work from home IT professionals with mechanical low back pain to stabilize back muscles and improve physical functioning with minimal discomfort. In line with this, IT professionals should also be made aware of the risk factors associated with mechanical low back pain and should be encouraged for maintenance of physical health and fitness.</p> Sandeep B Shinde Bajaj Manpreet Prachiti Rajan Bhore Copyright (c) 2022 Sandeep B Shinde, Bajaj Manpreet, Prachiti Rajan Bhore http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 75 80 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.39022 Analysis of the semantic network of post-traumatic stress disorder using Korean social big data https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/38957 <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>In this study, we wanted to examine how post-traumatic stress disorder was discussed in Korean newspaper articles with semantic network analysis suitable for unstructured big data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study analyzed 11,304 articles related to post-traumatic stress reported by four major Korean newspapers for three years from July 30, 2017, to July 30, 2020. R 3.6.2 program was used to calculate TF and TF-IDF values, and UCINET 6.0 and interlocked NetDraw was used for DC, EC, and CONCOR values.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> As a result of deriving 50 major keywords with high TF-IDF values ​​in newspaper articles related to a post-traumatic stress disorder, TF-IDF values were high in the order of 'sick leave', 'solitary confinement', 'detention center', 'standing order', and 'prisoner'. As a result of conducting a CONCOR analysis to determine which sub-clusters keywords are classified into, the researcher derived each cluster based on words included: 'PTSD by crops' (cluster 1), 'PTSD by broadcasting accidents' (clusters), 'PTSD by farm livestock accidents' (cluster 3), and 'PTSD by various accidents' (cluster 4).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong> Based on the research results, post-traumatic stress disorder needs to be managed nationally. As such, we intend to provide basic data for policy development and intervention programs.</p> Seung-Woo Han Min-Ju Kang Copyright (c) 2022 Seung-Woo Han, Min-Ju Kang http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 81 88 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.38957 Factors Influencing Knowledge of Hepatitis B Vaccination amongst Healthcare Workers in a Rural Teaching Hospital in Southern Nigeria https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/40616 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Healthcare workers (HCWs) are daily exposed to HBV infections from the blood and body fluids of patients and clients they care for in the health sector. Unfortunately, many of these HCWs are not vaccinated for hepatitis B. This study aimed to assess the factors influencing knowledge of hepatitis B vaccination amongst HCWs in a rural tertiary health facility in Edo State, Southern Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used in this study, and data were collected using the quantitative approach. 280 HCWs were administered with pre-tested, semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. The obtained data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21.0, and the level of significance – alpha (α) was set at 5% (0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of HCWs was 34.90(±9.46) years. Just above half of the HCWs, 146 (52.1%), had a good knowledge of the hepatitis B (HB) vaccine.<strong> </strong>Work type (p&lt;0.001) and category of HCWs (p&lt;0.001) were significantly associated with the level of knowledge of hepatitis B vaccination by respondents.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There was poor knowledge of hepatitis B vaccination amongst HCWs with work type and category of HCW as determinants. Priority should be given to ensure targeted health promotion programmes that will improve knowledge, with a view to enhance optimal uptake of hepatitis B vaccine amongst HCWs.</p> Emmanuel Friday Osagiede Nyemike Simeon Awunor Ese Tracy Osagiede Stephen Obekpa Abah Copyright (c) 2022 Emmanuel Friday Osagiede, Nyemike Simeon Awunor, Ese Tracy Osagiede, Stephen Obekpa Abah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 89 96 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.40616 Prevalence and Determinant of Respiratory Symptoms Among Rice Mill Workers in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/40215 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Rice milling provides a means of livelihood to many in Northwest Nigeria, but like any other profession, it is not without risk. Workers in rice mills are exposed to hazards which has deleterious effects on many systems in the body, one of these is the respiratory system. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors that are associated with respiratory problems among rice millers in Sokoto State, Northwest Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2019 and July 2019. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain responses from the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 398 workers participated in the study, and 230(57.8%) of them had at least one symptom of respiratory morbidity. Morning cough 184(46.2%) had the highest prevalence, followed by chest tightness 157(39.4%). Cigarette smoking, involvement in de-husking and paddy separation were factors that increase the likelihood of having respiratory symptoms among the workers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The prevalence of respiratory symptoms is high among rice mill workers, and the factors that were found to determine the presence of respiratory symptoms were cigarette smoking, and involvement in de-husking and paddy separation.</p> Ayotunde Sherif Azees Mansur Oche Abdulfattah Isa Abdullahi Shehu Medinat Adesani-Olaosebikan Copyright (c) 2022 Ayotunde Sherif Azees, Mansur Oche, Abdulfattah Isa, Abdullahi Shehu, Medinat Adesani-Olaosebikan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 97 103 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.40215 Measurement of risk and stressors of post-traumatic stress disorder during the first lockdown period of COVID-19 among Industrial workers, Hyderabad, India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/40601 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Post-traumatic stress disorder usually occurs after a traumatic event and this COVID-19 pandemic has affected mental health to a great extent. While there is extensive research being conducted about this aspect among the general population, the most neglected are the Industrial workers during the first lockdown period. The aim of the study was to assess the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms using the impact of event scale-revised (IES-R), their main stressors and coping measurements among the industrial workers of Hyderabad.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A telephonic interview schedule was adopted to fill the online questionnaire among Industrial workers of age group 20-55 years during the lockdown period. Hundred and seventy-four participants were included in our study and data was collected using standardized tools IES-R and brief resilient coping scale. Various stressors and also their coping strategies were elucidated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>At the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were found among 20.6% and at risk of suppressed immune system functioning which is presumed to have its effect for the next 10 years was 13.8%. The main stressors of COVID-19 with increased IES-R score were not staying with family members, influence of social media, Any acquaintance with COVID-19 infected person effect on daily life and white-collar group. Coping measurements with a brief resilient coping scale found 17.4% as low resilient copers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This identification of high-risk post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms needs to be addressed earlier to bring up preventive strategies such as counseling services in the occupational health care centers of our industries.</p> Sudha Bala Harshal Pandve Sushma Katkuri T Nikhil Copyright (c) 2022 Sudha Bala, Harshal Pandve, Sushma Katkuri, T Nikhil http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 104 110 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.40601 Risks and Safety of Women Healthcare Workers in Aizawl District, Mizoram, India https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/39794 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The women healthcare workers, besides their role in the promotion, prevention, and protection of health for their patients, are exposed to different types of occupational risk at the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore the types of occupational risk encountered by the women healthcare workers and to assess the health and safety measures implemented for the women healthcare workers.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted among one hundred women healthcare workers in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the respondents' demographic profile, workplace risks, and safety measures. The Work Safety Scale was used to measure the safety measures and was reframed to suit the study's context and person correlation was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results show that women healthcare workers experience a greater number of physical risks at the workplace i.e., back pain, headache, eye problem, loss of appetite and needle syringe injuries which is followed by psychosocial (anxiety, insomnia, abuse by patients, low self-esteem and depression) and reproductive risks (irregular menstrual cycle, stillbirth, low birth weight and cervical cancer). The health and safety measures implemented for the healthcare workers are satisfied with an average mean score of 3.64. The study revealed that no clear regulations and recommendations on safety measures have been developed by healthcare settings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concluded that better regulation is needed, required to protect and safeguard the physical, psychological, and reproductive risks that women healthcare professionals encounter at the workplace.</p> Lalrinzuala H. Elizabeth Copyright (c) 2022 Lalrinzuala, H. Elizabeth http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 111 116 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.39794 Suicidal ideation and suicide commitment in Health Care Workers during COVID-19 pandemic: a review of the literature https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/40500 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Suicide represents an important public health concern since it leads to more annual deaths globally than violence, war and natural disasters combined. It is evident that during this pandemic year the phenomenon acquires even greater importance especially in the categories at risk, such as health care workers (HCWs). The aim of this review is to analyze literature evidence regarding health care providers' suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide commitment during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: International databases and digital worldwide media reports were screened between March 2020 and March 2021. The authors conducted a systematic review and described evidence using a narrative approach with some focus points based on the PICO framework. Inclusion or exclusion of literature is done according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> What emerged is a range of SI that varies from 4 to 8% and the main risk factors seem to be loneliness, not having children and personal history of mental disorders.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> SI, and in worst cases suicide commitment, seem mental health outcomes not to be underestimated, especially in an emergency that is protracting. They require monitoring by health surveillance systems with a goal of prevention and support.</p> Rodolfo Buselli Martina Corsi Antonello Veltri Sigrid Baldanzi Martina Chiumiento Riccardo Marino Fabrizio Caldi Salvio Perretta Rudy Foddis Alfonso Cristaudo Giovanni Guglielmi Copyright (c) 2022 Rodolfo Buselli, Martina Corsi, Antonello Veltri, Sigrid Baldanzi, Martina Chiumiento, Riccardo Marino, Fabrizio Caldi, Salvio Perretta, Rudy Foddis, Alfonso Cristaudo, Giovanni Guglielmi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 117 124 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.40500 Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and their prevention through ergonomic interventions - A systematic review https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/39195 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Occupational or work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) vastly prevail among dental professionals. This review aims to summarize the prevalence of WMSDs and ergonomic interventions for the prevention of WMSDs among dental professionals.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Thorough literature search was done using scientific databases. The terms musculoskeletal disorders among dentists/dental professionals/ hygienists in dentistry, occupational or work-related MSDs, ergonomics, ergonomic interventions, and several combinations were used as keywords. Articles published in the English language only were included. Abstracts, thesis work, and other languages were excluded.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Our findings revealed several studies showing the prevalence of WMSD among dental professionals and ergonomic interventions to prevent MSDs among dental professionals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Dental practice is highly challenging both in terms of physical and mental status there is a need for continuing efforts to discover innovative preventive strategies, to reduce the prevalence of WMSDs. This article guides dental professionals to incorporate the proper ergonomic methods in their early stages of day-to-day work, for long-term and healthy dental practice. </p> Kiran R Halkai Rahul S Halkai Sumapriya Sulgante Rizwan M Sanadi Syeda Arshiya Ara Heena Zainab Sam Thomas Kuriadom Swapna Munaga Rajkiran Chitumalla Copyright (c) 2022 Kiran R Halkai, Rahul S Halkai, Sumapriya Sulgante, Rizwan M Sanadi, Syeda Arshiya Ara, Heena Zainab, Sam Thomas Kuriadom, Swapna Munaga, Rajkiran Chitumalla http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 125 139 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.39195 The 3 C’s of Consideration for COVID-19 Workplace Fever Detection Device Selection: Context, Calibration & Cost https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/IJOSH/article/view/38260 <p>COVID-19 screening protocols have become normal practice for employees entering workplaces around the world. However, workplace screening programs that include temperature detection via infrared thermometers or thermal detection cameras often violate many technical specifications for the correct use of these devices. Therefore, this article aims to provide practical guidance for non-thermal imaging specialists responsible for selecting thermal detection devices for workplace screening protocols. Focusing on three critical points of consideration, including the context of use, calibration of equipment, and cost of purchase and maintenance, readers are presented with a framework to guide their decision-making. This framework not only prioritizes the health and wellbeing of employees by ensuring the context of use is appropriate but balances the cost of calibration, purchasing and additional supporting supplies. Further, the presented framework extends beyond the COVID-19 pandemic and can be easily adapted to implement any new workplace technology.</p> Katie A Goggins Emily J Tetzlaff Sara N Gauthier Wesley W Young Alison A Godwin Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Katie A Goggins, Emily J Tetzlaff, Sara N Gauthier, Wesley W Young, Dr. Alison A Godwin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-03-13 2022-03-13 12 2 59 66 10.3126/ijosh.v12i2.38260