International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health <p>IJOSH is the official journal of the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Occupational Health and Safety Society of Nepal (OHSSN).</a></p> <p>International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health (IJOSH) is an international peer-reviewed, open-access journal covering occupational health and safety-related disciplines (occupational health, safety, and workers' health including homemakers and students). IJOSH is published quarterly. It provides occupational health physicians, doctors, nurses, engineers, ergonomists, and a wide range of occupational hygiene, health, and safety professionals with a dependable single source of proficiently written legal, practical, and management occupational health information. This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p>IJOSH is indexed in the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)</a>, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE), <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Index Copernicus International Journals Master List</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Science Citation Index (SCI)</a>, <a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago,</a> and <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Scopus</a>.</p> en-US (Professor Dr. Sunil Kumar Joshi) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 01 Jan 2023 15:13:03 +0000 OJS 60 Consequence Modeling and Analysis of Benzene leakage and explosion from a poorly sited gas station in the City of Douala, Cameroon <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Benzene has long been recognized as highly carcinogenic and the most cytotoxic of all air pollutants released by gas stations. Although several studies have been conducted on accidents in the process industry, very little work has been directed toward the modeling of risks caused by the leakage and explosion of toxic substances in gas stations. This knowledge could aid in predicting the vapor concentration inside gas station office buildings and neighboring infrastructures and in developing corresponding safety measures. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to model the consequences of Benzene dispersion following leakage and explosion from gas stations, taking the city of Douala, Cameroon as an example.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Based on the measured vent emission and meteorological data, the Areal Location of Hazardous Atmosphere (ALOHA v.5.4.7) model was used to predict the hazard radius of leakage and dispersion of benzene from a tank in different seasons. The maps of the toxic and flammable vapor cloud of benzene, evaporation rate from a puddle, and the concentration of toxic and flammable vapor cloud inside and outside of the station were prepared with the aid of MARPLOT and Google Earth software.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that the maximum average sustained release rate of benzene from a tank was 26 kilograms per minute, with an estimated total amount released of 1,340 kilograms per 60 minutes in the dry season. The puddle spread to a diameter of 19.8 meters. The predicted threat zone distance from the station in the dry season, as compared to the rainy season, had an increase in radius of 12, 20, and 83m for the red, orange, and yellow zones, respectively. The worst hazard level extends primarily in the downwind direction and is predicted to be 31 meters in the rainy season in all directions, covering parts of the adjacent settlements and social infrastructure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The potential scenarios of benzene dispersion from a poorly sited gas station in the city of Douala have been modeled and the threat zones estimated. Nearby residences and social infrastructures are significantly exposed, with the predicted threat zones being more hazardous for the employees of the gas station. Further research looking at the impact of combined consequences of gasoline emissions may help determine whether the combined effects of benzene with other chemicals are cumulative or synergistic.</p> Innocent Ndoh Mbue, Samuel Batambock Copyright (c) 2023 Innocent Ndoh Mbue, Samuel Batambock Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Gasoline and Smoking on Lipid Profile and Liver Functions among Gasoline Exposure Workers in Iraq <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The rapid and recent rise in the pandemic of cardiovascular disease implies that the environment plays a significant role. Numerous biological systems, such as the cardiovascular, blood-forming organs, liver, and kidneys, can be affected by gasoline and smoking. Because filling station employees, repair service workers, gasoline truck drivers, and refinery workers are all at a greater risk of being exposed to gasoline fumes. Even though gasoline and smoking have been investigated for so many years, few studies have looked into the effects of gasoline exposure combined with smoking on a variety of physiological mechanisms. As a result, we propose that combining gasoline exposure with smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and impaired hepatic function.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study included 95 male adult volunteers who worked with gasoline and were exposed to different fuel derivatives as study group and age and sex-matched seemingly healthy non-exposed people as the controls. Questionnaire interviews were used to collect socio-demographic data and a standard technique was used to collect the blood samples. The levels of cholesterol, HDL4, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL were measured, as well as for liver enzymes ALP, AST, ALT, indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin were measured.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Our data suggest that smoking with gasoline exposure causes an increase in total and bad cholesterol levels, as well as a significant shift concerning the control group in lipid profile and liver enzymes. the exposed group had higher levels of ALP, and AST and significantly increased. In the nonsmoker exposed group D-bilirubin decreased in comparison to the control and exposed smoker group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This research concluded that the liver enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT) were higher among workers who smoke and are exposed to gasoline than in control subjects, similarly, the bad cholesterol also increase. Therefore, people who smoke and are handled with gasoline are at a higher risk of having heart and hepatic diseases.</p> Chinar M. Mohammed, Bassim A. Al-Sulaivany, Yousif M. Fattah, Dr. Omar Abdulmajid Al-Habib, Mohammed Bassam Haji Copyright (c) 2023 Chinar M. Mohammed, Bassim A. Al-Sulaivany, Yousif M. Fattah, Omar A.M. Al-Habib, Mohammed Bassam Haji Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of Musculoskeletal Disorder among Eco-Brick Workers in Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Plastic waste is considered one of the common vital waste problems in developing countries such as Indonesia. One proposed alternative way to reduce plastic waste is by reusing and recycling it into bricks. Eco-bricks are a form of recycled plastic waste that can be used as an alternative building construction material. Unfortunately, manufacturing workers do not ergonomically perform this work during their working hours. Therefore, it causes inappropriate body postures and leads to musculoskeletal disorders easily. This study intends to identify the posture of workers in the manufacture of eco-bricks in Indonesia</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study was done with purposively selected 32 eco-bricks workers from 10 waste bank communities in Central Java and Yogyakarta. Sampling was done by snowball method. This research was conducted by interviewing and collecting data on body complaints using a Nordic Body Map (NBM) questionnaire.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All respondents (100%) experienced musculoskeletal disorder complaints while producing eco-bricks. Based on the results gained from the Nordic Body Map Questionnaire, the common complaints perceived by eco-bricks workers are upper neck, lower neck, back, waist, buttock, and bottom. In addition, workers also perceived complaints on the right side of the body, particularly the right shoulder, right upper arm, right elbow, right lower arm, right wrist, and right hand</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Working postures that are not well-organized in terms of ergonomics during the production process of eco-bricks will provoke complaints on the limbs caused by the continuous load on the muscles on the right side of the body.</p> Okka Adiyanto, Effendi Mohamad, Rosidah Jaafar, Muhammad Faishal Copyright (c) 2023 Okka Adiyanto, Effendi Mohamad, Rosidah Jaafar, Muhammad Faishal Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Root Cause Analysis from Occupational Health and Safety Data in a Hospital: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Occupational accidents are increasing every year around the world. The fact that accidents will be repeated as a result of not learning the lessons is constantly forgotten. Occupational accidents should be examined on the basis of the "Root Cause" approach. Within the scope of the information obtained as a result of the analysis studies on the causes of occupational accidents, it is important for the institutions to make a plan in order to prevent the reoccurrence of the accidents. This study was carried out retrospectively to examine the root cause analysis process of occupational accidents that occurred in a state hospital and to examine how it was applied in the health facility.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The population of the research consists of occupational accident records that occurred in a state hospital between January 2018 and April 2021. (N=156). In the analysis of the data; Root cause analysis forms and number-percentage distributions were used to identify all factors that could cause a particular problem.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of those who had occupational accidents, 68.15% were women, 45% were nurses, 25 were cleaning staff and 3% were physicians. Fifty percent of the accidents occurred in inpatient services, 15% in emergency services, and 15% in intensive care units. Causes of accidents; needle-stick injuries (71.8%) are the most common occupational accidents. These injuries are followed by slipping and falling (14.7%). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> By establishing a safety culture that monitors occupational accidents at the institutional level, evaluates their consequences and develops precautions, the probability of occupational accidents will decrease. And the costs and compensations that will occur after the accident will decrease, and labor and service/production losses will be prevented.</p> Mehtap Solmaz, Tugba Solmaz Copyright (c) 2023 Mehtap Solmaz, Tugba Solmaz Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Postural stress and risk conditions in manual load handling of Chilean industrial workers <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Although, there is a current regulatory framework for optimal manual handling of loads to preserve health conditions in the industrial sector, technical assessment and the use of certain instruments are still required for the diagnosis of occupational hazards. This study aimed to identify the occupational hazards associated with manual load handling in industry workers and estimate those resulting from postural stress.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Fifty-two (52) industry workers took part in this cross-sectional study. All participants were evaluated using the Manual Handling Guide and the Reba assessment tool. Subjects were characterized, and risks associated with different tasks were detected.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 59.6% of workers were between 18 and 45 years old. Lifting, lowering, and transporting loads activities had a repetitive task risk of 94%, exceeding the weight limit in 85.7% of cases. Pushing and pulling activities, mostly showed a working postural risk of 82% and a high perception of initial effort (Borg&gt; 8). Reba score warned to intervene immediately in both types of tasks.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Risk from the manual handling of loads found in this study constitutes an alert that suggests reviewing compliance with the current regulation, as well as effective use of working pauses and the improvement of strategies to minimize physical efforts used by workers.</p> Gabriela P. Urrejola-Contreras, Daniela C. Pérez-Casanova, Miguel A. Pérez-Lizama, Boris Gary Zambra Copyright (c) 2023 Gabriela P. Urrejola-Contreras, Daniela C. Pérez-Casanova, Miguel A. Pérez-Lizama, Boris Gary Zambra Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing among Public Transport Drivers of Kochi, India <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) appears to be a major occupational health concern among transport drivers as it increases the chance of road traffic crashes. The study aimed to determine the prevalent risk factors of sleep-disordered breathing in public transport drivers of Kochi, India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among 50 public transport drivers who satisfied the inclusion criteria and were categorized as high and low-risk groups using the STOP-BANG questionnaire. Physical examination recorded Neck circumference, waist-hip ratio, body mass index, blood pressure, and facial profile. Excessive daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth sleepiness scale. Mann Whitney and Chi-square tests were used to test for significance. Logistic regression was also done by including the significant variables.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The high risk (n= 27) and low-risk groups (n=23) were identified. Among the high-risk group; age, body mass index, neck circumference, blood pressure, snoring and tiredness showed statistically significant results (p&lt;0.05) when compared to the low-risk group. Excessive daytime sleepiness was present among 29.6% of high-risk subjects. Logistic regression confirmed that age (OR=1.176; p=0.001) and body mass index (OR=1.348; p=0.050) were independent predictors of developing a high risk of SDB.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: mong public transport drivers in Kochi, India; older age and increased body mass index were significant contributing factors to developing sleep-disordered breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), whether diagnosed or undiagnosed, is a major public health concern and a proven risk factor for vehicle crashes. Applicants for public transport driver's licenses should be thoroughly examined for the risk of OSA/SDB. A standardized screening protocol for OSA risk assessment should be advisable for public transport drivers to ensure road safety.</p> Vishnu Shadananan, Varma N.K. Sapna, Rahul D. Prabha, V.V. Ajith, Parvathy Ghosh Copyright (c) 2023 Vishnu Shadananan, Varma N.K. Sapna, Rahul D. Prabha, V.V. Ajith, Parvathy Ghosh Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sharp injuries during clinical training among medical students in the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Medical students are exposed to blood and body fluids during their clinical training which increased the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence, knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sharp injuries among final medical students of the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A survey was done among 210 final-year medical students of the University of Peradeniya with a self-administered online questionnaire including demographic information, experience, knowledge and reporting behavior following sharp injuries. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Response rate was 80% (n=168). Sharp injuries were experienced by 22.6%. Most of the sharp injuries were sustained during venepuncture (39.5%). The majority (58.9%) did not adhere to universal precautions as they did not anticipate the event. One-third of the students (31.6%) did not know about universal precautions. Most of the students (68.4%) who had a sharp injury did not seek post-exposure assistance or prophylaxis. The majority of this group thought there is no risk (64%). Twenty-five students have not completed the full course of the hepatitis B vaccine. More than half (51.8%) of the fully vaccinated group were unaware of their immune status. The majority (67.3%) believed that their knowledge is not adequate regarding the prevention and management of needle stick injuries. The majority (97%) believed more emphasis should be given to knowledge and practice regarding sharp injuries.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The knowledge, attitudes and practices of medical students regarding the prevention and management of sharp injuries were unsatisfactory. Poor awareness was observed regarding immune status following hepatitis B vaccination among medical students.</p> Chamara Dalugama, Kavishka Gamage Copyright (c) 2023 Chamara Dalugama, Kavishka Gamage Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) of weaving factory workers in West Bengal, India - a pilot study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Excessive noise exposure is one of the majorly considered occupational stress for industrial workers. The operation of steel weaving machinery producing a high level of noise such as weaving machines, crimping machines, and hydraulic press machines for a prolonged period increases the risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The main aim of the study was to assess the auditory health of the workers exposed to a high level of noise in a steel weaving factory and the prevalence of NIHL among workers.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> 26 subjects in the age group of 25-55 years from a steel weaving industry of Chinsurah town, Hooghly district of West Bengal were randomly selected with 5 years of exposure for the study. The control group was selected from the same age group, socioeconomic status and geographical location and having no history of such exposure. The physiological parameters of the workers, noise levels in the workplace and auditory functions and the risk of NIHL were assessed by standardized protocol and statistically analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study indicated that steel weaving factory workers had significantly reduced hearing functionality at 4000Hz and 6000Hz in the left ear respectively. It also revealed that the workers were exposed to high noise exposure of 131dB near weaving machine, 113dB at crimping machine, and 84dB at hydraulic press machine respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A high level of noise exposure leads to deterioration in the hearing capabilities of the steel weaving industrial workers. Implementation of ergonomic interventions in the workplace and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) may decrease the prevalence of NIHL and can help to prevent hearing loss in workers.</p> Jigisha Patel, Tirthankar Ghosh Copyright (c) 2023 Jigisha Patel, Tirthankar Ghosh Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Morbidity profile of migrant workers attending health camps in Bangalore urban during the Covid-19 pandemic <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Global pandemic of COVID-19 resulted in a nationwide lockdown which affected the migrants in terms of healthcare service accessibility. This led to an increase in the prevalence of various morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity profile of camp attendees in Bangalore urban conducted during the lockdown period of the COVID-19 pandemic. </p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: During the pandemic lockdown, health camps were conducted in selected urban underprivileged areas of Bangalore city targeting the migrant workers and these records were reviewed and relevant data were analyzed. Variables included age, gender, residential address, occupation, and morbidity.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the 484 participants who had attended the medical camp, the youngest patient was 1 year old and the oldest was 75 years with a median age of 27 years (IQR: 20 – 35). The majority of the camp attendees were males (78%) and migrants (77%). Common morbidities noted were hypertension (5%) followed by musculoskeletal pain (4%). The other illnesses were anemia (3%), gastritis (2.5%), pre-diabetes (1.7%) and combined diabetes and hypertension (1.5%). There was no significant relationship between migrant status and the presence of any morbidity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Hypertension and musculoskeletal pain are the most common morbidity among camp attendees.</p> Soumya Chippagiri, Sakthi Arasu, Naveen Ramesh, Ramakrishna Goud, Bobby Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 Chippagiri Soumya, Sakthi Arasu, Naveen Ramesh, Ramakrishna Goud, Bobby Joseph Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Epidemiological pattern of corneal foreign bodies and utilization of protective eye devices: a hospital-based cross-sectional study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: A corneal foreign body is the most common occupational ocular injury that can cause secondary infection or scars on the visual axis, decreasing vision. The study aimed to find out practices of wearing protective eye devices in the workplace and the factors influencing the utilization of such devices among patients with corneal foreign body (CFB) injury.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary eye hospital in Bhaktapur from April 2021 to August 2021. All patients with CFB attending the hospital were included in the study. CFB was removed with ocular examination under a slit lamp biomicroscope, and face-to-face interview was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among 142 patients, only one was female, and 41.5% had a previous history of CFB. The most common CFB particle was metallic (n=124, 87.3%),. Three-fourths (75.1%) of patients were not using eye-protective devices at the time of injury, and 45.1% tried physically removing the CFB in a harmful way. Nearly two in five (19.7%) had used topical antibiotics eye drops before presenting for CFB removal. Sixty-six (46.5%) reported never wearing any protective eye devices, and the main reason for not-wearing was the unavailability (48.4%) of such devices in their workplace. The awareness of the need for protective eye devices (p&lt;0.001) was significantly associated with using protective eye devices during work.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The workers should be made aware of the consequences of harmful practices following CFB injury. The workers should wear protective eye devices to minimize the risk of ocular injury and consequent visual impairment.</p> Samata Sharma, Deepak Khadka, Arjun Shrestha, Nirsara Shrestha, Barsha Suwal, Diwa Hamal, Rajan Shrestha, Bijay Khatri Copyright (c) 2023 Samata Sharma, Deepak Khadka, Arjun Shrestha, Nirsara Shrestha, Barsha Suwal, Diwa Hamal, Rajan Shrestha, Bijay Khatri Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Workplace Well-Being in Manufacturing Organizations in Nigeria: Do Employee Green Behavior, Core Self-Evaluations and Empowering Leadership Matter? <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Workplace well-being has become a key issue in organizational behavior literature because of the impact it has on various outcomes in the organization. Consequent to the aforementioned, this study investigated three antecedents (employee green behavior, core self-evaluation, and empowering leadership) of Workplace well-being in manufacturing organizations in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A quantitative cross-sectional survey and the correlational design were adopted to investigate the direct relationship the three predictor variables (employee green behavior, core self-evaluation, and empowering leadership) have with workplace well-being. Data were collected from 201 employees working in manufacturing organizations in Lagos State, Nigeria using systematic sampling. The participants comprised 124 males and 77 females with a mean age of 31.43 years and a standard deviation of 5.87. Four standardized and psychometrically sound instruments were used for collecting data while regression analysis was used in testing the hypotheses via the IBM SPSS statistics version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the study indicated that employee green behavior, core self-evaluations, and empowering leadership positively and significantly predicted workplace well-being in manufacturing organizations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study provided valuable contributions to the antecedents of workplace well-being. Based on the outcome of the study, it is safe to say that workplace well-being has a link with an individual (employee green behavior and core self-evaluations) and interpersonal factors (empowering leadership) in the organization.</p> Henry Samuel Edosomwan, Tochukwu Matthew Oguegbe, Chiamaka Ogechukwu Joe-Akunne Copyright (c) 2023 Henry Samuel Edosomwan, Tochukwu Matthew Oguegbe, Chiamaka Ogechukwu Joe-Akunne Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the COVID-19 Knowledge, Awareness and Anxiety Levels of Intern Dentists <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: COVID-19 is a contagious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The nature of dentistry leads to close contact with patients and exposure to saliva, blood, and other bodily fluids during treatment processes and it is a field where high-frequency devices that can make it easier for virus contamination are used. This study aims to determine the knowledge and approaches of COVID-19 infection control of intern dentists who have begun face-to-face education and their COVID-19-related fear and anxiety levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study comprised 4th and 5th-year students who began face-to-face education at the Ankara University Faculty of Dentistry 2020/2021 spring semester. A questionnaire was used as the data collection tool for this study. The data were collected using a knowledge questionnaire and a COVID-19 fear and anxiety scale.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average COVID-19 knowledge score of the students was 63.65±9.64, their coronavirus fear average score was 17.63±5.57, and their anxiety average score was found to be 2.37±3.32. A positive relationship was found between the anxiety scores and the COVID-19 fear scores. The results of this study show that the COVID-19 knowledge level and fear of dentistry students are moderate and that their COVID-19 anxiety level is low.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was found that the knowledge and fear of coronavirus levels of intern dentistry students were moderate and that their coronavirus anxiety level was low.</p> Yasemin Akbulut, Merve Onder, Gamze Kutlu, Fatih Durur, Kaan Orhan Copyright (c) 2023 Yasemin Akbulut, Merve Onder, Gamze Kutlu, Fatih Durur, Kaan Orhan Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Internet Gaming Disorder among Undergraduate Health Sciences Students in the Pokhara Valley: a Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is an emerging public health impact of technological advancement and globalization. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and factors associated with IGD among Undergraduate Health Sciences students.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A web-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the period of November to July 2020. A total of 412 college students from Undergraduate Health Sciences colleges of Pokhara Metropolitan city in Gandaki province, Nepal were enrolled. Online google forms were sent to all the eligible students through email and other social media sites like Facebook with the help of the coordinator and class representative. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS IBM v.22</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The finding of the study shows that the prevalence of Internet Gaming Disorder among Undergraduate Health Sciences students was 7.1%. Sex (p=0.027), Loneliness level at home (p=0.019), number of close friends (p&lt;0.001), types of game (p&lt;0.001), time spent on playing game (p&lt;0.001), and, type of gamer (p&lt;0.001) were the factors associated with Internet Gaming Disorder among the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Sex of the participants, loneliness level at home, number of close friends, types of game, time spent on the gameplay, and type of gamer are the contributing factors for developing Internet Gaming Disorder. It is important to focus on these factors to address Internet Gaming Disorder and its psychological health effects.</p> Sujata Shahi, Yuba Raj Baral, Durga Khadka Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 Sujata Shahi, Yuba Raj Baral, Durga Khadka Mishra Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Solid waste workers in India and the COVID-19 pandemic: A Review of Intersecting challenges <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Municipal garbage/refuse, sludge, industrial and commercial waste, etc. is termed Solid Waste (SW) and those who handle such waste are SW workers. But the COVID-19 pandemic has hit them hard. SW workers play a vital role in waste management to safeguard and promote public health. But they are often unappreciated and the various health risks and vulnerabilities associated with waste handling are overlooked. This study aimed to review the working conditions and morbidities of SW workers highlighting the longstanding challenges before and after the onset of COVID-19 in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar were used for the inclusion of articles. Drawing from the literature on the working conditions and morbidities of SW workers in India alongside grey literature and news reports by electronic media during the pandemic, this paper highlights the longstanding challenges of SW workers. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The health morbidities and structural challenges due to caste, and class that were reported as being faced by SW workers across the studies have worsened at the onset of COVID-19. There is a multiplying effect of their vulnerability due to the disadvantages of caste and class. Due to power dynamics, they were forced to work without proper wages and appropriate healthcare resources. Many incidents across the country reported stigma and discrimination; poor access and utilization of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) among SW workers resulted in infections and deaths due to the pandemic. Lack of proper data on COVID-19 infected SW workers; lack of proper certification had halted their insurance claims.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This paper noted the multiplying effect of long-standing vulnerabilities that were exposed during the pandemic. Proper maintenance of health records and a sustainable employee grievance redressal mechanism are essential. The need of the hour is to focus on strategies to improve their working conditions along with policies to protect their dignity and empower them.<strong> </strong></p> K.L. Ramitha Copyright (c) 2023 K.L. Ramitha Sun, 01 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000