https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/issue/feed Journal of Advanced Academic Research 2018-04-01T17:51:16+00:00 Dr Tatwa P Timsina tatwa@ica-nepal.org Open Journal Systems A peer-reviewed six monthly journal published by the Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies, Babarmahal, Kathmandu. https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19529 A New Historicist Vein in British Romanticism 2018-04-01T17:47:40+00:00 Vijay Kumar Datta vijay.dutta2011@gmail.com Beerendra Pandey vijay.dutta2011@gmail.com <p>The Romanticism the was the very important period after the Shakespearian time/ Elizabethan period was full of trauma and guilt as well as commodification. The poems and other genres of literature attempted about that time and critics explain about the literary atmosphere. After 1960s, a new trend in literature got entrance that has made the miracle in this field that is quite scientific.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:13+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19530 Does Remittance Receiving Households Prepared against Natural Disasters in Nepal? 2018-04-01T17:47:45+00:00 Gangadhar Chaudhary gdc4np@gmail.com Tatwa Prasad Timsina gdc4np@gmail.com <p class="Default"> </p><p> The study examines the perception of remittance receiving families to consume its portion of income on building capacity and preparedness against any natural disasters in Nepal. Moreover, there is growing evidence that remittance income is consumed to improve livelihood, especially on household expenses, education, treatment and the construction of the new house or repairing existing one. The objective of this study is to analyze to what extent the poor people whose earning incomes, including remittance, prepare them to cope with the upcoming natural disasters to minimize the loss afterward. The sites were purposefully selected in different districts in Nepal to observe the way of preparedness and have vulnerable to natural disaster. The snowball sampling method was chosen to interview with open and closed questionnaires only to remittance receiving families. Similarly, the observation method was used to assess the quality and type of houses they belong. The qualitative data were processed using SPSS 20 with statistical tools as frequencies and verified with one way ANOVA test. The result showed that the remittance receiving families improved their livelihood (improving their living standard with more expenses in home, health, and education, construction, savings) It was observed that the remittance receiving families consumed income in new construction of houses and repairing to make their houses strong without consulting the technical expert or use of building codes, that rising doubt to withstand the worse impact of natural disasters mainly earthquake, flood and landslide. This study concludes that the remittance receiving household, though have better livelihood, yet they are not better prepared against the ruthless impact of any natural disasters.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19531 Financial Sustainability of Small Farmer Cooperative (SFC) in Mid-Western Region of Nepal 2018-04-01T17:47:52+00:00 Liladhar Tiwari liladhar70@gmail.com Govind Nepal liladhar70@gmail.com <p>This article is based on Financial Sustainability of Small Farmers Cooperative (SFC) in Mid-Western of Nepal. It attempts to provide the practices and their impacts of financial sustainability of SFC. As the cooperative movement originated from the philosophy of cooperation and later developed as a powerful tool to support to improve socio-economic position of resource poor, vulnerable, members of the lower caste people, women, labors and peasants, the SFC functions with the guiding philosophy of group principle, self-help development and institutionalization of networks at the grassroots level to reduce the scarcity. This study applied a descriptive and analytical research design using both primary (observation; questionnaires, focused group discussion) and secondary (Department of Cooperative (DoC), Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), and National Cooperative Federation of Nepal (NCF/N and annual report of sampled cooperatives) sources of data. After the analysis and interpretation of data, a number of contributions were found such as saving collection, credit investment, socio-economic development etc. The SFCs were found to be guided by self-governing norms and shares were issued to the members who are empowered with one member one vote for the general assembly purpose. The institutions function for socio-economic development with the strong policy of being apolitical and unbiased with no discrimination of any kind on religion and gender basis. The socio-economic position of cooperative members has changed through income generating programs. This study is concentrated on perception study of the financial sustainability of Small Farmer Cooperative (SFC) for the economic as well as financial development.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19533 Effect of Bank Lending on Inflation in Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:00+00:00 Neelam Timsina Dhungana neelam@nrb.org.np Radhe Shyam Pradhan neelam@nrb.org.np <p>This study examines the effect of commercial bank lending on inflation in Nepal. The study has conducted correlation and regression analysis using panel data of twenty four commercial banks during the period of 1996 -2015. The empirical results show that bank lending has positive effect on the inflation in Nepal. The study implies that central bank willing to contain inflation should curtail excessive bank lending on unproductive and speculative sector.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19534 Causes of Drug Abuse In Youth: Case of Mid-Western Region of Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:04+00:00 Dhanush Chandra Pathak pdhanushchandra@gmail.com Binod Pokharel pdhanushchandra@gmail.com <p>Drug abuse is one of the serious social problems in Nepal and elsewhere for a long time. Drug abuse has several effects over the human life. Burgeoning unemployment, broken family, crime, depression, love failure, formation of peer group, mass media are major problems faced by the youth of the country. This paper explores the causes of drug abuse among youth in Mid-Western Region of Nepal. Quantitative research method was used to draw the data from 252 respondents. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents of different rehabilitation center of Surkhet, Banke and Dang District. Data were analyzed by using chi-square statistical tools. Drug causes have covered the psychological, peer pressure, school/ college, socio cultural and mass media causes of drug abuse. Among them, majority respondent responded causes of drug abuse is bad relationship with family, to feel relax, failed in exam and films stars and idols which are shown on television.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:14+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19535 Association between the Level of Aspiration and Achievement of Students of Secondary Level 2018-04-01T17:48:09+00:00 Tek Narayan Poudel tekanpdl@gmail.com Ram Krishna Maharjan tekanpdl@gmail.com <p>Aspiration levels play an important role in everyday decision making. In practice, however, decisions are not based on an aspiration level alone. The aspiration level and the overall probabilities of success and failure may receive special attention, but subjects will not be completely insensitive to difference within the classes of gains and losses. Aspirations have a significant impact on pupil attainment net of family background and other individual factors, but their effect is reduced when examining pupil progression. Some students, particularly from low-income or first-generation backgrounds, in spite of having high aspirations fail to meet their goals to attend college. Aspiration is a strong desire to achieve something in life. Every people they want to be successful man in life, they want famous, popular in society, so aspiration has vague meaning and sense. In this research student of Nepal they have high aspiration in life. Some of they want social worker, doctor, pilot engineer, great motivator and great leader in future. The study was conducted among the 511 students of grade ten students of three districts of Nepal.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19536 Women’s Empowerment Through Small Farmers’ Cooperatives: A Case Study from Eastern Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:15+00:00 Gehanath Poudel poudelgehanath@gmail.com Binod Pokharel poudelgehanath@gmail.com <p>Small farmers cooperative limited (SFCL) is one of the very effective microcredit programs. It supports the rural farmer especially poor, marginalized, disadvantage and women of society by providing the saving and credit facilities. It has aimed to improve the socio-economic status of people and reduce the poverty level. The study aims to identify the contribution of SFCL on socio-cultural and political empowerment of Nepalese women. The study was conducted in Ilam district among the 522 women beneficiaries of SFCL. The data were collected by applying the mixed method. Census method was used for this study. The analysis of data found that there was significant difference in socio-cultural and political empowerment of women after involving in SFCL program. Women have been empowered to maintain the social relationship, reduce the gender disparity, involve in social program, and participate in political program through SFCL activities. Women have expanded their network of relationship through saving and credit program. This study argues that women’s access to economic resources changes their social status at household and community level. The study shows the need of expansion of SFCL program in hard-to-reach areas also to empower the socially disadvantaged groups.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19537 The Effectiveness of Self Instructional Module on Knowledge Regarding Maternal and Neonatal Outcome of Induction of Labour among Staff Nurses in Selected Hospital, Bangalore, India 2018-04-01T17:48:21+00:00 Rina Shrestha rinastha_2009@yahoo.com <p class="Default"><strong>Background of the study </strong><br /> Induction of labour is the stimulation of uterine contraction priority to the onset of spontaneous labour. It is an obstetrics intervention that should be used when elective birth will be beneficial to mother and baby. It means initiation of uterine contractions by any method (medical, surgical or combined) for the purpose of vaginal delivery.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Objectives<br /></strong></p><ol><li>To assess the existing knowledge of staff nurses regarding maternal and neonatal outcome of induction of labour.</li><li>To evaluate the effectiveness of self instructional module regarding maternal &amp; neonatal outcome of induction of labour among staff nurses.</li><li>To associate pre-test knowledge of staff nurses regarding maternal and neonatal outcome of induction of labour with their selected demographic variables.</li></ol><p class="Default"><strong>Methods </strong><br /> A Pre experimental design (one group pre and post test design) was conducted at ESI Hospital, Bangalore, 60 samples, non-probability convenient sampling technique, structured questionnaire were developed and validated by experts; the reliability that is test retest method was used, administered self instructional module and conducted post test. The Collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Major findings of the study</strong><br />Majority of staff nurses attained were 31-35 years age (37%) had GNM education (83%). About 39% of subjects had above 6 years experiences. SIM is effective in improving staff nurses knowledge regarding maternal and neonatal outcome of induction of labour. (P&lt; 0.05). A significant association was found between knowledge of staff nurses with demographic variables such as age, religion, marital status, educational qualification, total years experiences, monthly income, and previous sources of information.</p><p><strong>Interpretation and conclusion<br /> </strong>The findings revealed that the improvement Mean score of all level of knowledge of staff nurses between pre test and post test was 13.75% with ‘t’ test value was 12.88, which was highly significant at p&lt; 0.05. Hence, it is inferred that there is significant increase in the knowledge level of the staff nurses regarding maternal and neonatal outcome of induction of labour after used of Self Instructional Module.<strong></strong></p> 2018-04-01T17:51:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19539 Utilization of Postnatal among Mothers having under Two years Child in Mahalaxmi Municipality, Lalitpur, Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:29+00:00 Radha Kumari Paudel radha_pdl@yahoo.com Mamata Maharjan radha_pdl@yahoo.com Sabina Shrestha radha_pdl@yahoo.com <p>Postnatal care is a critical phase in the lives of mothers and newborn babies as major changes occur during this period which determines the well-being of mothers and newborns. Adequate utilization of postnatal care can help reduce maternal as well as infant morbidity and mortality. Thus, this study generates the information regarding postnatal care utilization in Lubhu of Mahalaxmi Municipality. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in a Lubhu of Lalitpur district. The study sample comprised of 130 mothers having unser2 year’s children in year 2017. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The findings showed that majority of mothers fall under age group 20-29, maximum were from Hindu and Newar ethnicity. This study highlighted more than half (67.7%) mothers utilize the postnatal services. One of the important reasons for not utilizing postnatal services is absence of disease condition in child followed by less knowledge about postnatal services. There was a significant (p=0.018) association between mothers’ education status with utilization of postnatal services. This study concludes that maternal education status affects the maternal utilization of postnatal care services. In order to achieve 100% postnatal care utilization, awareness programs, educational package and other various Postnatal women focused program must be conducted to make them aware about the importance of the utilization of Postnatal services and availability of Postnatal services in different level of health facility.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19540 A Study on Extent of Counseling by Hospital Pharmacists 2018-04-01T17:48:36+00:00 Raj Kumar Thapa shna.tris@gmail.com Isha Joshi shna.tris@gmail.com Prakriti Thapa shna.tris@gmail.com Nashreen Bajracharya shna.tris@gmail.com Joshika Neupane shna.tris@gmail.com Sushma Thapa shna.tris@gmail.com Sita Dhakal shna.tris@gmail.com Trishna Acharya shna.tris@gmail.com <p class="Default"> </p><p> Pharmacists can improve adherence to drug therapy in order to help patients participate in their own health care decision. The study aimed to observe the problems faced during dispensing and counseling. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two different hospitals of Nepal. ASHP (American Society of Health-System Pharmacy) 1997 and USP (The United States Pharmacopoeia) 1997 guidelines were used to ensure the completeness of the contents of the counseling. The extent of counseling fulfilled by the pharmacists was observed and recorded. Collected data was compiled, managed and analysed using SPSS and MS Excel. Counseling was observed in total 400 cases (200 from each hospital). It was found that complete information from the guidelines was not provided in both the hospitals. Hospital pharmacists of urban region had provided maximum 5 categories of drug information while it was 6 in sub-urban region out of 14 categories given by USP and 16 categories given by ASHP guidelines. Besides this, none of them had received any counseling regarding precaution, side effects/adverse effects, interactions, contraindication, sensitivity and storage of the medications. Further, it was found that poly-pharmacy, language, lack of qualified personnel in pharmacy, inadequate time, lack of space in the pharmacy were some of the barriers to counseling found in the study. The minimum requirements of the guidelines were met in both the hospitals. However, the safety aspects of drug information were not provided to the patients. Prioritizing the safe and effective use of medicines should be the first consideration of the pharmacists.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:15+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19541 Utilization of Available Facilities of Computer Aided Teaching in Secondary Level School of Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:45+00:00 Bhimsen Giri bhimsen.giri@rec.edu.np Megha Raj Dhakal bhimsen.giri@rec.edu.np <p>Computer aided teaching is modern technical teaching practice which is gradually replacing the traditional teaching practice by using the blackboard, chalk and duster. Nepalese secondary level schools are also gradually practicing the computer aided teaching system. The growing completion of private boarding school also compels to manage such modern facilities to attract the students. The facilities are comparatively weak in public school because the public school depends on the government funding. The study measured the utilization practice of available facilities of computer aided teaching in secondary level school. The study was conducted in Dang and Pyuthan district of Nepal. In total 578 students were selected from the different schools of two district by using the simple random sampling. The result shows that there was significant (p = .019) different between the students of two districts regarding their practice to spend the total days in a week in computer lab, use of internet in school and types of computer users whereas there was no difference in use of computer in leisure time and facility of soft copy of reading materials provided by school. The comparatively, computer and internet use practice is found better in Dang district than the Pyuthan though in totality, the result of computer aided teaching practice is not satisfactory. So, the concerned authority of public and private school of both districts should enhance the capacity of management and teachers to maximize the facilities of computer aided teaching practice in Nepal.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19542 Instructional Facilities in Secondary Level School of Banke District, Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:51+00:00 Lal Mani Acharya lalmaniacharya@gmail.com Ram Krishna Maharjan lalmaniacharya@gmail.com <p>Talking about the instructional facilities indicates the facilities available for the classroom teaching and learning of students. This is the age of modern technology so students want to learn with new tools and techniques. In this context, school should be aware on the management of such basic facilities in school. The aim of this study is to identify the instructional facilities in secondary level school of Banke district of Nepal. The study was based on the descriptive and exploratory research design. In total 674 students from public and private secondary schools were selected for the study. Structure questionnaire survey was done to collect the data. The result shows that comparatively, the instructional facilities were better in private school than the public school. Private school had managed the computer aided teaching system, separate computer and science lab better than the public school. Considering the better result in final exam, private school has managed the additional coaching class for their students than the public school. Public schools are service oriented supported by Nepal Government so government should be responsible to improve the quality of teaching, learning and infrastructure development as the demand of modern teaching system.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAAR/article/view/19543 A Study of Investors’ Preference towards Mutual Funds in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal 2018-04-01T17:48:56+00:00 Rajan Bilas Bajracharya rajan_vj@hotmail.com Rushil Bhakta Mathema rajan_vj@hotmail.com <p>A Mutual Fund is an investment vehicle that pools funds from various investors and invests the funds in stocks, bonds, short-term money-market instruments, other securities or assets or some combination of these investments. The primary goal behind investment in mutual fund is to earn goods return with comparatively low risk. The main objective of this research is to identify investors’ preference towards mutual fund in Kathmandu metropolitan city. By using in structured questionnaire, Description statistical tools like chi-square test have been used for analyzing the data. The findings from this research are that the most of the investors are doubtful to invest the new age investment like mutual funds.</p> 2018-04-01T17:51:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##