Journal of Advanced Academic Research <p>A peer-reviewed six monthly journal published by the Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies, Babarmahal, Kathmandu.</p> Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies en-US Journal of Advanced Academic Research 2362-1303 <p>Copyright © Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies (PhD Centre)</p><p>All rights reserved. Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions to reproduce copyright material from other sources. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion or copyright violations in the published papers. The views expressed by authors/researchers do not necessarily represent the viewpoint of the organisation.</p> Critical Factors Influencing the Success of Social Entrepreneurship <p>Social entrepreneurs are solving agents for social and economic problems. Having innovations aimed to tackle the unlimited human problems innovators enter into the business as social entrepreneurs. Putting independent scientific findings into the practical field of business poses several problems requiring the entrepreneur to tackle the issues and challenges of the business world. This study aimed to answer the linkage of innovation with social entrepreneurship, the relation of individual innovators with entrepreneurship, types of the support the society can provide to social entrepreneurs in their contribution to solving the unlimited human problems, and the role of political economy in achieving success by social entrepreneurs. The methodology employed for the study involves a review of the findings of previous studies and an analysis of the opinions of the leading social entrepreneurs. The main finding of the study includes an educational program to clarify the duality of the understanding of social entrepreneurship, preparation, and implementation of robust business strategy along with identification of market relevance of innovation, innovative funding of start-up and scaling stage of entrepreneurship, perpetuity in innovation for sustainability, friendly public policy and public sector as a potential partner in achieving success of social entrepreneurship as the critical factors.</p> Achyut Nepal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 1 11 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65517 Factors affecting Stock Price Behaviour of Commercial Banks in Nepal Stock Exchange <p>This research investigates how factors such as Dividends Per Share (DPS), Earnings Per Share (EPS), Price-Earnings Ratio (PER), and Net Worth Per Share influence the Market Price Per Share of commercial banks in Nepal. The study analyzed the panel data from four commercial banks, consisting of 40 observations, to evaluate the correlation and influence of factors affecting stock price movements. In this study, secondary panel data covering ten years (2070/2071-2079/2080) has been used. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant positive correlation between the Market Price Per Share and the Dividends Per Share, Price-Earnings Ratio, and Net Worth Per Share but a negligible effect of Market Price Per Share and Earnings Per Share of commercial banks.</p> Dip Bahadur Giri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 12 23 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65518 Empowering Economic Development: A Case Study Analysis of Agricultural Commodity Production in Nepal's Local Markets with a Focus on Farmers and Traders (2021/ 22) <p>For economic development, Agriculture is the ultimate source of production to survive and manage economy and market system both. Nepal is divers with full of opportunities from the agriculture productions with three distinct geography such as hill, mountains and terai. This study aims to find out the role of consumable agriculture production in the economic development of Nepal. A mixed method approach is planned to conduct this research following the secondary data from the Government of Nepal that cross verified with the traders, farmers and various Key Informant persons using primary data collection tools. Study was conducted during 2022-23 and farmers and traders' data from all seven provinces were contracted and interviewed. The results shows that the role of agriculture production plays a vital role managing food security and economic situation of the Country. The local production is not enough to meet the requirement of Nepal. Import from India, China and Other countries supporting and meeting the requirement so the peoples. The study concluded as the GDP value of the local Production significantly plays a role in the positive development of Nations for the growth and sustainability. However, the local production is the ultimate way out to manage long-term sustainability in the study. Researcher suggesting instead of imports from neighbor country. A local production and traders' management is recommending managing local food production availability as well as growth in economic development.</p> Lila Nath Dhungel Kushendra Bahadur Mahat Sushil K Pant Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 24 35 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65519 Human Resource Practice and Job Satisfaction in Private College of Kathmandu <p>Human resource practice includes conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs, recruiting the right people for the right job at the right time, performance appraisal, orienting and training, rewarding, new job opportunities, motivate them. This study is related to the impact of HR practices on employee job satisfaction. In private colleges of Kathmandu, employees are not satisfied with their jobs even in the presence of HR practices. For this study convenience, sampling technique is used and the limitations of our study are the private colleges in Kathmandu.&nbsp; A questionnaire has been used to collect primary data based on structured questions. The study's hypothesis was tested through correlation and regression analysis to inspect employee satisfaction. Findings investigate a significant relationship between HR Practice and job satisfaction. Moreover, salary, reward and recognition, career advancement, promotion, new job opportunities, participation in decision-making and working environment positively affect job satisfaction.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Results show that HR practices (recruitment and selection, salary, training and development, new job opportunities, rewards, recognition, and motivation) have more significant effects on employees’ job satisfaction in comparison to the Working Environment. The empirical findings concluded that best HR Practices have a significant and positive effect on employee job satisfaction. Therefore, it is clear that employers should understand and implement the HR Practices correctly to take good work from their employees. Further research may be done to achieve a high level of job satisfaction.</p> Sujata Karki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 36 54 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65521 Wheels in Motion: Exploring Challenges and Opportunities in Motorsports Management in Nepal <p>Nepal is a beautiful country with diverse terrain; Nepal's landscape consists of mainly three zones plain or terai, which occupy a quarter area of the country’s land this is almost surrounded by hills, which is around 40 per cent of the total area of the country. These hills are crowned by the majestic Himalayas including the world's highest peak Mount Sagarmatha (Mt.Everest )and other eight globally recognized mountains over 8000 meters. This unique backdrop of the country landscape gives enough trilling to motorsports events, including motorcycle, four-wheeler sports, and karting. The beautiful landscape of the country, where hill terrain is immediately accessible from the 5-10 km plain terai zone, (Plain Zone) along with beautiful scenes of mountains, lakes, rivers, and greenery, provides an ideal setting. The amazing fact is that when the riders reach the peak of the hills, not only the scenery will attract them but when they feel that the sky and stars are near to them and seem that they can be touched by their naked hand gives both pleasure, enjoyment and race emotion. We can assume Nepal as one of the best locations for the motorsports activities like touring. Additionally, the living cost is low, it is affordable for foreigners, and visitors, safety may be the other wonderful reason thus we can argue that Nepal is the best destination for motorsports tourism, presenting one of the main opportunities for the industry. To capitalize on the above potential, professionalism in event management is essential. Sometimes the traditional definitions of sports management may not work and redefining sports management may require however, traditional concerns of planning, budgeting, organizing, directing and ensuring profitability may need to be done for successful event execution in a country like Nepal. These are the functional areas that Sports managers perform<strong>. </strong>This article is the pathway to determine the challenges and opportunities in motorsports in Nepal. The findings are assumed to guide the Enthusiasts' club owners/managers and other concerned associates, they are engaged here in this article for their valuable inputs involving them in primary data collection. The Primary data are collected from clubs/ Motorsports Professionals national and international motorsports professionals to determine their major challenges. The importance of a disciplinary attitude among players is also highlighted. Primary data was collected through a questionnaire approach, and focus groups involving stakeholders such as clubs, federations, and provincial associations. The survey aimed to analyze the challenges and opportunities in motorsports management in Nepal. It has been observed that the Nepal Automobile Association (NASA-NEPAL) is the one and only Motorsports Federation, which is working in the development of motorsports in Nepal since its inception in 2008-09. It is affiliated with national and governmental regulating bodies like the Nepal Sports Council and international bodies like FIA, FIM, and CIK.&nbsp; Around 10 national clubs are associated with NASA Nepal and seven Provincial level associations are actively collaborating with the National Federation where approximately 200 players 100 marshals and 100 sports volunteers are primarily engaged in Nepal. During Primary data collection and the focus group discussion, it is also observed that this organized structure provides governance, safeguarding players, providing officiating training, and managing volunteers. In the primary stage of the Nepal motorsports fraternity, Nepalese youth or we can say players are drawn towards motorsports through their enthusiasm and they can be symbolized as self-taught players. Now the scenario has changed second stage Players are now playing the game. Apart from these systematic governing bodies, some of the motorsports clubs are now working in professional and business modules; secondly, Government investments in infrastructure, like racetracks, further enhance opportunities in the motorsports sector in Nepal. However, multiple challenges remain, and we have tried to identify the maximum by the research. Some of the heart-touching and crucial challenges may be financial security for players to compete nationally and internationally, along with the limited involvement of national automobile businesses in event sponsorship. The absence of automobile manufacturers poses challenges in fundraising, but collaborations with numerous other sponsors remain viable in the nation. In conclusion, Nepal's motorsports scene holds immense promise, contingent upon addressing financial challenges and securing support from stakeholders. This article offers insights into the challenges and opportunities in motorsports management in Nepal, contributing to its potential on the global stage.</p> Anil Kumar Baral Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 55 69 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65522 A Case Study: Understanding and Responding to Homelessness Crisis in Chilliwack <p>This paper presents an in-depth discussion on the breakdown of government programs over the last few decades that have eroded the low-to-middle income housing stock and ballooned housing unaffordability in BC with a focus on Chilliwack. The goals of this paper are twofold, and they include: (1) unpack the causes of homelessness and its implications; (2) examine the current responses to the homelessness crisis. Most of the data collection done to support this analysis is drawn from current news stories and government websites so that the most up-to-date and impactful happenings are incorporated. This article examines the root causes of homelessness followed by the highlights of existing solution efforts and gaps in programs and policies using a case example of Chilliwack, British Columbia, Canada. This paper briefly discusses the recommendations and next step to address the homelessness crisis in BC with a focus on Chilliwack.</p> Heather Stevens Rita Dhungel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 70 79 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65523 Awareness and Practice on Prevention and Control of Dengue among Community People of Lalitpur Metropolitan City <p><strong>Background: </strong>Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in many countries worldwide in recent years. Dengue is a major public health problem in many countries. Dengue is a rapidly emerging disease in Nepal that is endemic across most provinces. The incidence of dengue has increased in recent years due to the expansion of the <em>Aedes aegypti</em> vector. The increasing outbreak of dengue in Nepal is becoming a major concern for the public health.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of the study was to assess awareness level and practice on prevention and control of dengue among community people in Lalitpur metropolitan city.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2023 at ten different wards in Lalitpur metropolitan city. Sample populations of 368 residents of Lalitpur metropolitan city above the age of 18 years were selected for the study. Simple random probability sampling technique used for the sample selection. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 16 version used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Majority (98.1%) of respondents knew about dengue fever. Most of the respondents (47.1%) answered that dengue is caused by aedes mosquito. Majority (71.4%) of respondents stated that dirty water was breeding sites of dengue mosquito. Primary preventive measures used were cleanliness 34.1 percent followed by use of mosquito net/coil 31.4 percent. The community people had good awareness (79.3%) of dengue, but poor practice (56.79%) in prevention and control of dengue.</p> <p>According to this study, socio-demographic factors such as age, sex, and education level were significantly linked to the knowledge level of the participants.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to this study, the community people had a good awareness level of dengue (79.3%). However, their practice of prevention and control of dengue was found to be poor (56.79%).</p> Amita K.C. Sanjay Nepali Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 80 90 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65524 Adherence to Antipsychotics among Patients with Schizophrenia at Selected Tertiary Level Hospitals <p><strong>Background:</strong> Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder where nonadherence is present in patients so that relapse, rehospitalization and treatment resistant can occur.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To identify the level of adherence to antipsychotics among patients with schizophrenia and to find its association with socio-demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Materials and method:</strong> A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used for the study. 422 samples were collected using the purposive sampling technique Data was collected by the face-to-face interview technique during March, April, and May 2023. Questionnaire related to Socio-demographic information, standard valid tool Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-10) was used as instrument. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the respondents was 41.02, ±12.77. More than half52 (12.3%) of respondents were taking antipsychotics for more than 15 years. Majority of respondents 342 (81.0%) were taking atypical types of antipsychotics. Only 220 (52.1%) of respondents has moderate level of adherence towards antipsychotic medicine. Significant association was found between duration of illness and adherence level where p=0.006. There is mean difference found p=&lt;0.001 from nonadherent group to moderate adherent and adherent group and from moderate adherent-to-adherent group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Nonadherence was found important factor low Quality of life among schizophrenia patient. Implementation of community mental health program is necessary to reduce treatment gap and decrease nonadherence. It is essential to improve adherence on antipsychotic for better quality of life among schizophrenia patient.</p> Bhim Maya Yakha Dorwin Das Suraj Tiwari Pujan Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 91 97 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65525 Women’s Empowerment and its Relationship to Intimate Partner Violence in Palpa District, Lumbini, Nepal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Intimate partner violence (IPV) violates women's human rights and is a major public health concern. Intimate relationship violence or non-partner sexual assault affects about one in three (30%) women worldwide at some point in their lives. These types of violence harm women's sexual, emotional, physical, and reproductive health. This kind of abuse against women is preventable. Women's empowerment encompasses six common qualities: psychological, political, legal, economic, physical, and social empowerment, encompassing various aspects of life.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the relationship between women’s empowerment and intimate partner violence.</p> <p>To identify the prevalence and contributing factors of intimate partner violence among married women.</p> <p><strong>Materials and method: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted for the study. The sample size was 352 and a purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews using per-tested questionnaire during April, May, June, and July 2023. Questionnaire related to Socio-demographic information, Standard valid tool Conflict Tactics Scale tools (CTS) were used as instruments. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 352 respondents, nearly half (43.2%) were between the ages of 30 and 39. Half of the respondents (50.3%) had low decision-making levels. Likewise, the lowest proportion of the respondents (16.2%) had a moderate level. More than half of the respondents (58.5%) had a low level of empowerment, whereas only 3.4% of the respondents had a high level of empowerment. Regarding violence, physical was 20.2%, sexual was 24.1%, emotional was 33.2%, controlling behavior was 53.7%, and overall intimate partner violence was 68.5%. There is a statistically significant relationship between intimate partner violence and women’s age (p =&lt;0.010*), duration of marriage (p=&lt;0.009*), socioeconomic class (p = &lt;0.01*), member of the organization (p = 0.005*), bank account (p=0.006*), empowerment (p = 0.020*), husband's alcohol habit (p = &lt;0.01*), and husband's smoking habit (p = &lt;0.01*).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that more empowered women had less experience with intimate partner violence, whereas less empowered women had more experience with emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, as well as dominating actions from their close relationships. Having children, household decision-making, and property ownership had no noticeable effect on the prevalence of intimate relationship violence. The likelihood of intimate relationship violence was not significantly impacted by having children, making decisions, or possessing property.</p> Rekha Gaha Dorwin Das Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 98 106 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65532 Determinants of Satisfaction of Learning among Nursing Students of Nepal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Learner satisfaction and its importance is acknowledged globally in nursing education. The institutions are striving to develop settings that prioritize not only comprehensive and relevant curricula but also student satisfaction and well-being.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess determinants of satisfaction of learning among nursing students in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 nursing students from Purbanchal University in Bagmati Province, Nepal. The data was gathered utilizing a Student Survey Outcome tool. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test was utilized to determine the association between the level of satisfaction with learning and socio-demographic factors.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of the study revealed that 1.4% of the participants were not satisfied with the learning, 5.8% were satisfied and 92.8% were highly satisfied with learning. The level of learning satisfaction was significantly associated with the educational status of the father, the occupation of the mother, and the nursing background (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study concludes that nursing students have a high level of learning satisfaction. Nursing colleges can focus on student-centred learning approaches to further enhance the learning satisfaction of students.</p> Durga Kumari Sah Dorwin Das Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 107 115 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65533 Effectiveness of Structured Intervention Module on Video Game Addiction among Adolescents in Nepal <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Online gaming addiction has been associated with several detrimental effects in teenagers, such as worsening mental health, elevated levels of psychoticism, anxiety, and depression, strained family relationships, reduced quality of life, an increase in social anxiety, subpar academic performance, and enhanced sleep deprivation.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a structured intervention module on video game addiction among adolescents.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A true experimental investigation was conducted&nbsp;among 348 adolescents from the control and 348 adolescents from&nbsp;the experimental group. The questionnaire was developed using the Gaming Addiction Scale. Data were coded, entered, and analysed using the Software Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The mean age of the participants in the control group and experimental group were 17.3, and 18.3 respectively. The majority of the participants were male in both the control and experimental groups (52.6% and 55.7%). About 39.7% of adolescents from the control group and 29.6% of the adolescents from the intervention group were studying in twelve standards. The majority of the participants in both the control and experimental groups started playing video games at the age of 7 to 8 years. The most popular mode of video game play among the participants in the control (61.5%) and experimental groups (60.3%), was online. Multi-player was highly preferred by study participants in both the control group (71.6%) and the experimental group (74.1%). After receiving interventions, video game addiction reduced significantly among the experimental group, from 42% to 25% during the post-test. However, the status of video game addiction remained constant among the control group at 46.3%. During post-tests, the study found that there was a significant difference in the mean scores between the control group (3.7±0.6) and the experimental group (1.9±0.7). The difference was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.0001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study showed that the structured intervention module was effective in reducing gaming addiction among adolescents in the experimental group. This study highlights that intervention modules can help reduce gaming addiction levels among adolescents.</p> Moushami Giree Dorwin Das Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 116 125 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65534 Coping Styles among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Autism falls under the most common category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD). It is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disability characterized by persistent and pervasive impairments that include challenges with social understanding and communication, difficulty adapting to new situations, and exhibiting repetitive behaviors or interests. Caring for children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be an arduous task for caregivers all around the globe. To tide through the various phases of development, certain coping mechanisms are applied by the parents of children with ASD. An impact on the level of parental distress can be evaluated being based on parental coping styles concerning developmental disabilities<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the coping among the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and to measure the association of coping styles with selected background variables.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among 174 parents of children with ASD in selected autism care centers in Kathmandu, Nepal. The data was collected using a questionnaire developed by taking the reference from the Brief COPE questionnaire to evaluate the coping styles used by parents. Descriptive (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent sample t-test) were used to analyze data in SPSS vs20.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings of the study revealed, the majority of the respondents were below 35 years of age (70.1%), female (55.2%), belonged to the Brahmin/Chhetri (63.2%) ethnic group, had a single child (62.1%), belonged to nuclear family (52.9%), were homemakers (34.5%), able to spend sufficiently economically (66.7%) and having a graduate or higher education (71.3%). Similarly, the majority of autistic children were aged between 1 to 5 years (93.1%), and were males (71.3%). In terms of birth order, the majority of children with autism were firstborns (72.4%), did not have any other illnesses (96.6%), and were diagnosed at the age of less than 3 years (62.1%). Overall, the majority of the parents used a problem-focused coping style with a mean of 3.2±0.3, followed by avoidant coping style (2.7±0.4) and emotion-focused coping style (2.5±0.5). Likewise, there was there was a significant association of avoidant coping style with the age of respondents and the number of children they have, emotion-focused coping with ethnicity, and occupation of respondents. Again, the sex of respondents, level of education of spouse, and level of autism of children of respondents were found to have a significant association with both avoidant and emotion-focused coping styles. Overall, the level of education of respondents was associated with overall coping strategies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of the present study, the study concludes that the majority of the respondents used problem problem-focused coping style, followed by avoidant and emotion-focused coping styles. Significant associations were found between various coping styles and demographic attributes such as age, gender, ethnicity, occupation, level of education of respondents as well as their spouse, and the level of ASD of their children. Understanding the coping styles is central to supporting the parents’ coping efforts. Providing parents with effective techniques to manage their emotions can greatly influence how they view their situation, the intensity of the symptoms of their children, and the psychological distress associated with it.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Sabina Rana Dorwin Das Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 11 1 126 135 10.3126/jaar.v11i1.65535