Journal of Advanced Academic Research <p>A peer-reviewed six monthly journal published by the Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies, Babarmahal, Kathmandu.</p> en-US <p>Copyright © Centre of Excellence for PhD Studies (PhD Centre)</p><p>All rights reserved. Authors are responsible for obtaining permissions to reproduce copyright material from other sources. The publisher assumes no responsibility for any statement of fact or opinion or copyright violations in the published papers. The views expressed by authors/researchers do not necessarily represent the viewpoint of the organisation.</p> (Dr Tatwa P Timsina) (Sioux Cumming) Mon, 27 Nov 2023 14:20:45 +0000 OJS 60 Role of Domestic Banking and Financial Institutions in Project Finance: Insights from Hydropower Sector in Nepal <p>Hydropower is a low carbon renewable energy alternative for replacing carbon emission energy sources. In Nepal, this infrastructure sector is being developed for fulfilling the internal demand of electricity. Previous studies emphasized public-private partnership (PPP) utilizing project finance (PF) model in infrastructure sector. Recognizing the importance of domestic banking and financial institutions (BFIs) in project finance this study delves into factors significantly affecting the role of BFIs in project finance.&nbsp; Cross-sectional survey utilizing questionnaires was conducted among respondents representing the independent power producers (IPPs) and BFIs in Nepal. &nbsp;&nbsp;Regression analysis showed predictor variables like economic environment, guidelines of the central bank and low default rate have significant impact on project finance. &nbsp;issues related to adequate legal provision for non-recourse financingrole of BFIs for project finance arrangement. Credibility of hydropower project sponsors is an important determinant in financing hydropower project.&nbsp; The availability of comparatively more bankable projects in other investment sectors against the investible fund constraints resulted in limited complete project finance arrangement of hydropower projects.&nbsp;&nbsp; Detail investigation on guarantees to the lenders against the project loan and improvements needed in legal frameworks to accommodate the non-recourse finance and making economic and legal environment friendlier to private sector is the limitation of this study left for future researches.</p> Achyut Nepal, Ruhanita Maelah, Vishnu Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Addressing Brain Drain: Retaining Skilled Professionals in Nepal in Manufacturing Sector from the Perspective of Human Resource Management <p>Retaining skilled professionals in Nepal's manufacturing sector is crucial for organizational success and sustainable economic development. However, the phenomenon of brain drain poses significant challenges in this regard. This article, from the perspective of human resource management (HRM), explores the factors contributing to brain drain in Nepal and offers insights on addressing this issue. From an HRM perspective, this article examines the reasons behind employee dissatisfaction and the challenges faced by manufacturers in retaining skilled professionals. To improve employee retention, this article highlights key areas for consideration. It emphasizes the importance of workplace happiness, factors such as the weight of job responsibilities and safe working conditions, and the critical role of competitive salaries in satisfying employee needs. Furthermore, it introduces six elements - inclusion, appreciation, support, trust, purpose, and achievement - that, when incorporated into organizations, can contribute to positive workplace well-being and employee satisfaction.</p> <p>In conclusion, this article calls for collective efforts in fostering an environment of trust, communication, and inclusivity within manufacturing organizations. Recognizing and appreciating employee contributions, providing clear responsibilities and focusing on employee satisfaction are vital for retaining skilled professionals and addressing the challenges posed by brain drain in Nepal's manufacturing sector.</p> Anil Kumar Baral Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Practice regarding Post-Partum Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device among Antenatal Women Attending AMDA Hospital, Jhapa <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Family planning was set up in 1936. It was at first known as the sex hygiene and birth regulation society. Intrauterine contraception is one of the most cost-effective methods of contraception. PPIUCD can be inserted in 48 hours postpartum, referred to here as postpartum intrauterine contraceptive device. Failure to plan a pregnancy can adversely affect the health of the family as a whole. High parity is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths and is associated with nutritional problems of both mother and child.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>The aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice regarding PPICUD among the Antenatal mothers attending AMDA Hospital, Damak, Jhapa.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross-sectional observational design was used for the study. One hundred sixty-four antenatal mothers will be taken in the study. Self-administered questionnaire and interview method used for the study. Data will be summarized using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>One hundred sixty-four antenatal mothers participated in the study, 121 antenatal mothers (73.8%) had moderate, 20 antenatal mothers (12.2%) had adequate and 23 antenatal mothers (14%) had inadequate knowledge. there was a significant association between knowledge with age, sex, religion, educational status, marital status, type of family, occupation, type of family, monthly income, parity, pervious source of information.</p> <p><strong>Conclude: </strong>The study concludes that awareness and knowledge among antenatal mothers are high but the usage is low. Many educational and motivational activities are needed.</p> Sita Dhimal, Rashmi Ghising, Nirmala Dahal, Nilam Kumari Jha, Rekha Shah, Bhawana Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Problems Faced by People Living with HIV/AIDS in Makawanpur, Nepal <p>HIV/AIDS, in a sociological perspective, is a social problem that affects human beings and push towards immature death. It was reported in Nepal in 1988 for the first time, however, it is not so old disease, but at present, it has spread throughout the country as a wild fire. At present, it is estimated that about 75,000 people are infected with this infection (NCASC, 2012). People who infected with this infection are not discriminated or stigmatized until they exposed. If someone exposed that s/he is a victim of HIV/AIDS, people start to discriminate, stigmatize, and even exile from home and community blaming characterless or prostitute. Hence, this study was concentrated with the aim to find out the current problems faced by PLHAs i.e., female sex workers, homemakers, IDUs, transport workers, and MSWs in Makawapur district which is known as one of the twenty-six prone districts for the girls trafficking in Nepal. Required information was collected through in-depth interview, observation and group discussion based on their individual background, profession and problems. Disproportionate sampling design to draw 102 sample sizes with equal weight for male and female respondents was chosen. Snowball sampling to find the respondents was applied. Qualitative research was emphasized based on semi-structure and open-ended questions, however, quantitative research design also prioritized to analyze the data to make the study sounder.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Dhana Bahadur Moktan Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Land Tenure System and Security of Kumal Community in Gorkha <p class="ABSTRACT" style="text-align: justify; line-height: 115%; tab-stops: 6.0in 445.5pt; margin: 0in 0in 12.0pt 0in;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">This paper analyzes the land tenure system, its history, demographic and socio-economic characteristics and tenure ownership and security of Kumal community in Gorkha district of Nepal. Land is a fundamental natural resource for living, an economic asset for production, legal entity with multiple rights over it and above all, a societal factor for self-actualization. So, ownership of land has multi-faceted understanding. The objective of this paper is to analyze the existing land tenure system of Kumal community of Gorkha by reviewing the history of the tenure system and current tenure system, and carrying out HH survey to improve the tenure ownership and security. However, the tenure rights of socially and economically disadvantaged community like Kumals have not been properly addressed and those people are at high risk of eviction from the place they are living. The study recommends that land tenure insecurity arising from political, legislative and organizational behavior should be managed by appropriate interventions and policy reforms. As most of the analyses of land tenure security in Nepal have been performed in a descriptive way, this study explicitly investigates the issue through household survey. As Nepal is in the process of implementing federalization, assessment of land tenure security shall be one of the instruments for developing new land related policies and assessing the effect of new policies afterward.</span></p> Chan Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of E-Banking on Operational Efficiency of Employees in Nepalese Commercial Banks <p>This study investigates the influence of electronic banking methods, including ATMs, mobile banking and internet banking on the operational efficiency of employees in Nepalese commercial banks. This research focuses on its implications in Nepal, aiming to understand how the adoption of digital technologies affects the day-to-day tasks, workload distribution, and overall performance of bank personnel. Mixed-methods approach involving surveys and interviews, the study analyzes employee perceptions and experiences, shedding light on the extent to which e-banking optimizes processes, improves customer interactions, and necessitates skillset adaptations. The findings of this research contribute valuable insights to academia and the banking industry, offering actionable information to enhance the benefits of e-banking while mitigating potential drawbacks on employee performance. By comprehensively exploring the relationship between e-banking and operational efficiency in Nepal's banking, this study equips stakeholders with knowledge crucial for strategic decision-making and sustainable growth within the evolving financial technology.</p> Shankar Nath Adhikari, Kushendra B Mahat Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Nutritional Status of Under Five Years Children in Kolati Bhumlu of Kavrepalanchok District <p><strong>Background: </strong>The nutritional status of children is one of the major indicators of child survival and a proxy indicator for the general health of the population. Malnutrition is a significant public health issue in the majority of developing nations and is particularly prevalent among children under five years of age. Mortality and morbidity among children under-five years of age are influence by nutritional status. The context of Nepal, more than one-third (36%) of children under-five years of age stunted or too short for their age. 10% of children wasted (too thin for height), a sign of acute malnutrition. 27% of children underweight or too thin for their age. These children had greater risk of severe acute malnutrition and death.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Study’s objective was to assess the nutritional status of under-five year’s children and factors associated with malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Kolati Bhumlu of Kavrepalanchok district of Nepal. A total of 115 under-five year’schildren and their mothers were included in study. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version16 was used to analyze the data.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The prevalence of underweight was found to be 28.7% according to the classification of malnutrition based on Z- score .Similarly, the prevalence of wasting was found to be 18.3% and the prevalence of stunting was found to be 29.6%. According to Gomez’s malnutrition classification (NCHS/WHO as standard) for Weight for age (underweight) 3.5% children were severely malnourished. According to Water-low’s classification, regarding the height for age (stunting) 9.6% children were severely malnourished. Regarding MUAC measurement 7.8% children had severe malnutrition. The Gender of the child was associated with stunting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the study population, the high prevalence of malnutrition especially stunting among under-five years children. Taking weight, height, age, and mid- upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements of malnourished children more than three-fifths of them were below -2SD and nearly one-fourths were below -3SD which needs intervention.</p> Amita KC, Ranendra Bohara Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Slope Stability Evaluation based on Empirical Methods and it’s Potential Remedy at Lesser Himalayan Zone (A Case Study of Bhalam-Hill Slope, Kaski) <p>The study area lies in Bhalam, Kaski district nearly 2 km from Batulechour main district road network near Gandarva community residing near Kali Khola river. The study area is comprises of several lithological factors. Field observation, sampling, lab analysis, geological survey with GPS, compass, geological hammer and tape are the main methods utilize to evaluate slope stability and possibility of failure in the study area. From the study it is found that there are few major discontinuities which play vital role in determining slope failure around the study area. The major failure due to discontinuity are planar failure, wedge failure and somewhere block failure. High ground water table approximately 0.06m, steep slope varying from 25° to 60°, improper road cutting, weathering of rock mass are major factor contributing to rock fall and landslide in the study area. The study also shows FOS&lt;1(0.937 and 0.569) at two different places which is most critical and make slope unstable. SMR is calculated on the basis of RMR<sub>b</sub>, GSI is calculated on the basis of RQD and UCS is calculated on the basis of empirical methods which uses pulse velocity and porosity chart for determining related equation. The calculated value of RMR<sub>b</sub>, SMR and FOS shows less stability of study area along Bhalam-Batulechour road section near Kali- Khola river with possibility of impact on Bhalam road bridge and two lane road section. There need a corrective measure in slope for sustainable stability in the long run.</p> Prakash Baral Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Study to Assess the Knowledge and Attitude of Adolescence Regarding Computer Vision Syndrome in Selected School Of Dehradun, India <p><strong>Background:</strong> Computer Vision Syndrome is one of the rising health concerns related to technology (cell phones and tablets) due to continuous use of computers among adolescents. Almost 75% of a person’s daily activities include computer usage. Globally, around 60 million computer workers experience discomfort from Computer Vision Syndrome. Nearly 45 million workers use computers by starring at the screen for hours continuously.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of this study is to assess Knowledge and Attitude of Adolescence Regarding Computer Vision Syndrome in Selected School of Dehradun, India.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional research design is used for this study. The total sample size for the study was 120 adolescents. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used for the study. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS (Version 20.0) software.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>More than half of the respondents (50.8%) had inadequate knowledge and it revealed that highest 69.2% of them had a negative attitude on computer vision syndrome. There is a significant association between knowledge score with the selected variables like age in years, education and types of electronic device. There is a significant association between attitudes with the area of residence. There is also a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude ("r" value of 0.519).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: More than half of respondents had inadequate knowledge and it also revealed that majority of them had a negative attitude on computer vision syndrome.</p> Pramila Dewan, Archana Maletha, Bhawana Bhandari, Asta Lama Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Perception of Nursing Students towards their Profession in Morang District <p><strong>Background:</strong>Nursing is indeed considered a noble and essential profession in society because of the core value it promotes in its practice-which is the care of life. Nursing student’s perception towards the image of the nursing profession has an apparent impact on their self-concept, self-esteem, recruitment, retention, and performance. Thus, nurses who have positive professional images have good knowledge retention.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study were conducted among nursing students in Purbanchal University School of Health Sciences through self-administration question.&nbsp; Data collection involved assessment of nursing student’s perception towards their profession through census method. Chi-square was done to examine associations between perception of profession and its factors.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The 126 participants were included in this study; most of them 60.8% were studying in 1<sup>st</sup> year. This study mentioned that 51.6%had positive perception and found a significant relationship between perception and the age of the respondents. This suggests that the way respondents perceive the profession is influenced by their age.</p> Diksha Paudel, Bhawana Bhandari, Sarita Khatiwada, Sunita Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Time Series Analysis of the Foreign Direct Investment in Nepal: Economics Perspective <p>The main aim of this paper is to identify the major economic determinants of foreign direct investment in Nepal. In doing so, the Johansen-Juselius (JJ) cointegration approach as well as vector error correction model are implemented to identify the relationship among the macro variables. The empirical results revealed that all the variables are stationary at first difference and the evidence of cointegrating vector is obvious based on the JJ cointegration results. In addition, it is found that there is a long run relationship among the variables based on the coefficient of Error Correction Term (ECT). The long run coefficients show that Trade, GDP, exchange rate, and interest rate have a positive impact on FDI in Nepal, while, gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) and inflation (CPI) have a negative impact. Finally, in the short run, only one lag of FDI is affecting FDI. These results suggest that the inward FDI tends to incorporate information from the macroeconomic variables.</p> Dhirendra Prasad Koirala, Nazirdduin Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 Mon, 27 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0000