Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management <p>Published by the Advanced College of Engineering and Management, Kupondole, Lalitpur, Nepal</p> Advanced College of Engineering and Management en-US Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management 2392-4853 <p>JACEM reserves the copyright for the published papers. Author will have right to use content of the published paper in part or in full for their own work.</p> Technical and Financial Assessment of Hematite (Iron Ore) Extraction from Iron Deposits of Pokhari Area, Nawalparasi <p>Iron and Steels is one of the top three major imports of Nepal. Based on the fact that Nepal has large amount of mineral resources, it is important to explore and exploit them rationally. This research paper is carried out to estimate the iron ore reserve of the iron ore deposits of Pokhari in Nawalparasi which was recently discovered by Department of Mines and Geology (DMG), Nepal. In this research work, the technical and financial assessment of hematite (iron ore) extraction of iron deposits of Pokhari, taking an area of one square kilo meter, has been carried out. The tonnage of iron ore and the overburden (which is quartzite and slate in this case) were estimated considering the mining process to be open cast mining using vertical cross-section method. The depth of hematite zone is taken as 100 m. The iron ore to over-burden (waste) ratio was 1:3.36. The financial analysis was done on the basis of extraction of 3600 metric tons of iron ore per day and 8,64,000 metric tons annually. The return on investment (ROI) is 34%. Thus, the research work indicates that the extraction of large amount of iron ore of Pokhari area is economical and it is a beneficial project.</p> Amit Kumar Das Rajesh Kaji Kayastha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 5 1 13 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26672 Determining the Hosting Capacity of Solar Photovoltaic in a Radial Distribution Network Using an Analytical Approach <p>Integrating high photovoltaic (PV) on distribution grid system has a positive impact by significantly reducing the losses and improving the voltage profile at the same time reducing the pollution of the environment However, integrating high proportions of PV in the distribution grid can bring the grid to its operational limits and result in power quality issues. The maximum PV capacity that can be integrated without incurring any grid impacts is referred to as the PV hosting capacity of the grid. This paper intends to evaluate the hosting capacity of solar PV in Dodhara-Chandani (DoC) distribution feeder as one of the feeder of Integrated Nepal Power System (INPS), considering grid parameters and operating condition in Nepal. Three main criteria were investigated for determining the hosting capacity of PV; reverse power flow, maximum voltage deviation of feeder and current carrying limit of conductor. The analysis has been performed by means of static load-flow simulation in Electrical Transient &amp; Analysis Program (ETAP) and coding in MATLAB R2017a. The study shows that PV of rated capacity 687kWp can be installed at a point of interconnection (POI) whereas an optimal placement of solar PV is found to be at 18th node (in between starting and end of the feeder) considering minimum system losses. The minimum voltage profile at end of the feeder has improved by 8 % while the active power loss reduction of network has reduced by 83.6 % after the integration of solar PV. The results indicate voltage at different buses and the ampacity of most of the conductors have been improved after the integration of PV system into DoC feeder.</p> Suraj Dahal Ajay Kumar Jha Nawraj Bhattarai Anil Kumar Panjiyar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 5 15 25 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26673 Experimental Analysis on the Properties of Concrete Brick With Partial Replacement of Sand by Saw Dust and Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate by Expanded Polystyrene <p>An experimental study had been conducted to study the effects of saw dust and EPS as partial replacement of sand and coarse aggregate in various percentages such as 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% in concrete brick samples of M20 and M15 Grade. Compressive strength, Bulk density and Water absorption of prepared saw dust and EPS M20 and M15 concrete brick were determined. The properties of materials were first determined before the conduction of experimental works. The normal consistency, initial and final setting time and compressive strength of cement used for the experiment were found as 31%,115 minutes, 265 minutes and 39.5 N/mm2 respectively. Sieve analysis to determine the particle size distribution of sand, coarse aggregates, saw dust and EPS was performed. From the sieve analysis, the nominal maximum size of sand, coarse aggregate, saw dust and EPS used for preparing concrete brick sample were 2.36 mm, 12.5 mm, 2.36 mm and 4.75 mm respectively. Impact value of coarse aggregate obtained was 11.20 %.The experimental results showed that water absorption of prepared M15 and M20 concrete brick samples increased with increase in percentage replacement of sand by saw dust and EPS by coarse aggregate. Compressive strength and Bulk density of prepared M15 and M20 concrete brick sample decreased with increase in percentage content of saw dust and EPS. The results showed that the partial replacement of sand by saw dust and coarse aggregate by EPS in concrete brick sample had sufficient strength as compared to common bricks.</p> Anjana Ghimire Sanjeev Maharjan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 5 27 36 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26674 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Penstock Branching in Hydropower Project <p>The penstock branching manifold is regarded as most critical part of the hydropower project. A computational research has been carried out to conclude the most efficient branching manifold with has more than or equal to three units of turbine. Starting from the base data from a project "Solukhola-Dudhkoshi Hydropower Project, 86 MW" for three units of turbines. More than 20 models were prepared to visualize flow pattern, to minimize the head loss and mas flow variation among 3 different units. The research has been finally concluded to go towards a single trifurcation instead of successive two bifurcation or individual branching form main branches.</p> Bipin Kandel Mahesh Chandra Luitel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 5 37 43 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26676 Participatory Action Research for Learning Chemistry: A Case of Public Schools in Nepal <p>The&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; reconnoiters&nbsp; the&nbsp; application&nbsp; of&nbsp; participatory&nbsp; action&nbsp; research&nbsp; (PAR)&nbsp; in&nbsp; improving&nbsp; the&nbsp; performance&nbsp; of students&nbsp; in chemistry&nbsp; sections. A mixed method research is&nbsp; employed&nbsp; focusing PAR as qualitative and experimental as a quantitative with&nbsp; equivalent&nbsp; groups. Two&nbsp; schools were&nbsp; purposively&nbsp; selected&nbsp; (one&nbsp; leader&nbsp; and&nbsp; one&nbsp; leader)&nbsp; in Chitwan&nbsp; and Nawalparasi districts. All the students in the leader school are given intervention. Thirty students from the feeder school are in control group. Intervention was done by laboratory activities in chemistry teaching. PAR approach is used in the leader school during intervention. Pre-test and post-test were used to collect the data. Data are analyzed using inferential statistics: independent student t-test&nbsp; and&nbsp; analysis&nbsp; of&nbsp; covariance&nbsp; (ANCOVA).&nbsp; The result shows that&nbsp; the&nbsp; experimental&nbsp; group outperformed to control group suggesting that PAR approach enhanced performance of lower and high achievers more than the lecture method of teaching.</p> Kamal Prasad Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 5 45 52 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26680 Optimization of Standalone Photovoltaic System Considering Loss of Power Supply Probability for Repeater Station of Nepal Telecom <p>Telecommunication plays the vital role in the human life and has become an integrated part of the society. The rapidly growing information and communications technology and increasing competition in telecommunication markets triggers the telecom operators to extend their networks and services to their potential customers in different geographical locations. It necessitates them to install repeaters and communication towers powered by standalone Photovoltaic system in remote rural areas. This paper presents optimization of standalone photovoltaic system maximizing reliability in one of such remotely located Palethar Repeater Station of Nepal Telecom situated in Dadeldhura district of Far-western region. The optimization is carried out using Genetic Algorithm in MATLAB software for given load profile enhancing reliability of the system with maximum reduction of overall system cost. The loss of power supply probability (LPSP) is considered for reflecting the reliability of the system. The paper discusses different optimal configuration of standalone PV system under various values of LPSP after optimization.</p> Krishna Ranjit Sanjeev Maharjan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 5 53 62 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26682 Biological Denitrification of Nitrate Contaminated Ground Water with Elementary Sulfur <p>Extensive utilization of synthetic fertilizer and release of improperly treated wastewater from industrial or municipal facilities are the causes of nitrate contamination in natural water systems. Nitrate is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of surface water bodies which can cause severe ecological and environmental problems. Consumption of nitrates can have several detrimental health effects. One adverse health effect is methemoglobinemia or “blue-baby" syndrome.</p> <p>Sulfur based biological denitrification process is autotrophic denitrification using <em>Thiobacillus denitriflcans</em>, in which process is conducted by denitrifying bacteria which require inorganic carbon for carbon source. These denitrifying bacteria oxidizes elemental sulfur to sulphate while reducing nitrate to nitrogen gas, thereby eliminating the need for addition of organic carbon compounds as energy sources to drive denitrification.</p> <p>This Study was conducted on biological denitrification with elemental sulfur packed small-scale bed columns and it was found to be maximum 39 percent efficiency of NO<sub>3</sub>-N removal at 1.5 hours HRT having bicarbonate range 153.72 to 207.40 mg/l and that of TIN removal was up to 35 percent removal efficiency. In this biological process, elemental sulfur is converted into sulfate, and this renders the method unsuitable for the treatment of ground water containing high levels of endogenous sulfate.</p> Madan Gorathoki Iswar Man Amatya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 5 63 69 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26687 Reliability Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation on c- φ Soil <p>Bearing capacity of shallow foundation is a challenging problem for geotechnical engineers. The difficulty comes from multiple sources of uncertainty. Only the uncertainties in Soil properties; unit weight (γ), cohesion(c), and angle of friction (φ) are taken in this study. The Reliability Based Design method is used for the assessment of bearing capacity of shallow foundation by First-and second-order approximation using Taylor’s series expansion and Mathcad Computer program which provide systematic analysis of uncertainties and allow the designer how reliable are their designs. The Terzaghi Bearing capacity equation is used for the analysis along with the certain range of variability (CV %) associated with the variables. For the reliability analysis, to become more realistic two real cases of shallow foundation on c-φ soil has been taken as a sample case.</p> Mahesh Acharya Indra Prasad Acharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 5 71 78 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26690 Heat Exchanger for Bio-Digester under Thermophilic Range <p>Bio-gas has been one of the sources of renewable energy and has been used from long time. It is produced by the anaerobic digestion or decomposition of organic compounds and has different process. The digestion process is carried out by bacteria present in the waste and it is highly dependent on the bacteria which work differently on different temperatures. The rate of anaerobic digestion is highest at hemophilic temperature (55°C). Similarly, it is moderate at mesophilic temperature (35°C) and is lowest at psychrophilic (below 20°C). Thus, to attain the highest digestion rate a thermophilic heating system has beend eveloped. The heating system uses five heat exchangers to heat the influent at digester which is of 35m<sup>3</sup> volume, to maintain temperature at 56°C. The volume of bio-gas production from this system which uses cow dung as digestingmaterial is about 28 m<sup>3</sup> per day.</p> Prajwal Sapkota Laxman Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 5 79 88 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26691 Energy Scenarios of Household Sector In Panauti Municipality For Sustainable Development and Energy Security <p>This study aims to analyse energy scenarios of residential sector in Panauti Municipality for sustainable energy development and energy security. This study was done by conducting a questionnaire survey, and was supported by secondary data from various sources. Data analysis was carried out with the help of excel and LEAP software. From the results, total energy consumption of Panauti Municipality is 147 TJ in year 2016 with per capita is 4.72GJ and per capita emission 82kg. The main fuel for consumption in residential sector is firewood with share 44% then followed by LPG with 26% of total energy. Cooking is the most energy intensive end-use, accounting 60% of total energy consumption, followed by animal feed preparation 28%. It was seen that total electrification in all end-use can reduce energy demand by 57% and 35% respectively in AEL and SUD scenario and saved fuel import cost about NRs.235 million. in year 2050. Using nationally available electricity ensures energy security and has co-benefit of emission reduction.</p> Pramila Dhaubanjar Amrit Man Nakarmi Sushil B. Bajracharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 5 89 100 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26692 Customer Churn Prediction for Imbalanced Class Distribution of Data in Business Sector <p>Churners are those people who are about to transfer their business to a competitor or simply who cancel a subscription to a service. This paper is based on a specific business sector, which is telecommunication sector. With a churn rate of 30%, the telecommunication sector takes the first place on the list. In this paper, we present some advanced data mining methodologies which predicts customer churn in the pre-paid mobile telecommunications industry using a call detail records dataset. To implement the predictive models, we initially propose and then apply four machine learning algorithms: Random Forest, Naïve Bayes, Logistic Regression, and XG Boost. To evaluate the models, we use various evaluation metrics and find the best model which will be suitable for any class imbalanced data and also our business case. This paper can also be viewed as a comparative study on the most popular machine learning methods applied to the challenging problem of customer churn prediction.</p> Aayush Bhattarai Elisha Shrestha Ram Prasad Sapkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-13 2019-12-13 5 101 110 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26693 Solar Water Pumping in Energy, Water and Food Nexus of Nepal <p>Agricultural based country Nepal has sufficient arable land. Even though sufficient water sources for the irrigation, farmers are fully reliant on the monsoon. More over only about 18 percent of the total cultivated land receives year round irrigation. More than half of the population have less than 0.5 hectare with average land holding of 0.85 hectare. With this intensive care can give to their farm. But only a season they are cultivated their land. In this context about seventy one thousand tons of food deficit in the country annually. But rapidly declining costs and technology improvements encourage to adopt solar based systems for the irrigation projects. So that is interested to supplement their income through growing vegetables in commercial scale with changing crop pattern through irrigation. Integrated approach for Energy-Water-Food would be essential for development.</p> Ramesh Ranabhat Sundar Bahadur Khadka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-15 2019-12-15 5 111 116 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26718 Optimal Capital Structure for BOOT/BOT Model Hydropower Projects in Nepal <p>Nepal has a huge hydropower potential which is yet to be developed. Hydropower are capital intensive infrastructure where financing from single source is not practical, so a financial mix is essential, i.e. debt and equity financing. Projects have been practicing different financial structures. Therefore a proper capital structure is necessary for maximizing return from the hydropower project.</p> <p>The main objective of this research is to determine the parameters that influence hydropower financing, collect data on parameters, analyze them and determine the optimal capital structure for hydroelectric projects in Nepal.</p> <p>The data of operating hydropower projects are collected from secondary sources mainly Department of Electricity Development, Nepal Electricity Authority and other published internet sources. The data is processed and financial analysis is performed for numerous cases using an excel sheet powered by visual basic application.</p> <p>The key parameters affecting hydropower financing are total project cost, annual generation (Dry and wet energy), interest on loan and interest on equity while other parameters are not frequently variable. The feasibility of the project is found to be greatly influenced by the cost of development and generation revenue. The optimal capital structure of hydropower projects is dependent on the key parameters.</p> <p>The cost of hydropower development in Nepal is found to be diverse with an average per megawatt cost of NRs. 219.2 million and standard deviation of NRs. 65.9 million. Energy generation varies from time to time and plant to plant with an average plant factor of 0.53 (Standard Deviation 0.20) out of which 33.16% is dry energy. The cost of loan varies from 8% to 12% and the cost of equity ranges 12% to 16%. The optimal capital structure for BOOT model hydropower projects in Nepal falls in the range of 11% to 34% with an expected value of 20.79%.</p> Anup Gautam Santosh Kumar Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-15 2019-12-15 5 117 122 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26720 Properties of Weight Function <p>Available with full text.</p> Santosh Ghimire Pushpa Narayan Shrestha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 123 126 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26761 Sustainable Energy Planning for Nepal in the Federal Structure <p>This paper examined the energy planning in each province, sustainable technology policy interventions in the energy demand and social cost benefit analysis in energy sector for Nepal in the federal structure over the period 2017-2050 using LEAP-IBC modeling framework. Four scenarios were developed, reference, Low economy, accelerated economy and sustainable scenario, former three are based on socioeconomic assumption and later is technology intervention case. In reference scenario, energy consumption will increase by 3 folds from 544 PJ to 1645 PJ during 2017-2050, whereas in sustainable scenario the value expected to increase to 866 PJ by 2050. In the base year 2017, emission is 69 million metrictons of Co2 equivalents whereas per capita emission is 2.36 metric tons. In the reference scenario the carbon emission increases to 178 million Metric tons of CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent in 2050 whereas per capita carbon emission increases to the 4.06metric ton in the year 2050. In sustainable scenario the carbon emission increases to 21.95 million Metric tons of CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent in 2030 whereas per capita carbon emission reduces to the 0.64 metric ton in the year 2030 due to the technological policy intervention. The calculated NPV shows that SED scenario is most economically viable with NPV value 7899 million NRS. In sustainable policy scenario efficient as well as new and improved technologies has been considered as a result of which substantial amount of reduction in energy intensities and per capita final energy consumption is achieved. In reference scenario per capita energy consumption 18GJ is increase to 40 GJ and in sustainable scenario is expected to 19GJ by 2050.</p> Shailendra Bhusal Amrit Man Nakarmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 127 145 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26762 Classification of Loan Applications of Garima Bikas Bank Ltd Using Decision Tree Classification Method <p>There is a possibility in finding hidden patterns that might help find a relationship between the information provided by the Loan Applicants during the Loan Application process and the status of their loan repayment. This paper highlights on finding such patterns by building a Decision Tree with the help of the data provided during the loan application process. Eleven attribute information of Five Hundred sixty four loan applicants were collected from Garima Bikas Bank Ltd. A decision tree model with a depth of 6 has been built by calculating the entropy and information gain at each split and selecting the feature with the highest information gain.</p> Subik Shrestha Laxman Paudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 147 152 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26763 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of Normal and Fibre Reinforced Concrete (Grade M15) <p>Concrete is weak in tension, hence some measures must be adopted to overcome this deficiency as well as to enhance physical and other mechanical properties but in more convenient and economical method. Through many research from the past, it has been observed that addition of different types of fibres has been more effective for this purpose. This report presents the work undertaken to study the effect of steel and hay fibre on normal cement concrete of M-15 Grade on the basis of its mechanical properties which include compressive and tensile strength test and slump test as well. Although hay fibres are abundantly available in Nepal, no research have been popularly conducted here regarding the use of hay fibres in concrete and the changes brought by it on concrete’s mechanical properties. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes and cylinders of standard sizes with addition of various percentages of steel and hay fibres i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of cement and results were compared with those of normal cement concrete of M-15 Grade. For each percentage of steel and hay fibre added in concrete, six cubes and six cylinders were tested for their respective mechanical properties at curing periods of 14 and 28 days. The results obtained show us that the optimum content of fibre to be added to M-15 grade of concrete is 0.5% steel fibre for compression and 0.5% hay fibre content for tension by weight of cement. Also, addition of steel and hay fibres enhanced the binding properties, micro cracking control and imparted ductility.</p> <p>In addition to this, two residential buildings were modeled in SAP software, one with normal concrete and other with concrete containing 0.5% steel fibre. Difference in reinforcement requirements in each building was computed from SAP analysis and it was found that 489.736 Kg of reinforcement could be substituted by 158.036 kg of steel fibres and decrease in materials cost of building with 0.5% steel fibre reinforced concrete was found to be Rs. 32,100.</p> Sagar Bista Sagar Airee Shikshya Dhital Srijan Poudel Sujan Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 153 164 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26764 Crash Prediction for Prioritization of Intersections for Safety Improvement: Case Study of Kathmandu Valley <p>Every year globally 1.3 million people lose their lives from road traffic crashes (RTAs). Similarly, increasing rate of RTAs has been observed in Nepal including Kathmandu valley. This study is focused on the analysis of crash trends and respective site specific geometric features of urban road intersections in Kathmandu valley. Seventeen major intersections based on the data availability and traffic volume, are considered for the analysis of crash type. Previous crash data and traffic volume records of one year have been analysed. Common types of three and four legged intersections were taken for the study. Classified traffic volume at those intersections were converted into the Annual Average Daily Traffic. Evaluation factors for the crash analysis were determined by using predictive method. Crash frequency, crash rate, critical crash rate and crash prediction methods were used for ranking of the intersection. Priority for the safety improvement is prepared based on the results of this study.</p> Sujan Bhattarai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 165 179 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26765 Earthquake-Induced Shallow Landslide Susceptibility Assessment of Gorkha District <p>Nepal is very seriously affected by landslides every year causing loss of life and property. Large scale earthquakes that occurred in different time periods such as on 15th January, 1934 or that on 25th April 2015 have proved Nepal as seismically vulnerable -place. Nepal has witnessed several landslides during and after the earthquake events making some areas of land quite vulnerable for settlement and other usages. Therefore in order to minimize the impacts of landslides caused due to earthquakes, highly susceptible locations should be identified and spatial planning is made accordingly. Considering topographic effects in amplification of earthquake ground motion, Uchida et al. (2004) have developed a topographical parameter based empirical description of landslide susceptibility during an earthquake. In this research, the method proposed by Uchida et al. (2004) is utilized in raster GIS and landslide susceptibility analysis is performed in the study area of SulikotGaupalika of Gorkha district, Nepal which was severely hit by several landslides due to “Gorkha Earthquake 2015". The landslide inventory map of SulikotGaupalika due to “Gorkha Earthquake 2015" is obtained and is correlated with landslide susceptibility values as obtained by using Uchida et al. (2004). The analysis shows that the method proposed by Uchida et al. (2004) is more than 68.9% accurate in delineating the probable locations of earthquake induced landslides. By calibrating landslide data and landslide susceptibility values in a small site (i.e. SulikotGaupalika) within the study area, a final landslide susceptibility map is prepared for the whole study area of Gorkha district. The resultant susceptibility map is very useful for planning settlements, development activities and reconstruction planning.</p> Tapendra Kumar Shahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 5 181 193 10.3126/jacem.v5i0.26766