Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management <p>Published by the Advanced College of Engineering and Management, Kupondole, Lalitpur, Nepal</p> en-US <p>JACEM reserves the copyright for the published papers. Author will have right to use content of the published paper in part or in full for their own work.</p> (Laxmi Bhakta Maharjan) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 11 Jul 2021 14:46:25 +0000 OJS 60 Anthracite as filter Media in Filtration Process <p>This research was carried out to see the performance of anthracite as filter media in filtration process. The study also aimed to compare two filter media in terms of turbidity it removed, head loss development with time and filter run with increase in influent turbidity. Two rapid gravity filter(RGF) columns were prepared having internal dimensions of 11x11x290 cm<sup>3</sup>, one with anthracite and another with sand as filter media. The uniformity coefficient of sand and anthracite of 1.54 and 1.4 were maintained from sieve analysis. Constant Filtration rate of 3m/h was set and other ancillary activities were made same for both filter models. The experiments were repeated seven times with different influent turbidity ranges of 0-25, 25-50, 50-100, 100-150, 150-200, 200-250, 250-300 NTU. Both the Filters were back washed with back washing velocity of 24 m/h, when the terminal head loss of 165.4 cm was obtained. The effluent quality of anthracite obtained was better for all the filter run. The head loss development with time was more for sand filter in all filter runs. The filter run time for sand vary from 150 to 8 hours and for anthracite, it varies from 172 to13 hours from first to seventh filter run.</p> Aashish Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Public Transportation Energy Planning by Network Analysis-A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley <p>This paper is an attempt to find out the required optimum number of vehicles in the Top Ten Routes of Kathmandu Valley which was found from the 163 number of routes of our study on the basis of total travel demand measured in passenger-km per year. The transportation optimization model has been prepared on the Microsoft-Excel Spreadsheet &amp; the optimization of distribution of vehicles is done by using Premium Solver. The results clearly show that the requirement of buses at some routes was less than the available buses plying on the route &amp; the requirement of buses at some routes was more than the available buses plying on the route. The optimization is done on the basis of least cost methods fulfilling the travel demands of flow of passengers at different interval of time in a day at each route of our study. More number of required vehicles in the optimized scenario in the route means more transportation cost, more energy consumption &amp; more environmental emissions than the present scenario &amp; Lesser number of required vehicles in the optimized scenario in the route means lesser transportation cost, lesser energy consumption &amp; lesser environmental emissions than the present scenario.</p> Aprin Bajracharya, Amrit Man Nakarmi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Simulation Studies on Stall Suppression of a NACA0015 Airfoil <p>This study aims to achieve an improved airfoil performance at low Reynolds number, and to determine the optimum position and size of rectangular cross-section burst control plate (BCP) to suppress stall in airfoil. The type of airfoil used in the present study is NACA0015 (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) airfoil with 200 mm of chord (c) length. Here, rectangular cross-section burst control plates with different sizes and at different locations are investigated numerically at the low Reynolds number of 1.6×105. Total of three positions (0.05c, 0.1c and 0.2c from the leading edge of airfoil), and four sizes (with heights 0.3 mm, 0.7mm, 1mm and 1.5 mm, and constant width 4 mm) of rectangular BCPs are simulated in ANSYS Fluent software using Transition SST model. The results indicate that the rectangular cross-section burst control plate is an effective device in the suppression of airfoil stall. For 0.7 mm and 1 mm height BCPs, the stall angle is postponed by 2° for all positions, while for 0.3 mm and 1.5 mm height BCPs, the reduction in sudden fall of lift can be observed but at the cost of reduction in maximum lift coefficient. Among various configurations, the 1mm height BCP located at 0.2c position is found to be most effective in the suppression of stall.</p> Biswash Shrestha, Nawraj Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Economic Analysis for Replacement of 11kV overhead Koteshwor Feeder by Underground Distribution System <p>Cost effective, Aesthetic and Reliable energy supply is the need of any mankind. In this study, economic analysis for replacement of 11 kV overhead distribution feeder by 11kV underground cable is done with reference to Koteshwor Feeder under Baneshwor Distribution and Consumers Service. The reliability indices like SAIDI, SAIFI, ENS etc. is performed by using DigSilentPowerFactory software. The reliability of overhead distribution system is evaluated by using real system data system and similarly, historical IEEE standard data is used for underground distribution system. The reliability indices are compared for both distribution systems. Result shows that interruption in the overhead system is more than underground distribution system, the energy not supplied to the customer by overhead distribution system is also more than underground distribution system. The replacement cost estimation is performed by using Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) unit rate and KEI industries quoted price for NEA underground project. The B/C ratio and Present Worth value for the 25-year period of useful life shows that the replacement of the existing overhead distribution system by underground distribution system is financial suitable and can be payback by revenue save from the Energy Not Supply (ENS) lower value of underground distribution system than overhead distribution system. In order to get the continuous of supply, esthetic and public safety in electricity distribution field one may have to bear initially extra cost to use underground distribution systems which finally get payback. Thus, in case of densely populated city like Kathmandu, underground distribution system is reasonable requirement for continuous supply, esthetic and public safety in electricity distribution filed.</p> Ganesh Kumar Sah, Laxman Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Road Cuts in Slope Stability in Hilly Regions of Nepal <p>This paper reviews the geological and engineering aspects of rural road construction in the hilly areas of Nepal. The general background in geological, climatic and geographical setting is briefly presented in reference to the five-zone Himalayan model for the Nepal Himalayas. Then, alignment selection of rural roads is discussed in the context of the five zone mountain model. The impact of road cross section design and construction on mountain slopes has been studied. The cut width is a key geometric design parameter that has a significant impact on slope stability and volume of excavation. The choice of cut width in cross-section is reviewed and appropriate cut width in cross-section is recommended in terrain slopes to minimize slope failures and volume of excavation.</p> Jagat Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Forecast Models for Urban Dynamics (Kathmandu Valley) <p>The climatic signature of global warming is both local and global. The forcing by increasing greenhouse gases is global, so there is clearly a global component to the climatic signature. Moreover, the damaging impacts of global warming are manifesting themselves around the world in the form of extreme weather events like storms, tornadoes, floods and droughts, all of which have been escalating in frequency and intensity. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that there is high degree of uncertainty surrounding projections of basic climate variables, such as temperature and precipitation. However, numerous authors have explored many of these effects individually and have begun exploring the interactions between climate change-induced impacts in different sectors of urban activities. Therefore, it is safe to say that an attempt to conduct a definitive, comprehensive analysis of all the potential impacts of climate change on the urban structure is premature at present. This communication attempts to examine the trends in maximum monthly urban temperature fluctuations. Analysis reveals increasing trends in urban temperature fluctuations showing effect of Kathmandu industrializations. Forecast models also suggest future scenario with respect to occurrence of extreme temperature. The analysis carried out in this work would be useful for urban planners for sustainable future development, economists and environmentalists etc.</p> <p>Let C be an urban complex (such as a city with its entire infrastructure) and U<sub>C</sub> the urban system associated with C. We shall consider U<sub>C</sub> = U<sub>C </sub>(P<sub>C</sub>, S<sub>C</sub>, E<sub>C</sub>) where, P<sub>C</sub> is the set of physical indicators like population, land, population density and infrastructure like developed and undeveloped areas etc. S<sub>C </sub>is the set of socio-economic factors and E<sub>C </sub>is the set of environmental indicators like pollution and climatic variability (land and sea surface temperature, frequency of hazards like cyclones etc.). All these sets are finite.&nbsp; The urban development can refer to both growth and decline. If we represent the growth of an urban complex by G<sub>C</sub>, then it will be the rate of increase of U<sub>C</sub> with respect to time so that G<sub>C</sub> = .&nbsp; G is thus a system resulting from the complex dynamical interactions of P, S, and E in a certain time interval. Furthermore, P, S, and E which are called generator functions or the complexity of the system U involve finite variables depending on time. On occasions these may be random making the situation complex. The urban growth G can be considered a system itself depending on P, S, and E. Thus, we can consider G = G (P, S, E). In the following we shall study the urban growth G in the perspective of the variability in P and E only so that G = G (P, E). We shall also study the interactions of P and E. The generator function P and E are themselves subsystems of the system G.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>We begin by reviewing the global and local trends of urban growth and then separately study the components P and E of urban growth G. The component P of G corresponds to the physical growth of the urban complex C under consideration i.e. the growth of urban population and area. As a consequence of urban growth, a settlement comprising of small population limited to a small area can be gradually transformed into a town, city and megacity.&nbsp; The process usually gets impetus from the massive population movements from rural to urban areas. The urban growth phenomenon associated with a particular urban complex at first seems to be very local but in the perspective of international migrations, globalization of socio-economic activities and environmental issues like global warming, it simultaneously translates into global one. The component E of G corresponds to the environmental issues associated with an urban complex C. There are a number of issues requiring attention and those which are particularly related to climatic variability. Climatic variability may be natural or arising from natural causes or may be anthropogenic arising due to non-friendly attitude of humans towards environment. There are various strands of the study of the links between urban growth and climatic variability. But we&nbsp; restrict ourselves to the study of the temperature variations associated with urban mega-complexes. It is interesting to study the impact of these temperature variations on the urban population. In this regard we have given stress to the possibility of increase in the number of tropical cyclones which can create hazards in the coastal populations.&nbsp; This is why we have selected the mega-city of Kathmandu to study as a test case.</p> <p>&nbsp;The following points are sufficient to gauge the importance of our selection.&nbsp;</p> <ol> <li>As regards population and population density Kathmandu is among one of the top of the world</li> <li>It has a very high population growth rate</li> <li>Though it is considered to be a planned city but problems related to its unplanned part which consists of slums seems to overwhelm those of the planned part.</li> <li>It is considered a city having a moderate climate as compared to the other parts of the country. But now spells of intense heat can be easily observed in the records of past few decades.&nbsp;&nbsp;</li> <li>It is the economic hub of Nepal as it is Kingdom of Nepal.</li> </ol> <p>The situation arising from the very high population growth rate and the increasing number of Kathmandu is clearly hazardous and it will be no exaggeration if we consider high level of population concentration pollution itself. We are of the opinion that the enhanced level of anthropogenic activities is increasing the environmental burden. So we shall stress upon (d) as well and will see that how the extreme temperatures are behaving and whether these extremes are under the influence of human activities or not.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In the perspective of Kathmandu the urban growth G will be a system G = G (P, S, E) with P, S and E as its subsystems where P = P (p (t), A (t)) and E = E (T<sub>1</sub> (t), T<sub>ss</sub> (t)), p, A, T<sub>l</sub>, T<sub>ss</sub> and t&nbsp; represent the population, area, land temperature, sea surface temperature and time&nbsp; respectively. The subsystem P can further be considered asP = P<sub>s</sub>(p (t), A (t)) + P<sub>us</sub> (p (t), A (t)) where P<sub>s</sub> and P<sub>us</sub> are the settled and unsettled parts respectively of an urban complex. P and E and in turn G can be considered as physical processes. The subsystem S because of its prime importance has worth for a separate study and will be considered somewhere else.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Laxman Basnet Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Grid Tied Solar Rooftop System: A Case Study on Stars Homes, Sitapaila, Nepal <p>Most of the nation demand is from the residential sector. Thus, the objective of this paper is to supply the required energy from the same demand point from the solar PV installed in the residential sector that is technically feasible for the given sector. The survey is conveyed on Star Homes(Residential Sector) situated at Sitapaila, Kathmandu. The total potential for installation of PV on useable areas of the rooftop of Stars Homes is calculated to be 253.2 kWp. For the comparative analysis in this paper, the isolated PV system is designed/ analysed using PV-SYST and the grid tied PV including/excluding battery is designed/analysed using SAM(System Advisory Model) software for one of the Type 1 home with annual demand of 2208 kWh. In grid interactive PV system with battery, the peak shaving and backup power during outage is facilitated and also the excess energy is supplied to the grid as well.Theenergy generated from the designed system for type I system with 3.9 kWp grid tied system is 6483 kWh and with 3.9 kWp grid interactive system with battery size of 5.2kWh Lithium Ion is 6454 kWh annually. Similarly, energy generated from designed system of standalone with 1.62 kWp PV and battery size26V, 322Ah system is 3066.6 kWhannually out of which 795kWh is lost annually due to full battery charged conditions. The LCOE considering 25 years life time with 7.5 % loan interest for 15 years for type I with standalone system is 21 cents/kWh, grid tied PV system is 4.94 cents/kWh and with grid tied PV battery system is 6.73 cents/kWh. The peak shaving obtained from the grid tied with battery system compared to the grid tied system is 0.8 kW. The net saving on electricity bill for grid tied system is 516$ and for grid tied system with battery is 526$ annually considering net metering.</p> Milana Prajapat, Bharat RajPahar, Shree Raj Shakya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Maximum Network Flow Algorithms <p>The aim of the maximum network flow problem is to push as much flow as possible between two special vertices, the source and the sink satisfying the capacity constraints. For the solution of the maximum flow problem, there exists a number of algorithms. The existing algorithms can be divided into two families. First, augmenting path algorithms that satisfy the conservation constraints at intermediate vertices and the second preflow push relabel algorithms that violates the conservation constraints at the intermediate vertices resulting incoming flow more than outgoing flow.In this paper, we study different algorithms that determine the maximum flow in the static and dynamic networks.</p> Mohan Chandra Adhikari, Umila Pyakurel Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Simulation of Flow Pattern in Series of Impermeable Groynes in Fixed Bed <p>This paper presents a numerical simulation of recirculating flow patterns in groyne fields. Moreover, it entails the concept determination of proper spacing of vertical unsubmerged and impermeable groynesin seriesto control the bank erosion. Flow pattern between the groynes varies along their space. The flow in groyne field may significantly affect the flow change, bed change, bank erosion and condition of habitat. In this regard, an assessment of flow along the space of groynes will yield important data needed to diversify the object of groyne installation. So, knowledge about determination of the proper spacing of groynes in groyne field is important. Space of vertical groynes was set from 1.5 to 10 times the length of groynes. The velocity field between groynes was simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model Nays 2D. Simulated velocity field was compared with existing experimentaldata for the same parameter, which agreed satisfactorily. Based on simulated results,the optimal spacing of vertical groynes to control the bank erosion was recommended.</p> Mukesh Raj Kafle Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Revealed Preference Analysis for Mode Choice in Graduate Level Engineering Students of Kathmandu Valley <p>Proper planning which is the key element in ensuring infrastructure efficiency, relies on demand analysis. Among the various trips under the domain of demand analysis educational trips occupy a significant part and hence the knowledge about patterns and attitudes of these trips is important to policymakers and infrastructure planners. The current study analyzes the mode choice of graduate-level engineering students in Kathmandu valley where the current transportation system is facing multiple problems thus requiring a proper planning intervention. This study reveals the educational mode preference among the students of engineering colleges. The reveal preference survey was conducted at the various engineering colleges in Kathmandu valley. The study concludes that the travel distance, number of siblings, and vehicle ownership effects the selection of personal modes of transport and distance effects the selection of public transportation, walking option being base criteria for both the cases. It is recommended that existing walking conditions should be improved within the educational zones while public transport which are preferred options for long journeys be designed considering movement between zones.</p> Piyush Chataut, Pradeep Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Thu, 08 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Urban Energy Scenario of Household Sector in Bhaktapur Municipality for Sustainable Energy Development <p>This study aims to analyse energy scenarios of Bhaktapur Municipality through primary data survey of 165 houses as a function of household's characteristics. Three scenarios are considered business-as-usual (BAU), Sustainable Energy scenario (SED) and Accelerated Growth Scenario (AGS). BAU, SED and AGS show an expected energy growth at annual rates of4.08%, 3.71% and 4.01%; with economic growth of 4.6%, 7.0% and 9.2% respectively. Whereas, the electricity consumption per household in the SEDand AGS are 3,840KWh and 4,698KWh respectively, lies in tier-5 as per SDG. Fuel imported cost NRs. 471 million and NRs. 523 million can be saved in SED and AGS Scenarios respectively as compare to BAU scenario. Overall, under all three scenarios, it was found that total GHG emission in 2018 was 7.59 kilotons to nil in 2030 for SED and AGS.Furthermore,NPV value in AGS and SED scenarios are in negative value which means both scenarios is economically viable.</p> Raj Kumar K.C., Amrit Man Nakarmi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emission From Aircrafts and Ground Service Equipment at Tribhuvan International Airport of Nepal <p>This paper highlights the trend of carbon dioxide emission and its reduction measure at Tribhuvan International Airport, which is the only international airport of Nepal. The landing and take-off (LTO) cycle of three-year (2016 to 2018) data were gathered from Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal (CAAN) for all types of aircrafts and fuel consumption data of each ground service equipment (GSE) were collected from Nepal Airlines Corporation (NAC).&nbsp; With the help of LTO emission factors published by different institutions and collected data, the emission was calculated and overall (international, domestic, helicopters and GSE) CO₂ emission in the year 2016, 2017 and 2018 was found to be 56.55, 65.66 and 71.89 Kilotonnes respectively. Upon validation of calculated emission the discrepancy of 2.59% was found. The CO₂ emission was forecasted up-to 2030 considering two scenarios namely, time series analysis and regression analysis. Lastly, for the CO₂ reduction from GSE the scenario; Electrical GSE and Construction of Aerobridge was studied and from which it was found that the CO₂ will be reduced by 80% if implemented.</p> Ramesh Acharya, Nawaraj Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Energy Scenario of Three Wheeler Electric and Gasoline Vehicle in Hetauda <p>The global shifting away from petroleum fuels and towards more renewable energy sources has resulted in a significant progress in favor of vehicle electrification. The uptake of electric vehicle in the existing fleet of vehicles has positive impacts in the reduction of emissions and reduces the carbon footprints by moving in to greener transport. Nepal is a hydropower resource rich developing country; it can use its clean source of hydroelectricity for public transport electrification. Use of hydroelectricity for transport electrification can help to reduce the dependence on petroleum fuels with significant environmental benefits. This study aims to analyse energy scenarios of Hetauda through primary data survey of 4086 three wheeler as 1874 and 2212 as gasoline and electric respectively. Three scenarios are considered business-as-usual (BAU), ETRM 100 (100% electric tempo replacement)and ETRM 75 (75% electric tempo replacement). Energy demand of Hetauda is 230.4TJ and will be increased to 333.5TJ for the accounting year 2018 and 2035 respectively.</p> Sabina Uprety, Ram Chandra Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Public Transportation Optimization on Godawari to Budanilkantha Route Via Introduction Of Bus Rapid Transit <p>Kathmandu is Rapidly growing city where the Crisis due to centralization is foreseen in Transportation sector due to lack of proper Planning and Vision prior of establishing settlement. The Current status of Transportation system in Kathmandu is quite alarming in absence of well-organized Public Transportation system. The growth of Vehicles and simultaneously lack of improvements of existing facilities and traffic management have resulted in unorganized improvement of Traffic thereby increasing congestion, accidents and decrease in vehicle speed affecting road capacity. So using managed Scientific system to decrease jam causing parameters with most planned system and replacing the existing Systems by modern facilities, the problem can be reduced. Introduction of Bus rapid transit by gradual replacement of old transportation systems by providing a bus lane can be promising remedial measure to optimize public transportation system in Kathmandu valley</p> Sandip Acharya, Sagar Upreti, Sandeep Jha, Ananda Marasani, Suyog Kattel, Hemant Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Riesz Potential and Fractional Maximal Function <p>In this article, we begin with Riesz potential. We then discuss some properties of the Riesz potential. Finally we discuss a relation of&nbsp; Riesz Potential with fractional maximal function in the sense that fractional maximal function can be controlled by Riesz potential and the fractional&nbsp; maximal function maps&nbsp; the space <em>L<sup>p</sup></em> to <em>L<sup>q</sup></em> whenever the Riesz potential does.</p> Santosh Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Parametric Analysis of Piled Raft Foundation System Using Finite Element Approach <p class="Normal2"><span style="color: windowtext;">To accommodate the shear requirement and settlement requirement of high rise construction, the concept of piled-raft foundation has been developed. This research deals with successive analysis of parameters of piled-raft foundation system using PLAXIS-2D as a FEM tool. Plain strain analysis of piled raft foundation system has been conducted out by successive fixing up of parameters. For the analysis two cases has been studied for piled-raft lying on silty soil deposit and on clayey deposit with respect to uniform static loading from superstructure. The result of successive variation of parameters showed that variation has limiting effect on stress and displacement behavior. The analysis is also performed for raft of different relative stiffness and pile of different relative compressibility and load sharing between plain strain pile and raft has been analyzed.</span></p> Santosh Niraula, Indra Prasad Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Labor Productivity of Brick Masonry Work in Building Construction in Kathmandu Valley <p>Construction labor productivity is the most determinant of success of any construction project. Labor is considered as more variable and unpredictable cost component for the successful accomplishment of construction projects. The main aim of this research is to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict the production rate for brick masonry work by assessing the various factor affecting labor productivity. Out of forty-four factors selected from a literature review, the top thirteen factors were selected for model development after the questionnaire survey and ranking them based on Relative Importance Index (RII). The model was developed in Neurosolution version using the various input data set collected from active construction site of brick masonry. 65% of data set were used for training, 20 % of data set were used for cross-validation and remaining 15 % of data set were used for testing. The error between actual productivity and estimated productivity was computed using Mean Square Error (MSE) which was 0.019 which verified that the estimated production rate was within an acceptable range. After the successful testing of model, a sensitivity analysis was performed to analyze the order of most influencing factors affecting labor productivity. The developed ANN model can be used for estimating the labor productivity of brick masonry work for any building construction project by incorporating the influence of selected parameters or factors.</p> Nirmal Lawaju, Nabin Parajuli, Santosh Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Relationship between Road Roughness and Pavement Surface Condition <p>Pavement evaluation is the most significant procedure to minimize the degradation of the pavement both functionally and structurally. Proper evaluation of pavement is hence required to prolong the life year of the pavement, which thus needs to be addressed in the policy level. By this, the development of genuine indices are to be formulated and used for the evaluation. In context of evaluating the pavement indices for measuring the pavement roughness, International Roughness Index (IRI) is used, whereas for calculating the surface distress, indices as such Surface Distress Index (SDI) and Pavement Condition Index (PCI) are used. Past evaluating schemes used by Department of Roads (DOR) were limited to IRI for evaluating the pavement roughness and SDI for measuring the surface distress, which has least variability in categorizing the pavement according to the deformation. Apart from these, PCI which has wide range of categories for evaluating pavement, is not seen in practice in Nepal due to its cumbersome field work and calculations. In this paper the relationship is developed relating PCI with IRI and SDI using regression analysis by using Microsoft excel. In the other words, the pavement roughness index is compared with the surface distress indices. In 2017, 23.6Km of feeder roads in various locations of Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts were taken for this study which comprised of 236 sample data, each segmented to 100m. For this, IRI was sourced as secondary data, obtained from Highway Maintenance and Information System (HMIS) unit, Kathmandu, whereas, PCI and SDI were calculated from the field data obtained from the survey carried out in those sections manually. Then after, among 236 samples, 189 samples were taken for the relationship development which was then validated using 47 remaining samples. Furthermore, in the year, 2019 additional 3 Km of data was taken for validating the obtained relationships. It was done to improve the numerical predictions of data with such variation and thus satisfactory relationships were developed among the indices discussed in this study. The regression relationships between the two indices, IRI-PCI and IRI-SDI were thus significantly obtained. It has been found that the R² value for these relationships developed were statistically significant with 5% level of significance. The R² value for all the relationships showed that these relationships could be used for predicting the indices which would help in evaluating the pavement.</p> Satkar Shrestha, Rajesh Khadka Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Deterministic and Probabilistic Analysis of Dasdhunga Soil Slope along Narayangarh-Mugling Road Section <p class="Normal2" style="margin: 4.0pt 0in 4.0pt 0in;"><span style="color: windowtext;">Instability of slopes is usually governed by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The inherent variability of parameters make the problem probabilistic rather than a deterministic one. This research deals with evaluation of stability of slopes with the calculation of the factor of safety of Dasdhunga soil slope along Narayangarh- Mugling road section under different rainfall conditions through the use of coupled finite element and limit equilibrium method in GeoStudio and the determination of probability of failure by sliding, modeled as infinite slopes by using Monte Carlo simulation in R-Studio. Mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum values of the parameters like- friction angle, cohesion and unit weight were computed from eight samples of the slope. The pore water pressure developed and its corresponding statistical data for different rainfall conditions were computed from FEM based SEEP/W simulation. The above parameters are assumed to follow truncated normal probability distribution function and the geometric parameters like height and slope angle are regarded as constant parameters. It was observed that the safety factors for theslopeis low in high intensity-low duration rainfalls and the probability of failure is high. The tendency to fail increases as the return period of rainfall increases and viceversa. Sensitivity analysis performed in both deterministic and probabilistic methods showed that friction angle is the most sensitive.</span></p> Saurav Shrestha, Indra Prasad Acharya, Ranjan Kumar Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Energy Security Assessment of Nepal for the Period 2005-2030 <p>Energy is an important driver of all economic activities and it is necessary for the production of goods and the provision of services. Thus, a secure supply of energy to meet national demand on both the short term and long term is important for any country. As a net importer of petroleum products from only one supplier country of petroleum products (i.e. India), supply and demand gap of energy, frequent price fluctuations of petroleum products and poor diversification of primary energy supply, policies regarding energy security should be developed for Nepal.&nbsp; This study aims to assess the energy security index of Nepal so as to provide a picture of the historical performance of the country in terms of energy security for the past years 2005-2015 and in the future 2016-2030 under different scenarios. A set of 24 energy security indicators were selected based on literature review and relevant to national energy policies and grouped under 5 dimensions which are availability, affordability, accessibility, efficiency and acceptability. It can be seen that energy security for Nepal has been following a declining trade since 2005/06 to 2015/16, the causes of which could be attributed to the increase in energy consumption, increase in imports of petroleum products, increase in electricity deficit from the year 2008/09, increase in price of petroleum products. However, the value of energy security index is on the higher side (near to 10) which is mainly due to the fact that energy supply of Nepal is mostly dependent on traditional sources which is domestically supplied. There is a need to incorporate energy security in the national energy policy of Nepal with more emphasis on diversification of primary energy sources (other than traditional resources), reduction on import dependency especially on fossil fuel resources, strategic fuel reserves, diversification of energy resources uses in different energy consumption sectors like transport, industries, increase in energy supply from renewable energy sources, etc.</p> Shova Darlamee, Tri Ratna Bajracharya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Computational and Experimental Study of the Effect of Solidity and Aspect Ratio of a Helical Turbine for Energy Generation in a Model Gravitational Water Vortex Power Plant <p>Gravitational Water Vortex power plant is a relatively new plant used to generate hydropower from low head rivers and canals. There has been an increase in research in the field of runner design and canal design for GWVPPs throughout the world. As no definite equations are formulated in case of runners used in a GWVPP, they are currently produced by hit and trial method. This research focuses on studying about the use of a pure reaction turbine, Gorlov turbine, to generate power from a GWVPP. ANSYS Fluent was used to perform computational study while the experimental study was done using helical turbine blades fabricated using a 3-D printer. The energy generated is very low compared to the impulse turbines. Both the computational and experimental study shows that when increasing the aspect ratio of the turbine but keeping the solidity same, the efficiency is increased significantly. However, the studies also show that on increasing the solidity, the efficiency seems to decrease. All the turbines used submerged to 3 different depts and all the results show that increasing the submergence increased the efficiency.</p> Shubhash Joshi, Ajay Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change Projection in Kathmandu Valley using the CLUE-S Model <p>In the past few decades the urbanization pattern of the Kathmandu valley has rapidly increased and the process was sensed through the increase in the urban facilities, population growth, and changed LULC pattern. The historical LULC change was analyzed using the generated map and the future scenario was found through the CLUE-S LULC change model and processed in GIS environment. Five scenarios and nine driving forces were considered for the sensitivity and future analysis of the model. Based on the evaluation of the historical maps and the conservation matrix, the built-up area is found to be increased nearby by 5% and the agricultural area decreased by 6.5% during 2010 to 2018. It is concluded that the normal LULC conservation scenario provides more reliable information for the future projection. The simulation result highlights that nearly 4 km<sup>2</sup> of fertile and open area will be converted to built-up areas due to the rapid urbanization per decade. This increase in urbanization process leads to more challenges in urban environment management in future.</p> Suraj Lamichhane, Narendra Man Shakya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Q-Analogue of Holder’s and Minkowski’s Integral Inequalities on Finite Intervals and Generalization <p>In recent years, the topic on Holder’s and Minkowski’s inequalities has been studied by several researchers and variety of new results has been developed on their variants, extensions and generalizations. In this paper we give the extension to the generalized q- Holder’s integral inequality and by using it we also establish the generalization on q- Minkowski’s integral inequality on the finite interval [a, b]</p> Suresh Bhatta, Chet Raj Bhatta Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Mechanical Properties of TMT Bars Manufactured in Nepal <p>Three grades of deformed steel bar are presently available in Nepal for concrete reinforcement. The deformed bars are graded according to their specified yield strength. These are Fe415, Fe500 and Fe500D. CTD bars of grade more than Fe415 are scarcely available in market. However, TMT bars of Fe500 grade are easily available in market. This study is undertaken to evaluate the variability of the mechanical properties of reinforcing steel granted with NS Mark and to analyze the degree to which these rolling mills satisfy the minimum requirements established by product national standard NS:191. The data obtained from test results are statistically analyzed to evaluate the variability in the mechanical properties of TMT bars. For the tested mechanical properties, the parameters evaluated for each bar size, and grade at confidence level at 95 % are mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, minimum, maximum, skewness. The samples were collected from NBSM reference sample store room of FY 2073-74 and FY 2074-75. These samples were from nineteen industries and twenty-two different brands. Total 745 numbers of TMT bars of grade Fe500 and Fe500D were tested at NBSM mechanical testing laboratory. The mechanical properties determined from the tested samples are: mass per meter run, yield stress, tensile stress, percentage elongation, UTS/YS ratio, total elongation at maximum force, and bond value.The tested data and obtained statistics of different mechanical properties for the separate and combined data takes on an important practical significance and may be used in calibrating local specifications and designs.</p> Umesh Yadav, Bhakta Bahadur Ale Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial Neural Network Based Approach for Voltage Stability Analysis of for Sustained Operation of Power System <p>For reliable and secure power system, the stability analysis is recognized as an important problem. V<em>oltage stability </em>is the capacity of a power system to maintain steady acceptable voltages at all buses in the system. Voltage stability index (VSI) evaluation for a situation of power system can act as an accurate and fast indicator of the proximity of the system to voltage instability. Recently there has been considerable interest in intelligent methods based on artificial neural network (ANN), fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm to voltage stability assessment problem. ANN, with the ability to provide non-linear input/output mapping, parallel processing, learning and generalization have the potential to make them ideally suited for estimating VSI’s of a power system without solving the governing power system equations. This paper is to purpose an alternative method using ANN for finding the closeness of system operating point to voltage collapse that would be claimed to have better computational speed, accuracy, efficiency and reliability. Voltage Stability Analysis (VSA) using VSI is performed for different alternate loading strategies of power network building ANN models for every different scenario. The outcome found working satisfactorily in analyzing voltage stability problem, basically in ranking the network buses according vulnerability order.</p> Yuba Raj Adhikari, Rishi Kumar Barnawal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000