Journal of APF Command and Staff College <p>Official Journal of the APF Command and Staff College, Kathmandu, Nepal. Affiliated to Tribhuvan University, Nepal.</p> APF Command and Staff College en-US Journal of APF Command and Staff College 2616-0242 Editorial Vol.4(1) <p>Not available.</p> Manoj Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Manoj Thapa 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34131 Understanding Intelligence Studies <p>This paper contributes to the understanding of varieties of concept of intelligence and its application in broad academic and non-academic fields. This paper is an attempt to show that human’s intelligence is a very important construct that is constantly being used to apply skills, knowledge and ideas in the fields of social, cultural, political, religious, spiritual, crisis, war and peace environment. The study of Intelligence teaches about the ways to get knowledge to become capable and to further enable individual, groups, and institutions to solve the problems for maintaining sustainability. The term Intelligence has a wide application and is used from micro to the macro level encompassing person, group, and the system. Furthermore, this construct is widely accepted and applied in wider area of health to military intelligence and also used in understanding emotional, cultural, and spiritual intelligence. Thus, the author considers that the study of various forms of intelligence could be an important contribution for the academic as well as the applied worlds.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Raj Kunwar 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 1 27 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34133 Nepal-China-India Relation: A Geostrategic Perspectives <p>&nbsp; This paper is an attempt to trace out the Nepal ‘s China-India relation in the context of dynamic changes of powerful nations of the world as well as emerging regional countries. Existing international relation of Nepal is needed tactic diplomacy to take maximum economic and technological benefits from global major powerful countries and emerging regional countries. The existing foreign relation of Nepal and future adaptive strategies have been discussed using qualitative approach. By reviewing and synthesizing ongoing initiations of present government at the global, regional and national level, paper drew the conclusion to maintain balance relation between and among the north -south two neighbors including super power of the world. Paper further emphasized to adopt among equals foreign relation strategy to take benefits from the emerging powerful countries in the Asian region.</p> Kabi Prasad Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Kabi Prasad Pokhrel 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 28 40 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34134 Governance for Human Security: Response to COVID-19 Pandemic in Morang District, Nepal <p>&nbsp;This study is focused to probe the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic and human security-oriented response in Nepal. Particularly Morang district is purposefully selected as the area of study. Qualitative meta-analysis and semi-structured telephone interview were the methods utilized for the qualitative data collection. The response mechanism adopted can be made further influential through minor adjustments as public always look forward to receiving extra effective responses during emergencies. Local levels have been doing their best with limited resources, where some are capable of mobilizing additional resources. Good practices relating to economic decision-making and implementation by all three levels of governments can amplify the vibes of responses posing positivity in the fighters at the frontline during the fight against non-traditional adversary such as COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Netra Bahadur Karki Copyright (c) 2021 Netra Bahadur Karki 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 41 63 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34135 Examination of Household Evacuation Influencing Factors In Flood Disaster: A Case Study of Saptari Flood in Nepal <p>Disaster, a serious disruption in functioning of society whether by natural or manmade cause can happen anywhere. Devastating seismic, hurricane, flood, drought and fire are major disaster. Mitigating disaster risk, prompt rescue and timely evacuation decision during such disaster can prevent loss of lives and properties. The evacuation decision is the choice of people to stay away from the area of risk. The study analyzes the people’s perception of evacuation decisions in a flood disaster in the Saptari district of Nepal affected by Koshi River and other tributaries of it as a Disaster Risk Management. According to United Nations (2016), Management refers to “the organization, planning and applications of measure preparing for, responding to and recovering form disasters”. From the flood-affected site, 246 people were randomly selected for this study and examined the factors influencing evacuation decision-making. The study analyzes the past experiences of the people and their perception. The study has explored that Gender, Destination of evacuation, warning condition, reasons for not evacuating, education, age, proximity to the River from residence, land ownership, the capacity of the people are the factors examined and found no any association with the people’s decision on evacuation during the flood disaster in affected areas in Saptari district. These findings help the student, Disaster Risk Reduction field, Government policy makers and different actors to minimize the loss of lives and properties. The study also recommends for future research on victim’s evacuation decision-making capability in different flood-prone area of Nepal.</p> Praja Bhakta Shrestha Gangadhar Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Praja Bhakta Shrestha, Gangadhar Chaudhary 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 64 76 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34137 Dichotomies in Understanding of Peace in Nepal <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;In Nepal, the decade long armed conflict between 1996 and 2006 has become the buzz word in most social sciences literatures. Since 2007, ‘peace’ has emerged as essential component of the academic courses and training manuals. Against this backdrop, this paper focuses on the understanding of “Peace” in local context of Nepal. This paper compares the various definitions of peace from western and eastern intellectual perspectives, examines the literatures on how they depict Nepal’s peace process, and includes a brief history of peace studies as discipline in Nepal. Methodologically, this is a reflection based paper evolved from qualitative eclectic approach. The researcher has used axial coding and domain analysis. This paper concludes that the epistemological roots of conflict and peace studies are under-researched in Nepali context. The influence of Maoist armed conflict is very dominant in peace studies literatures which have missed to produce the comparative-historic indigenous writings on Nepal.</p> Rajib Timalsina Copyright (c) 2021 Rajib Timalsina 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 77 90 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34138 Factors Affecting National Interests in the Aftermath of Post 1990 Armed Conflict in Nepal <p>&nbsp;National Interest to a particular country is often shaped and prioritized by various variables including independence, distinctiveness, territorial integrity and socio-cultural determinants. Nepal’s national interest depends on thesecurity vision in the aftermath of violent conflict, development initiatives based on utilization of available natural resources and state policies for assuring inclusiveness, social cohesion and justice. Nepal experienced a ten years long armed conflict since 1996 to 2006 that affected a range of social, political and economic dimensions along with security apparatus of the country. Though the fundamental attributes of national interest such as territorial and political sovereignty and the core values remain constant, security policy and strategies are found to be evolving in the nascent democracy often shaped by the ability to identify security threats. With the aim of developing a causal relationship between national interest and security vision, security policy, identification of security threats, quantitative analysis is conducted by adopting SPSS and Karl Pearson’s Correlation tools. Moreover, Nepal’s new security policy has been analyzed in the aftermath of violent conflict. This paper draws the conclusion that higher the ability of political leaders to identify the security vision, the achievement of national interest is higher. This also depicts if security vision is closely linked with the political values the promotion of national interest is high. Setting the context on political change and the security strategy, it is admitted that new form of government induces additional security concern which if not identified may challenge the means of ensuring national security.</p> Pitambar Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Pitambar Bhandari 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 91 105 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34139 Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Kavre District, Nepal <p>&nbsp;This study aims to assist the impact of climate change on agriculture in Banepa municipality, as a case study to the local climatic trends and its impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation. The study was conducted among the household of ward no. one to eleven except two and six in the municipality. A questionnaire survey, field observation, in-depth interview, and focus group discussion, methods were adopted for the information collection, cross-validation with verification, and using the secondary source of the information. Monthly precipitation and monthly minimum and maximum air temperatures data of Dhulikhel station were used to study their annual and seasonal trends.Agriculture is one of the vulnerable sectors of the impact of climate change. Trend analysis of temperature and precipitation over 27 years indicates that this region is facing various weather variability. The annual mean of the minimum temperature was showing the highest (13.530C) in 2014 and the lowest (7.860C) in 2001. The trend analysis shows that the annual average minimum temperature has also been increasing per year. Drought, delay in monsoon, hailstorm,and heavy rainfall are major challenges in agriculture.The study concluded that climate change affected the negative impact on agriculture in the Banepa Municipality of Kavre. The existing local and institutional strategies are not sufficient and sustainable to cope with climatic vagaries. There is a proactive need for climate change adaptation measures to address the negative impact of climate change in agriculture to sustain the food and nutrition security in the community through institutional support and long-term agricultural policy and strategic plan.</p> Mira Giri Dhundi Raj Dahal Copyright (c) 2021 Mira Giri, Dhundi Raj Dahal 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 106 119 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34141 Role of Armed Police Force, Nepal to Protect and Promotion of Human Rights <p>&nbsp;The present article reveals the role and policy of Armed Police Force Nepal in safeguarding human rights. One of the primary missions of the APF Nepal is to protect the citizens from criminal activity and criminal elements and to maintain public order. This duty includes protecting the rights of every citizen. Armed forces have the duty to protect the individual human rights of every person they encounter. This is an affirmative duty, meaning the police services cannot knowingly ignore or intentionally fail to act when a human rights violation is observed. The Armed Police Force has mandated tasks related to protection, promotion, respect and fulfillment of human rights from various aspects. The research has reached in conclusion: Human rights are moral principles or norms that describe certain standards of human behavior and are regularly protected as a legal right in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as inalienable, universal and indivisible fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being. To achieve this objective APF Nepal has adopted zero tolerance in Human Rights violations and following national and international human rights instrument that have been adopted by Nepal.</p> Surya Prasad Timilsena Copyright (c) 2021 Surya Prasad Timilsena 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 120 130 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34143 Mountain Disasters and Rescue Mechanism in Nepal <p>&nbsp;Geographically, Nepal is divided into three regions, namely; the Terai, the hills, and the mountains. Nepal is prone to many types of disasters due to the various causes and one of the main causes is its geographic setting. Some disasters and hazards are prevalent to all over the country, some are area specific. Mountain and high altitude hazards are unique in nature and have distinct features and they pose several challenges for the rescue and relief operations. Disasters in mountain regions of Nepal have multi-dimensional effects on human life, property and the environment. The paper analyzes the mountain disasters, their nature and their impacts. It also focuses on the institutional as well as legal arrangements regarding disaster rescue. For this purpose, a qualitative descriptive and analytical method is applied to achieve the desired objectives of the study. This paper depends upon the secondary source of data available in several works of literature; journal articles, books, news articles, government reports, and websites. The paper finds that the frequencies of mountain disasters are low in comparison to other parts of Nepal, but they are diverse and complex. There are institutional and legal mechanisms for disaster risk reduction, but they are not adequate to respond mountain disasters effectively. All security agencies along with private sectors involving in mountain search and rescue operations do not have sufficient mountain-specific rescue units, training, and logistics.</p> Ramesh Vikram Shahi Copyright (c) 2021 Ramesh Vikram Shahi 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 131 151 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34144 Issues in Border Security of Nepal <p>&nbsp;Cross border is a major threat to the internal and external security of Nepal. To maintain peace and security and neutralize illicit trade, smuggling, and cross-border crimes, the Government of Nepal has deployed Security forces at the border. The Indo-Nepal border comparatively is challenging due to its open border status. This paper analyses the field issues faced by security personnel at border areas of Nepal. The study uses both primary and secondary data for analysis and interpretation. The findings show geographical problems, socio-economic similarities, operational problems, border laws, values, and ethics. These issues are faced by security forces daily. The study outcome suggests a need for a collaborative approach of stakeholders on strengthening border security.</p> Yukesh Upreti Copyright (c) 2021 Yukesh Upreti 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 152 160 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34145 Intelligence in the National Security Enterprise: An Introduction: By Roger Z. George <p>Not available.</p> Chiranjibi Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Chiranjibi Bhandari 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 161 166 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34147 Every Vote Counts: The Story of India’s Elections: By Navin Chawla <p>Not Available.</p> Raksha Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Raksha Pandey 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 4 1 167 170 10.3126/japfcsc.v4i1.34148