Journal of APF Command and Staff College https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC <p>Official Journal of the APF Command and Staff College, Kathmandu, Nepal. Affiliated to Tribhuvan University, Nepal.</p> APF Command and Staff College en-US Journal of APF Command and Staff College 2616-0242 Understanding the Triple Helix Model and Capitalization of Knowledge https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57573 <p>This paper is a preliminary study of the Triple Helix (TH) Model that focuses on understanding the model from different perspectives following secondary research. The methodology used in this study is exploratory and descriptive in nature. Narrative review of previous literatures has been followed to understand the Triple Helix Model. Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdorff propounded a theory known as Triple Helix in connection with industry, university and government which has become a research hub. The Triple Helix is a spiral model of innovation that captures multiple reciprocal relationships at different points in the process of knowledge capitalization. Therefore, this is going to be popular not only in developed countries but also gradually becoming popular in developing countries. The question comes what is Triple Helix Model? What does the model reflects in the academia? The objective of this study is to understand Triple Helix Model on one side and the evolution of this model including its features on the other. This study examines how the Triple Helix Model has been popularized in the field of academia, industry, and government by focusing on knowledge, innovation, and entrepreneurship through education. This paper includes introduction, methodology, evolution of the Triple Helix Model, routes of the Triple Helix, knowledge production, knowledge and technology transfer, knowledge industries, capitalization of knowledge and innovation, the network society, collaboration, Triple Helix and academia, teaching, learning, and future universities. The Triple Helix Model is a neo-evolutionary model of possible synergies between functions such as wealth creation, knowledge production and government regulations, which are the three helixes.</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Nimesh Ulak Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 1 34 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57573 International Migration in Nepal: Rates, Drivers and Impacts https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57582 <p>Migration is the process of change in usual place of residence which is taking place both as internal and international having diverse short-term and long-term outcomes. This paper explores these outcomes by analyzing mainly the international migration rates and drivers in Nepal. Using the secondary sources of data, this paper first gives an account on how migration rate is calculated which is a rigorous process and for which authentic data are needed by utilizing the verified sources of data. The paper then highlights the social, demographic, economic, environmental and political drivers of migration. Some drivers primarily influence migration decision-making in the areas of origin while others influence them to pursue for betterment of life. Some more push and pull factors, mainly the disasters and conflicts as 'push' and growing student migration as 'pull' have also drawn a larger and growing attention of policy makers. Nepal being one of the labour sending countries to Malaysia and gulf countries makes its almost one-third of the economy through remittance. Problems related to livelihood and quest for life have been the usual phenomena which are analyzed in this article as drivers. The paper concludes that there is no association between the types of migration drivers and their impacts. Whatever the drivers are, Nepali people migrate to access improved economic and employment opportunities.</p> Padma Prasad Khatiwada Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 35 52 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57582 Demographic Change and Border Security Governance of Nepal: An Analysis of Perceptions https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57585 <p>Demographic changes in Nepal have significant implications for national security, particularly border security. The shifting populations, internal migration from rural to urban areas, and cross-border movements have given rise to various challenges like illegal border crossings, human trafficking, smuggling, and other activities that jeopardize security and stability. Despite several efforts, border security continues to be a pressing issue, and there is a lack of understanding of how locallevel elected representatives perceive the implications of demographic change on border security. This research primarily aims to analyze the perception of threat among locally elected representatives concerning the root causes of demographic change at their respective local levels. It also seeks to examine their perception of how demographic change affects border security governance and identify the security threats perceived due to such changes. Moreover, the study aims to determine the perceived role of responsible authorities or agencies in mitigating the security risks associated with demographic change. To achieve these objectives, the research follows an analytical approach, gathering perceptions from elected representatives of various local governments. It uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze their views on border security issues arising from changing demographics in Nepal. The focus areas are the Nepalese territories connected to neighboring countries China and India. The primary data source for the research is local-level government representatives, and the analysis involves thematic exploration of qualitative interviews and quantitative examination of population trends. However, it's important to note that the findings may have limited generalizability, as they are based solely on the perceptions of elected representatives. The study does not include perspectives from security forces or other agencies. The selected areas for the study include regions in Nepal experiencing frequent population decrease, such as Bhotekoshi rural municipality and Jugal rural municipality of Sindhupalchowk district, as well as areas with frequent population increase, including Rajdevi Municipality and Gaur Municipality of Rautahat, Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City of Banke, and Bhajani Municipality and Dhangadhi Sub-Metropolitan City of Kailali District. The study sheds light on the main drivers of demographic change, such as the pursuit of better health, education, employment, and quality of life, and their long-term impact on national and border security. By engaging local-level elected representatives and employing an analytical approach, this research aims to fill the existing research gap and provide valuable information to policymakers for effectively addressing border security challenges arising from demographic change in Nepal.</p> Rudra Prasad Dhungel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 53 74 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57585 Important Factors Applicable in Bilateral Relationships and Conflict Resolution https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57586 <p>Important factors applicable in bilateral relationships and conflict resolution are strategies, models, theories, and policies. In simple term, strategy is a long-term plan intended to achieve. An example to follow or imitate is a model. An idea to justify a course of action is a theory whereas law, regulation, and procedure used is a policy. Strategy embodies interest based priorities, which has short, medium, and long-term implications for a country. Model gives template that guides in constructing a system. Theory is essential tool for state craft. Guidance, constancy, accountability, efficiency, and clarity on how an organization operates are provided by policies. The objective of the paper is to examine important factors applicable in bilateral relationships and conflict resolution and highlight important relevant factors. To prepare the paper, qualitative methodology, explanatory research design, descriptive and analytical study design, and secondary sources of related textual and virtual documents are used. .After discussion, relevant strategies of ‘progressive nationalism, frequent dialogues and visits at high level, border diplomacy, pushing into regular constructive dialogues, playing diplomatic roles by a third country, and using International Boundary Research Unit (IBRU);’ models of ‘geo-economic and territorial project model of cross-border integration, bilateral trade flows, and partial settlement in resolving disputes;’ theories of ‘FDI inflow and bilateral political relationships, problem workshops, creation of international regime, and international organizations (IOs) brokered bargaining;’ and policies of ‘bilateral relationships, defense diplomacy, bilateral economic relations, bilateral diplomacy, nonalignment with equal friendships for all and diversification, an equal and respectful but not reciprocal relationships, leaders’ visits and diplomatic conflicts, third party intermediaries, enduring rivalries, pursuit of legal settlement, compromise or escalation or maintenance of status quo or swapping of territory, and uti possidentis or ground realities are highlighted to be adopted by the governments.</p> Yadav Bahadur Rayamajhi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 75 90 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57586 Scenarios of Potential Unconventional Security Threats as Public Policy Concern for Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57587 <p>This paper is about drawing different scenarios of potential unconventional security threats in Nepal as a major public policy concern. However, not much work has been done so far in this issue so far and therefore need greater attention. The aim of this paper is to draws different potential unconventional security threats in Nepal. While analyzing the unconventional security challenges, I have used the analytical formwork of four conceptual parameters like a) Understanding and commitment of domestic actors, b) domestic coping capacity, c) external geo-strategic interests and d) Sudden devastations and natural calamities. Based on these parameters I have drawn three different scenarios of unconventional security and consequent security risks. The methods used to collect primary and secondary data were observation, content analysis, in-depth interviews and literature review. This paper concludes that unconventional security situation depends on domestic coping capacity, commitment of policy decision makers, degree and intensity of external geo-strategic, political, economic, and other security interests and frequency and degree of natural calamities. The paper concludes that Nepal is in potentially high risks of unconventional security challenges and national unity is essential to handle with the future potential unconventional challenges.</p> Bishnu Raj Upreti Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 91 105 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57587 Outcomes of Reservation Policy Implementation in Armed Police Force, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57588 <p>Nepal adopted the reservation policy with the motive to ensure the participation of women and marginalized groups through the Interim Constitution, 2007 and the Constitution of Nepal 2015. APF, Nepal has adopted the reservation system in the recruitment process as a government institution. However, it is necessary to understand the outcome of the reservation on its overall recruitment policy, which this article has tried to explore. This article adopted an analytical approach based on both primary and secondary sources of data. In Nepal, due to its social structure, diversity, and historical marginalization, reservation ensures equal participation, provides opportunities for socio-economic development, and represents marginalized communities. The reservation policy has been instrumental in making the APF in Nepal an inclusive force. The findings suggested that APF, Nepal should develop a time-bound reservation policy and revise it at regular intervals. The study did not find instances where the APF was forced to recruit incompetent personnel due to the reservation policy. On the contrary, reservists have performed well, with some even receiving national recognition for their contributions. Regular reviews of the policy are recommended to enhance the effectiveness of reservation policies in the future. Additionally, community upliftment through development programs focused on education and reservations based on economic capabilities were identified.</p> Ananda Thapa Magar Bibhuti Katel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 106 119 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57588 Evolving Security Landscape of Nepal-China Relations https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57590 <p>Nepal-China relations have been cordial for centuries. The relationship is based on the principles of panchasheel, mutual trust and respect. China's overall policy and interests in Nepal revolve around stability, security, economic development and geopolitics. The changes in regime, either the Shah Monarchy or the Federal Democratic Republic Government, have never been the issue in the unremitting mutual relations between the two countries. However, in the republic era, the security landscape of the Nepal-China relationship has been evolved due to Nepal's geostrategic location and its vulnerability, China's growing military and economic power, the US's China containment strategy and use of soft power; and India's concerns about Chinese growing engagement in Nepal have raise various questions and security implications for Nepal- China relations. The researcher has used the qualitative approach to analyze the Nepal-China relation and security dynamics after 2007. It mainly used diplomatic, military and economic aspects of DIME instruments of national power as a framework of analysis. Nepal must comprehend the sensitivity of China and India, along with other regional and international powers, regarding their security concerns and implement prudent policies prioritizing national interests. Given the evolving dynamics of global power relations and advancements in regional and international arenas, Nepal's nonalignment policy must become more productive, ensuring constructive engagement with China, India and extra-regional powers.</p> Nawaraj Bikram Kunwar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 120 134 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57590 Disaster Management by Security Agencies in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57591 <p>As per the MOHA report (2021), disaster has been claiming life and property of people. MOHA has its plan to tackle the Disaster because of the fact that Nepal is a disaster-prone country. The categories of disaster as per MOHA report, 25 types of disasters have been happing in Nepal and causing loss of life and property of people. In this context, this article aims to find out the situation of disasters in the country as whole and province-wise scenarios of disaster cases; examine the sufficiency of security personnel to implement the disaster policy mandate given by the government of Nepal and elucidate the required coordination for preparedness, responses and rescue operations that have to carry out by the security agencies in support of three tiers of governments. For this purpose, secondary data from the MOHA web pages were retrieved to analyze the interrelationship of each disaster. Likewise, policies related to preparedness and response in general, especially to security agencies were reviewed. Key informants (KI) interview was taken to consolidate findings from the secondary data. Koshi Province is in the top position of the disaster cases whereas Sudurpaschhim Province is at the lowest position out of 26148 disaster cases from 2011 to 2021 June. Despite the deficiency of human resources in the security agencies and the lack of proper coordination made by the three tiers of government, security agencies accomplish the roles of preparedness, response and rescue operation more than their capacity to save life and property of people. The study concludes that disaster management is not the government's priority whatever its claim in government policy documents due to lack of appropriate coordination with the security agency and insufficient security personnel. The coordination and ensuring of required security personnel is the responsibility of the government when it concerns disaster management by the security agencies in Nepal.</p> Narendra Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 135 149 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57591 Climate Change, Climatic Hazards and National Security of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57592 <p>This article examines the impact of climate change on the national security of Nepal by studying secondary data from the Ministry of Home Affairs. The data covers the last five years and focuses on five climate hazards: flood, landslide, windstorm, forest fire, and avalanches. Through an analysis of the human and economic costs and the frequency of occurrence, the study identifies windstorms as an emerging threat to national security. The research highlights that climatic hazards are affecting Nepal's security, and the study particularly investigates their impacts in the past year. The human and economic costs caused by these climatic hazards were assessed based on factors such as: deaths, injuries, missing persons, affected families, destroyed houses, displaced sheds, and estimated monetary losses. The study indicates a fluctuation in the frequency and impacts of some climatic hazards due to climate change, with 2076 BS being the most destructive year. Traditional threats such as floods and landslides persist, while windstorms are increasingly becoming stronger. Additionally, the incidents of forest fires have risen in the last two years. Among the five hazards, avalanches seem to be the least destructive in terms of human and economic costs. The findings underscore the importance of addressing climate change to safeguard Nepal's national security.</p> Prakash Bikram Rawal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 150 167 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57592 Human Resource Development Oriented Performance Appraisal System in Armed Police Force, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57593 <p>Human Resource Management (HRM) involves managing and developing the workforce, while Human Resource Development (HRD) optimizes performance, fosters growth, and aligns HR practices with employee needs. Performance Appraisal (PA) is vital for HRD, identifying strengths, development areas, fostering growth, and optimizing organizational performance. The research employed a descriptive design with a sequential explanatory method, gathering quantitative data from 74 and qualitative data from 25 respondentsout of 1741 officers in the Armed Police Force, Nepal (APF). Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to examine the quantitative data as well as thematic analysis was executed for the qualitative analysis to study the performance appraisal system in the APF focusing on its alignment with HRD principles. The study reveals that the APF has an HRD climate and is oriented towards HRD principles in its performance appraisal system. However, significant improvements are needed to enhance the system's effectiveness and fairness. The study further highlights the importance of the monitoring on performance appraisal process and linking performance appraisal results with other HRD mechanisms for a comprehensive HRD-oriented PA system. The research suggests implementing training for appraisers, improving performance review frequency, and incorporating potential appraisal, adopting a more systematic and objective evaluation system to foster a fair and growth-oriented appraisal environment. These findings have significant applications for enhancing the PA system and promoting HRD within the organization since the study emphasized the importance of a strong monitoring system, regular feedback, and potential appraisal to foster an HRD-oriented appraisal process, ultimately promoting employee growth and organizational development.</p> Suraj Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 168 189 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57593 Association Between Inter-Agencies Cooperation and Border Governance of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JAPFCSC/article/view/57595 <p>Border agency cooperation is the process by which different agencies joins together for the purpose of attaining a common goal in building efficiencies for facilitating international trade, cross border travel by improving cross border security. The government of Nepal has established different agencies to enhance border governance. The purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between inter-agency cooperation and border governance of Nepal. The research follows a sequential explanatory research design using primary and secondary data. Primary data are extracted from stratified sampling technique using five point likert-scale questionnaires where 202 responses were acquired. The findings show that there is a positive relationship between independent variables of inter-agencies cooperation and border governance of Nepal. Furthermore, inter-agency cooperation and border governance have a positive correlation coefficient of 0.391 at 1 percent level of significant. The regression analysis show interagency cooperation has 30 percent effect in border governance of Nepal. The beta value shows one unit of change in inter-agency cooperation will bring 0.523 unit of change in border governance of Nepal. The study suggest on enhancing information, intelligence &amp; data exchange program on daily basis and improvement on mutual negotiation, synchronized border inspection, and mutual trust within the border governing agencies for maintaining good border governance of Nepal by enhancing service delivery.</p> Yukesh Upreti Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-15 2023-08-15 6 01 190 203 10.3126/japfcsc.v6i01.57595