Journal of APF Command and Staff College <p>Official Journal of the APF Command and Staff College, Kathmandu, Nepal. Affiliated to Tribhuvan University, Nepal.</p> en-US (D.S.P. Manoj Thapa) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 10 Nov 2022 09:10:20 +0000 OJS 60 Role of Armed Police Force, Nepal in Promoting Good Governance through Border Security <p>The Armed Police Force, Nepal was established for the protection of the life, property, and liberty of the people by maintaining peace and order in Nepal. Border security is a broad agenda of the national security and Armed Police Force, Nepal is a primary national security element on international border security of Nepal. The objective of the paper is to link the good governance and border management. The descriptive method is applied to draw the conclusion in this paper. The findings show that the Armed Police Force, Nepal has a major contribution in controlling trans-border crimes in coordination with other stakeholders and counterparts which directly contribute to promoting good governance in Nepal. Effective border management comply the most principles of the good governance: preparedness, participation, transparency, accountability and protection of human rights. Furthermore, it is found that border security has a significant positive relationship with good governance. Maintaining national integrity, safeguarding the independence and sovereignty of the nation, maintaining justice, and ethics, being free from corruption, and maintaining the rule of law are the primary independent indicators of promoting good governance through border security.</p> Raju Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19, Tourism and Knowledge Production <p>This paper presents a general review of the available COVID-19 literature with a brief overview of crisis and disaster management. The study tries to explore the knowledge about various spheres of tourism and the society brought by COVID-19 pandemic through literature contributed by academicians. The exploratory and descriptive nature of the study is carried out based on secondary sources. The study has focused mainly on areas like virus and virocene, anthropocene, lovecene, tourism and health crisis, health belief model, tourist health and safety, crisis and risk, the four horsemen of fear, panic buying behavior, crowding perceptions and mass gathering, social distance, shock, xenophobia, ethnocentrism, protection motivation theory, anthropause and anthropulse, Herzberg’s two factor theory, microadventure, resilience, and major pandemics and pathogen outbreaks. The study has raised questions like what kind of knowledge could be acquired from the literature of COVID-19 and tourism?</p> Ramesh Raj Kunwar Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Search and Rescue Capacity Building of Nepal’s Security Forces for Effective Response <p>Capacity building encompasses the training, knowledge, skills, abilities, processes, and resources. The present paper highlights Nepal’s security forces integral role in disaster response and its need of the capacity building in search and rescue. Responding to disasters is a special task that demands a high level of training, knowledge, skills, and types of tool, equipment, and accessories. During the study, trained manpower for search and rescue within the Nepali Army, Nepal Police, and Armed Police Force, Nepal, and their capabilities and challenges were analyzed. The study suggests need for investment in capacity building of security forces towards highly-trained manpower in search and rescue as per the international standard. Well-prepared human resource in sufficient number is key to effective response and integrated effort with sound coordination mechanism always gives the net positive results.</p> Jeeven K.C. Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Earthquake Preparedness in Kathmandu City, Nepal <p><em>Earthquakes cannot be predicted but effective planning and preparation may reduce the impact. Impacts from earthquake risk is believed to be increasing very rapidly mainly due to the improper development activities. People require to have basic knowledge on preparing themselves to mitigate the impacts from the earthquake. This paper studied the effectiveness of implementation of knowledge and skills to mitigate the impact of earthquake by focusing on the knowledge and ability of the household members in the community. This study also helped the respondents and institutions and stakeholders who were the part of this research to reflect, analyse and assess their own earthquake preparedness measure. It is seen that there is a necessity for a sound coordination and realization on importance of better preparedness which is essential to mitigate the impact from the earthquake.</em></p> Rodit K.C. Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Landslide on the Livelihood of People at Ghumthang, Sindhupalchok <p>Landslides are considered as one of the most recurring and common disaster in Nepal. They cause huge loss to infrastructure, property and human casualty. The intensity of landslides in Nepal’s mid hills are rising as one of the most common and devastating disasters. The 2020 Ghumthang landslide in Nepal’s Sindhupalchok District destroyed the houses, lands and infrastructures and impacted livelihoods of the people living in the area. Every monsoon landslides in hilly region of the country lead to impact on the livelihood of the people and this aspect has not been analyzed in depth. The disaster-affected people face the destruction crop, livestock, and land. They also face damages of house, drinking water and other infrastructure,. In addition they face non-economic effects like health and mental stress. This article based on a household survey combines quantitative and qualitative data from 50 respondents. Questionnaire, interviews and focus group discussions were held during field survey to solicit their persctives Secondary sources were consulted and lived experience used to triangulate the survey findings for accuracy. This study reveals multidimensional nature of the impact of landslide on the life of people who live in the affected area.</p> Mandip Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Inter-Agencies Cooperation in Border Governance of Nepal <p>Coordinated border management (CBM) refers to a coordinated approach by border agencies, both domestic and international for achieving efficiencies by facilitating trade and travel flows, with maintaining a balance with compliance requirements. The core objective of this paper is to identify governmental agencies cooperation for border governance of Nepal. For the purpose of understanding inter agency cooperation the research uses both qualitative and quantitative approach with descriptive design using both primary and secondary data. The findings show that there are 12 ministries at federal level and 14 departments with 670 borderline agencies in Nepal. The central ministry, departments, regional offices, district offices and borderline offices are the hierarchical system in intra- agencies. At national level there are different working groups and committee form different ministry. At district level, District Administration Office plays a lead role for local border management by instructing and upervising others agencies in interagency coordination. In order to maintain peace, security and curtail cross border crime, the security agencies are having cordial cooperation by exchanging high level information exchange, sharing of work, regular training and joint inspection by constructing different working groups. The study suggests establishing a national border management policy to incorporate all tiers agencies by constructing national border management Authority to coordinate all agencies from central level to local level which reduce unnecessary work duplication by amending relevant statutes.</p> Yukesh Upreti Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Adaptation Financing in Nepal <p>Nepal as a country vulnerable to the effects of climate change, and with limited domestic resources must priorities adaptation actions and relies on international support to finance its need. There have been substantial amounts of climate finance flowing into the country from a multitude of sources mainly in the form of grants and debt instruments, with over US$3 billion committed by international providers over the last decade. Commitments to finance adaptation have been steadily increasing over the same period, however not all commitments translate to results on the ground, as over half of reported adaptation finance can be considered over reported. Specific challenges have been identified in absorbing climate finance in Nepal, including governance issues, lack of internal capacity, lack of coordination, inadequate climate finance management and lack of legislation and implementation strategies. This paper proposes reforms along the lines of transparency and accountability, localization and government ownership, capacity building, coordination, climate budgeting, monitoring and legislation to tackle these challenges and ensure better efficacy of climate finance in adaptation programs in the country.</p> Devansh Agrawal Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nepal’s Geo-Stretegic Significance, Challenges And Opportunities <p>Geo-strategic significance is an important factor for the development and prosperity of the country. Nepal’s geo-strategic location, crammed between India and China, has its challenges and opportunities. Due to its unique location, Nepal is getting heightened attention from great powers. The factor of having a strategic location doesn’t quite guarantee the nation’s sovereignty, prosperity and growth rather it needs conscious and constructive efforts. Being a buffer state, security situation in Nepal is always a major concern for both neighbors. Traditionally India had an important role in Nepal’s economic cooperation, trade, transit and investment. After Nepal’s transition to a republic state China’s support has seemly increased in Nepal with its investment in development projects, increased bilateral visits, bilateral mechanism and cultural cooperation. China’s increased role in Nepal can understood as competing other global power’s geo-strategic interests. Question arises, whether Nepal has geostrategic significance because of its location, which could be capitalized for growth of the nation and at the same time carefully; formulate its foreign policy while balancing its diplomacy to avoid precipitation of a spiral of counterbalancing intrusion? Nepal should carefully analyze these global powers and its emerging foreign policies and should devise its diplomatic exercise prioritizing Nepal’s national interests and keeping perfect balance among them.</p> Prakash Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000