Journal of Biomedical Sciences <p>Official journal of the Nepal Health Research Society.</p> <p>JBS is currently accepting submissions by Email – <a href=""></a></p> Nepal Health Research and Welfare Society en-US Journal of Biomedical Sciences 2676-1343 The Delta Plus variant of COVID-19: Will it be the worst nightmare in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic? <p>No abstract available.</p> Bedanta Roy Harekrishna Roy Copyright (c) 2021 Bedanta Roy, Harekrishna Roy 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 1 2 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38449 Knowledge, attitude, and practice on COVID-19 among undergraduate students of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal: An online cross-sectional survey <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19, a global health crisis of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, has threatened possibly every aspect of human life. Since the pandemic is not yet over, this study was carried out among undergraduate students of a medical institute in Nepal to assess and boost their KAP status on the disease.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>It was an online cross-sectional census survey performed among consenting undergraduate healthcare students of BPKIHS. A self-made and validated questionnaire assessing KAP on COVID-19 was prepared in Google form and distributed online among target students. The study population was 745. Both descriptive and inferential analysis of the data was performed. Student’s T-Test and one-way ANOVA were applied for which level of statistical significance was kept at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Ninety-six students participated in a pilot-study (Cronbach α= 0.792). The response rate was 76.27%. Most participants (76.76%) were from Nepal.&nbsp; The male/female ratio was 0.76. Most (59.2%) had not participated in such studies before. For 93.54%, the source of information was the internet. Assessed by questionnaire, right Knowledge (n=16) was 85.06% ± 8.81%; right Attitude (n=6) was 65.00% ± 16.16 and right Practice (n=6) was 82.88%± 8.50%. Male were more knowledgeable about the disease (p=0.011). However, females secured higher in practical aspects (p=0.000). Indian students possessed better knowledge (p=0.005) and a better attitude (p=0.033). MBBS students had better knowledge (p=0.000), but Nursing students secured higher in Practice (p=0.012). Attitude is better in the earlier years (p=0.045).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>We assessed KAP related to COVID-19 via score among healthcare undergraduate students. Different co-factors do impact students’ overall KAP status.</p> KR Pandey DR Panday P Pyakurel S Marahatta SP Rimal M Dali R Gyawali Rambha Sigdel N Bhattarai N Limbu GP Rauniar Copyright (c) 2021 KR Pandey, DR Panday, P Pyakurel, S Marahatta, SP Rimal, M Dali, R Gyawali, Rambha Sigdel, N Bhattarai, N Limbu, GP Rauniar 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 15 22 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38457 An insight of medical student’s preference and opinions to Pharmacology textbooks <p><strong>Background: </strong>Various medical subjects pose a daunting task to students. Chief amongst which the subject’s students grapple with is pharmacology. The study’s primary objective was to find out the second professional medical student’s preferences, feedback, and attitude towards pharmacology textbooks at SSR Medical College, Mauritius.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational survey was conducted from May 2018- June 2018 at Seewoosagur Ramgoolam Medical College, Mauritius. A Chi-square test was performed to find out correlations between variables. p &lt; 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 192 medical students participated in the study out of 210 students, giving an overall response rate of 91.42%. 103 (35.6%) students chosen Essentials of Medical Pharmacology- K.D. Tripathi as a first preference, followed by 59 (30.7%) students selected Pharmacology for Medical Students- Tara V Shanbhag and Smita Shenoy as a second preference, and 22 (11.5%) chosen Medical Pharmacology- Padmaja Udaykumar as a third preference.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The textbook Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K.D. Tripathi is the most popular and most preferred textbook, closely seconded by Pharmacology for Medical Students by Tara V Shanbhag and Smita Shenoy and followed by Medical Pharmacology by Padmaja Udaykumar, the third in the list of the most preferred textbook. The shortcomings of textbooks, such as the innate lack of the ability to cultivate interest in common diseases which are prevalent in the home country of the students, as well as the lack to inspire students to do further reading into research articles and studies, clearly showcases the disconnect that exists between publishers, authors and users.</p> I Banerjee J Robinson A Annavarapu RK Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 I Banerjee, J Robinson, A Annavarapu, RK Gupta 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 23 32 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38458 Viral infections and saliva as a potential diagnostic tool <p>No abstract available.</p> OO Osadolor AJ Osadolor OO Osadolor Copyright (c) 2021 OO Osadolor, AJ Osadolor, OO Osadolor 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 3 4 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38451 Novel drug for COVID-19: Virafin a therapeutic breakthrough <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b is synthesized via the use of PEG (polyethylene glycol). It is formulated via attaching a 12kDa mono methoxy polyethylene glycol moiety to the recombinant human Interferon Alpha-2b protein. Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b acts via binding to the (JAK/STAT) Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of the transcription interferon receptor. The Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b /Virafin binds to the (IFNAR1/2) alpha interferon receptor 1 and 2. Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b better known as Virafin has been approved by the Drugs Controller General of India. This therapeutic agent is currently under a multicentric phase 3 trial with very promising results being reported. A single subcutaneous dose of Virafin has been shown to decrease the need for oxygen therapy in patients. This reduction in the need for oxygen therapy is a vital factor needed to provide relief to the Indian medical system in light of the recent oxygen shortages faced due to India’s worst wave of COVID-19 cases since the onset of the global pandemic. Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b/ Virafin confers enhanced viral clearance and bolsters the immune response to induce a quicker recovery in patients with mild to moderate symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is of paramount importance that further research on Virafin is undertaken as it can hinder the progression of COVID-19, reduce pressure on the inundated health systems, and save countless lives.</p> J Robinson I Banerjee B Roy A Leclézio Copyright (c) 2021 J Robinson, I Banerjee, B Roy, A Leclézio 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 12 14 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38456 Gastrointestinal manifestations as early symptoms to diagnose COVID-19 paediatric cases <p><strong>Background: </strong>The international situation surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic is seeing multiple countries battle various waves of the SARS-CoV-2 virus infections, with millions of individuals being infected globally. COVID-19 cases initially involved the immuno-compromised and elderly. As the virus has infected millions globally, the demographic profile of cases has shifted with more children being infected; this increase in younger individuals contracting the infection has resulted in new symptoms with altered manifestations and presentations of the disease in the young. In comparison to the severe symptoms of COVID-19 in adults children present with a more trivial group of symptoms. The majority of children develop mild symptoms or remain asymptomatic. This is in stark contrast to adults who have a higher admission rate with severe symptoms. A sign of great importance and now incidence in pediatric cases with COVID-19 is that of the gastrointestinal tract. The virus has a tropism for the GIT due to the presence of ACE2 receptors, which facilitate the entry of the virus into the cell.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is now established that the GIT symptoms form part of a newly recognized multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) which occurs as a result and or manifestation of the COVID-19 infection. The innate difficulty in correctly and accurately diagnosing such a case is that the symptoms very close mimic gastroenteritis and acute abdominal pathologies. Therefore, physicians need to be aware of the various manners in which the COVID-19 infection manifests itself in children to diagnose better and isolate the cases.&nbsp;</p> J Robinson I Banerjee A Leclézio Copyright (c) 2021 J Robinson, I Banerjee, A Leclézio 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 5 7 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38452 Global variants of COVID-19: Current understanding <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus that undergoes mutation producing a variety of strains. Mutagens include UV radiation, metals, and endogenous components of organisms. Each strain is specific in terms of virulence, immune response in the body and efficacy of the vaccines. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusion: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Researchers need to gather data and collaborate with global organizations to learn about the newly evolving strains. Information about the mutations and variants are inevitable in understanding virus transmission and developing vaccines to end the COVID-19 pandemic.</span></p> B Roy JK Dhillon N Habib B Pugazhandhi Copyright (c) 2021 B Roy, JK Dhillon, N Habib, B Pugazhandhi 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 8 11 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38453 Epileptic seizures in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review of early evidences <p><strong>Background: </strong>Global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 surfaced neurological complications amongst the patients. COVID-19 resembles with other coronavirus strains follows a trend of neurological complication, damage and encephalopathy, which entails considerable risks, requires attention for the neurologists. This is, to our knowledge, the first systematic review of the literature to investigate solely to elucidate the seizure spectrum by unfolding epileptogenicity of the SARS CoV-2 and potential pathways of neuroinvasion.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed and Embase database following standard guidelines, using specific keywords based on epileptic seizure onset described from December 01, 2019, to July 17, 2020</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 17 studies were included ranging from case reports, series of cases, multicentre cross-sectional study with the first-time onset of seizure associated with an epileptic origin. We excavated causes of complex COVID-19 related neurological manifestations, e.g., cerebrovascular diseases, encephalitis, demyelinating lesions, cytokine storm and proposed routes of SARS-CoV-2 entry into the nervous system to understand the mechanism of an epileptic seizure.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>COVID-19 is a potent neuropathogen which causes the new onset of epileptic seizures should get diagnostic recognition to evade possible deterioration of neurological conditions. However, more shreds of evidence from the future will further elucidate the epileptogenic potential of the pandemic.</p> B Roy I Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 B Roy, I Banerjee 2021-07-16 2021-07-16 8 1 33 44 10.3126/jbs.v8i1.38459