Journal of Biomedical Sciences <p>Official journal of the Nepal Health Research Society.</p> <p>JBS is currently accepting submissions by Email – <a href=""></a></p> en-US (Bedanta Roy) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 13:56:15 +0000 OJS 60 Patient with false negative RT-PCR for COVID-19 referred to cancer hospital for lung cancer screening: A case report <p><strong>Background: </strong>Even though RT-PCR tests are generally considered the gold standard for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2, they are not without flaws, and the likelihood of detecting an infection varies depending on when the test is performed. There is chance of false negative due to different pitfalls. So there is essential of correlation of radiological characteristics, abnormalities in biochemical tests and symptoms of suspected patient during COVID-19 epidemic.</p> <p><strong>Case presentation: </strong>Herein, we report a 42-year-old male patient with high-grade fever, dry cough, headache and dizziness. He went for the RT-PCR test two times and reported negative. On the chest X-Ray, there was opacity on both lungs and referred to cancer-hospital for lung-cancer screening. The patient underwent chest-HRCT and laboratory tests for further evaluation and was identified as typical COVID-19 findings. Then the patient was isolated and treatment of given according to COVID-19 treatment guidelines &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that a clinically symptomatic patient with typical chest HRCT and abnormal lab findings for COVID-19 should be considered as a COVID-19 patient and isolated even with two negative RT-PCR tests.</p> Ajay Kumar Yadav, Suman Gnawali, Sandip Mandal, Gyan Bahadur Shrestha, Gangbiao Yuan Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Kumar Yadav, Suman Gnawali, Sandip Mandal, Gyan Bahadur Shrestha, Gangbiao Yuan Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Omicron variant of COVID-19: Is it the final nail in the coffin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic? <p>No abstract available.</p> Bedanta Roy, Harekrishna Roy Copyright (c) 2021 Bedanta Roy, Harekrishna Roy Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of epidermal growth factor receptor and microbial infections in polycystic kidney disease <p><strong>Background: </strong>Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a frequently inherited diseases associated with the presence of fluid-filled cysts. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays role in cysts development</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>The following tools (PubMed, PubMed Central, Medline Search Engine, Locate and Google Scholar) were used in literature search. Key words used to search for relevant literature are: Polycystic Kidney Disease, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Renal Cyst Formation and Renal Cyst Infection. The studies beyond 10 years were not included in present study.</p> <p>Analysis: The cross-examination of research papers allowed to analyse literature around role of EGFR in ADPKD pathophysiology, EGFR TKI as treatment of ADPKD and role of microbial cyst infections in disease progression.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There is a small body of literature that look at EGFR, Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) and cyst infection in ADPKD over the last decade. The ‘crosstalk’ between Src and EGFR was observed to have an impact on cyst development and progression. Therefore, the combined treatment with different compounds can be a desirable approach in the treatment of ADPKD. There has been observed relationship between cyst infections, decrease in kidney function and PKD gene mutation. Endotoxins of Gram-negative bacteria could be involved in disease development.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The understanding of mechanisms of ADPKD and several cancers has led to the identification of molecular targets, and one of these is EGFR. The further study could establish the role of endotoxin in ADPKD development and its interaction with EGFR.</p> Kamila Orzechowska, SN Muhammad, H Mokamil Copyright (c) 2021 Kamila Orzechowska, SN Muhammad, H Mokamil Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Etlingera elatior inflorescence extract on beneficial bacteria of the healthy human gut <p><strong>Background: </strong>Etlingera species is an enduring plant in the Zingiberaceae family, with more than 100 species local to many countries. It has been utilized commonly as a culinary spice or eaten crude for its therapeutic impacts. This research is intended to study the effects of <em>E. elatior </em>inflorescence, which is commonly known as bunga kantan in Peninsular Malaysia, upon the microbiota of healthy human gut.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>The closed bud <em>E. elatior</em> inflorescence was cleaned and dried in the hot air oven and grounded into fine powder. The extract from the <em>E. elatior</em> inflorescence was obtained using hot water extraction method. The effects of the inflorescence extract on <em>L. rhamnosus</em> and <em>L. acidophilus</em> were studied through micro-broth dilution process where different concentration of sample was incorporated into a broth medium followed by the application of a standardized volume of Lactobacillus sp. into the medium of the 96 well plate.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Growth was seen in both <em>L. rhamnosus</em> and <em>L. acidophilus,</em> indicating that <em>E. elatior</em> inflorescence acted like a prebiotic towards <em>L. acidophilus</em> and <em>L. rhamnosus</em></p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong><em>E. elatior</em> inflorescence concentrate acts like a prebiotic towards <em>L. acidophilus</em> incomparable to L. rhamnosus</p> Kavithra Copyright (c) 2021 Kavithra Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study of dynamic changes in the parameters of liver function tests in COVID-19 patients: A hospital-based study in Eastern Nepal <p><strong>Background: </strong>COVID-19 has become a focus of healthcare practitioners worldwide after it was declared as a global pandemic. Although SARS-CoV-2 is primarily affecting the respiratory system, numerous studies have documented its impact on other organ systems, including the liver. This study aims to assess liver function in COVID-19 patients in light of SARS-CoV-2's extremely infectious and pathogenic character.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>It was a hospital-based retrospective study conducted between January 1, 2021, and July 31, 2021, using data from the Department of Biochemistry at Birat Medical College Teaching Hospital in Nepal. Age, gender, total protein, albumin, AST, ALT, and the AST/ALT ratio were all measured.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The median age of COVID-19 patients was 36 years (CI, 25–51), 60 patients (60.0%) were male, 31 patients (31.0%) were obese, and 20 patients (20%) had comorbidities, such as hypertension (14%) and diabetes mellitus (6.0 %). Compared to the non-critical group, the mean values of ALT, AST, ALP, GT, LDH, TBIL, and DBIL were significantly higher in the severe group. On the other hand, total protein and albumin were significantly lower in the severe group than the non-severe group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In COVID-19, aberrant liver function, primarily AST increase, appears to be common. Therefore, direct viral hepatotoxicity during a systemic viral infection must be considered, as well as the possibility of sepsis or worsening of existing liver disease.</p> Ankush Mittal, Mohammad Shamim Farooqui Copyright (c) 2021 Ankush Mittal, Mohammad Shamim Farooqui Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine: A future hope for cancer treatment <p><strong>Background: </strong>mRNA vaccines have a strong potential for a possible cancer therapy platform. They express tumor antigens in antigen-presenting cells (APCs) after immunization, facilitating innate/adaptive immune stimulation. Because of its high effectiveness, safe administration, rapid development potential, and cost-efficient manufacturing, the mRNA cancer vaccine surpasses other traditional vaccination platforms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Careful evaluation of promising mRNA vaccines to supervise as carriers of lipids for cancer patients needs to be done. In addition, a possible revaluation for optimal protection is required. However, the extent to which solid tumours might take a significant part of the vaccine doses is still unknown.&nbsp;</p> Ajay Kumar Yadav, Suman Gnawali, Sandip Mandal, Gyan Bahadur Shrestha, Gangbiao Yuan Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Kumar Yadav, Suman Gnawali, Sandip Mandal, Gyan Bahadur Shrestha, Gangbiao Yuan Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000