https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/issue/feed Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2019-05-19T17:11:58+00:00 Prof. Dr. Harish Chandra Neupane jcmc@cmc.edu.np Open Journal Systems <p>The official journal of Chitwan Medical College. Full text articles available.</p> https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23774 Implant dentistry – current trends in rehabilitation of missing teeth 2019-05-19T17:11:58+00:00 Smriti Narayan Thakur snt_1981@yahoo.com <p>No abstract available.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23775 Prevalence of microalbuminuria and its association with glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross sectional study at Kathmandu Medical College 2019-05-19T17:11:57+00:00 Prabin Kumar Karki prabinkaarki@gmail.com Santosh Timalsina prabinkaarki@gmail.com Sanat Chalise prabinkaarki@gmail.com Anita Yadav prabinkaarki@gmail.com Ashish Kumar Bhattarai prabinkaarki@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Diabetes mellitus has become one of the biggest health problems of this era. The resultant microvascular and macrovascular complications add to significant amount of morbidity and mortality. Urine microalbumin is considered as an early marker for microvascular compli­cations among diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of microalbuminuria among type 2 diabetic patients attending Kathmandu Medical College and its relation with glycemic control, age, sex, duration of diabetes. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: A total of 208 previously diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients at­tending medical outpatient department of Kathmandu Medical College, Sinamangal were included in the study over a period of 1 year (October 2017 - September 2018). Fasting and 2-hour postprandial venous blood for blood glucose and HbA1c measurement and early morning urine sam­ple (after overnight fast) was collected for detection of microalbuminuria. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: The prevalence of microalbuminuria among the study population (mean age: 54.22 ± 11.76 years, mean HbA1c: 7.62 ± 1.53 %) was 42.8%. Microalbuminuria had significant correlation with HbA1c and duration of diabetes (p&lt;0.001), but not with age, sex and type of medication. There was positive correlation between urine microalbumin and fasting and post-prandial blood glucose. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Our present study found high prevalence of microalbumin­uria among diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. It is suggested that tighter glycemic control with regular urine microalbumin testing should be integral part of diabetic management plan to prevent long term complications such as diabetic nephropathy</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23776 Comparative studies of bone density by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan 2019-05-19T17:11:56+00:00 Alark Devkota Rajouria adr_np@email.com Madur Dev Bhattarai adr_np@email.com Manil Ratna Bajracharya adr_np@email.com Buddha Bahadur Karki adr_np@email.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: The aim of the study was to establish the correlation quantitative ultrasound (QUS) between and dual-energy X-ray absorp­tiometry (DEXA) and to assess the ability of QUS as a screening tool for osteoporosis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The study was conducted on 115 patients. All the patients underwent QUS of radius using Sunlight MiniOmni bone sonometer and DEXA screening for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, total left &amp; femoral neck and radius.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Significant correlations were observed between QUS and DEXA T score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: QUS is a sensitive screening tool to detect changes in the bone mass and risk of osteoporosis.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23777 Nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding intravenous therapy in a teaching hospital, Bharatpur 2019-05-19T17:11:55+00:00 Sandhya Lamsal me.sandhya20@gmail.com Rosy Shrestha me.sandhya20@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Intravenous (IV) therapy is a common procedure in clinical setting of any hospital and nurses are accountable for handling and man­agement to the patient with IV therapy. However, various serious medical complications were arisen due to nurses having inadequate knowledge and practice on IV therapy. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the nurses’ knowledge and practice regarding IV therapy in a teaching hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross- sectional study design was adopted with 177 nurses for assessment to knowledge and 53 nurses to observe practice on IV therapy. A systematic random sampling technique was used. Data were collected by using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire for identifying knowledge and observation checklist for observing the practice of IV ther­apy among nurses. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The level of knowledge was found inadequate and level of prac­tice was found unsatisfactory on IV therapy. The associated factors with level of knowledge regarding IV therapy were age (p=0.012), professional qualification (p=0.001), professional designation (p=0.005), professional experience (p=0.002) and in-service education (p=0.003). Similarly, the associated factors with level of practice on IV therapy were professional qualification (p=0.020) and professional designation (p=0.04).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: It is concluded that most of the nurses had inadequate knowledge and unsatisfactory practice on IV therapy. Hence, it is strongly recommended for need of protocol for IV therapy, in-service education, effective supervision and reinforcement for improvement of knowledge and practice regarding IV therapy among nurses.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23778 Awareness of oral cancer and potentially malignant oral disorder among final year medical and dental undergraduate students of Chitwan Medical College, Nepal 2019-05-19T17:11:54+00:00 Sushil Subedi drsushilcods@gmail.com Bijayata Shrestha drsushilcods@gmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Oral Cancer (OCA) is a common malignancy in South East Asia and the burden of the disease is increasing. OCA is usually preceded by Potentially Malignant Oral Disorder (PMOD). The early detection of these diseases may limit the high mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to assess the awareness of burden, associated risk fac­tors, early detection and prognosis of OCA and OPMD among final year medical and dental students..</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross sectional study was conducted among final year Medical and Dental undergraduate students of Chitwan Medical College, Nepal in April 2017 using a pre tested self-administered questionnaires. All the final year students present at their respective classes (Dental= 50 and Medical=75 students) responded to the questionnaires after giving informed consent. Data entered in SPPS 20 software was analyzed using Pearson Chi Square test and Fisher exact test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Dental students had better awareness concerning PMOD. Yet, the dental students did not differ significantly from their medical coun­terpart in most of the responses related to OCA. Surprisingly, more Dental students had misconception that OCA is not preventable and early detec­tion is difficult. Few of both groups were confident in having sufficient knowledge in OCA prevention and detection. Only 18.6% of Medical stu­dents had examined PMOD and few students of both groups had exam­ined OCA.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study revealed the deficient aspect in the knowledge concerning OCA and OPMD among Medical and Dental students indicat­ing the need to emphasize on these aspects of medical education.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23779 Peripartum hysterectomy and its risk factors 2019-05-19T17:11:53+00:00 Renuka Tamrakar tamrakar_renuka@yahoo.com Upendra Pandit tamrakar_renuka@yahoo.com Sabita Shrestha tamrakar_renuka@yahoo.com Basant Sharma tamrakar_renuka@yahoo.com Rakshya Joshi tamrakar_renuka@yahoo.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy (EPH) is an important lifesaving surgical procedure considered in cases of severe hemorrhage unresponsive to medical and conservative management. The objective is to review incidence, identification, intervention and impact of emergency peripartum hysterectomy. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: The retrospective, cross-sectional study designed was to used. EPH data were collected from January 2014 to December 2018.Descriptive statistics was used to analyzed data and presented in tables and charts. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Incidence of Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomies was 2.3% out of 252(2.6%) cases of obstetrical emergencies and 0.06% that is 1 in 1600 deliveries. Most common indications for EPH were uterine rupture (33.3%); placenta accreta (33.3%) followed by retained placenta (16.6%) and endometritis with pyometritis (16.6%). Estimated blood loss 1916 ml., timeliness from delivery to hysterectomy was 140 minutes; most common post-operative complication was surgical site infection (33.3%) and length of hospital stay 11.7 days. Maternal morbidity rate was 33.3%. There was no maternal mortality recorded. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: The timely intervention improves the outcome in Peripar­tum Hysterectomy, which is frequently associated with abnormal placen­tation as a consequence of increasing caesarean deliveries rate.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23780 Pulmonary function tests of mongoloid and non mongoloid group of Dharan 2019-05-19T17:11:52+00:00 Nisha Ghimire nishaghi3@gmail.com Kopila Agrawal nishaghi3@gmail.com Santosh Deo nishaghi3@gmail.com Lok Bandhu Chaudhary nishaghi3@gmail.com Bishnu Hari Paudel nishaghi3@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Ethnicity is seen to effect normal reference values and pre­diction equations of pulmonary function tests (PFTs). The normal refer­ence of PFTs among mongoloid and non mongoloid group of Dharan is not available. The aim of the study was to find out the normal reference val­ues of two groups in Dharan and also to find out the correlation of height, weight and body surface area with different PFT parameters. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 250 (125 mongoloids and 125 non mongoloids) healthy male subjects. Convenient sampling technique was done. Every 5th patient attendant who was per­manent resident of Dharan coming to clinical Physiology lab was selected as subject in each group. Portable PFT machine (CHESTOGRAPH, HI-101 Spirometry system) was used for measurement of our test. The test was conducted according to European Respiratory Society (ERS)/American Thoracic Society (ATS criteria. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Independent sample t-test was used to compare means be­tween two groups. There was significantly more height (165.30±8.21 vs 161.43±7.35), p &lt;.05], weight [(59.29±11.64 vs 55.32±10.75), p&lt;.05andbody surface area [(1.64±.172Vs1.57±.149), p&lt;.05], in the non-mongoloid group compared to mongoloid group. PFT param­eters were also higher in non-mongoloid group VC [(3.3982±.70725 Vs3.0982±.78832) p&lt;.05], FVC [(3.2798±.74312 Vs 2.988±.81970), p &lt;.05], and FEV1 [(3.0668±.72044 Vs 2.7861±.83061) p&lt;.05]. The prediction equations were also calculated for both groups. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: There was difference in PFT parameters between two groups. Prediction equations were also different in both groups.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23782 Compliance of surgical hand scrub in operation theatre of teaching hospital, Chitwan 2019-05-19T17:11:51+00:00 Anish Paudel anisha.poudel111@gmail.com Bishnu Bista anisha.poudel111@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Surgical hand scrub is an important practice that forms the base in the prevention and control of surgical site infection. The objective of the study was to evaluate the compliance of surgical hand scrub among surgical team in Operation Theatre of Teaching Hospital, Chitwan. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data collection instrument (a checklist) was developed based on national and interna­tional standards of surgical hand scrub. Data was collected by observation of surgical team who were scrubbing in the Operation Theatre, Chitwan Medical College before proceeding to surgical procedures. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: A compliance with the standards for surgical scrub prerequisites (70%), scrub process (81.53%), time of scrub (27%) and overall compli­ance (75.95%) observed. The total score of compliance with the standard was only 13%. The main issues found in the study were not correctly wore surgical cap and mask (44.9%), using of timer/wall clock before starting scrubbing (91.3%), improper follow the continue rotational action down opposing arms working to the elbow for one minute (53.6%) and repeat­ed blotted dry of skin area once it done (30.4%) </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: The results showed there was gap in the surgical hand scrub of the studied hospital and the compliance with the standard can be im­proved by simple surgical hand scrub intervention, periodical observation audit and feedback.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23784 Stress and self-esteem among nursing students at private medical college, Chitwan 2019-05-19T17:11:49+00:00 Swostika Shrestha srijananeupane95@gmail.com Srijana Ghimire srijananeupane95@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a person’s’ life. The objective of the study is to identify the stress and self-esteem among nursing students. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among B.Sc. Nursing students, Chitwan Medical College. The data was collected by us­ing structured questionnaire within 2 weeks. Obtained data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 16.0. Descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, percentage and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (chi-square and correlation) were used for data analysis. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Out of 116 respondents, 23.3%, 25.9%, 25.9% and 25.0% were from first, second, third and fourth year respectively. More than half i.e. 50.9% of the respondents had high stress. Respondents had faced higher (68.1%) in teacher related stress followed by peer stress 67.2% and self-inflict 66.0%. About 61.2% of the respondents had low self-esteem. There was higher stress in first year students then other. The fact is that as the academic year increases, students become more familiar to the learning environment and able to cope better. There was statistical significant as­sociation between stress among nursing students and habit of problem sharing (p=0.04). </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: It is concluded that respondents have high level of stress and low level of self-esteem. Therefore, intervention for increasing self-esteem and decreasing stress should be conducted by the college administration.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23785 Intranasal findings in unilateral primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction 2019-05-19T17:11:48+00:00 Sanjeev Kumar Thakur sanjeevkr055@gmail.com Baleshwar Yadav sanjeevkr055@gmail.com Raj Kumar Bedajit sanjeevkr055@gmail.com Akash Agrahari sanjeevkr055@gmail.com Sanjay Kumar Singh sanjeevkr055@gmail.com Anwar Afaque sanjeevkr055@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) is a common entity with associated different types of intranasal abnormalities. The pathogenesis of PANDO is unknown. The objective of the study was to describe the intranasal findings in cases of PANDO and find out any association of these findings to the disease. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: A comparative cross-sectional study was designed consisting of 50 cases of unilateral PANDO with epiphora and 50 normal volunteers with no history of epiphora. Nasal Evaluation was done with anterior rhinoscopy and nasal endoscopy. Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS version 21. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: The mean age in the unilateral PANDO group was 33.6 years and 34.5 years in the normal volunteer’s group (P-0.84). Left sided dominance of PANDO was observed in 64% (32/50) cases. The odds of having Nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction was1.6 times more among individuals having septal deviation versus no deviation (95% CI, 0.907–2.78). The laterality of septal deviation was corresponding to the side of NLD obstruction in 91% (31/34) cases. High located DNS was more common in the PANDO group which was significant (P-value 0.012). Turbinate hypertrophy, the presence of septal spur or rhinitis had no significant association with NLD obstruction. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Deviated nasal septum (DNS), turbinate hypertrophy, septal spur and rhinitis were the associated intranasal findings in cases of unilateral PANDO. A significant association exists between DNS and PANDO, although a cause and effect relation require further probing.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23786 Medical students’ perception regarding objective structured clinical examination in Medical College, Chitwan 2019-05-19T17:11:47+00:00 Pratima Jaiswal mehtarajkraj@gmail.com Raj Kumar Mehta mehtarajkraj@gmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been globally recognized as gold standard of performance based assessment that aids in evaluating the clinical competency of medical undergraduate students. Hence, it increases the confidence of students in their learning ability by helping them to identify areas of weakness and gaps in their competencies. This study was conducted to identify perception towards OSCE among medical students. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted and a total 173 respondents were selected from MBBS 4th and 5th year of Chitwan Medical College by using probability stratified proportionate random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire with 5-point likert scale were used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyze data. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: About half of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) students had positive perception toward OSCE. There is significant association between the level of perception towards OSCE and year of study (p=0.002), choice of study MBBS (p=0.045) and evidenced based learning (p=0.041). </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Thus, optimum emphasis should be given on formulating OSCE guideline and orienting student about it and also organization should create environment to facilitate actual objective structured clinical examination in order to increase positive perception in our context.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23787 Training workshop on performance-based assessment: feedback of the participants faculty 2019-05-19T17:11:46+00:00 Rano Mal Piryani r_piryani@hotmail.com Suneel Piryani r_piryani@hotmail.com <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Performance-based assessment (PBA) concentrate on “Does” level of Miller’s Triangle Model of assessment and assess the ability of healthcare professionals to practice safely in different situations and context. It is essential to train faculty members how to conduct PBA. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Methods</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: One-day training workshop on PBA was organized at Liaquat Uni­versity of Medical &amp; Health Sciences Jamshoro, Sindh Pakistan in November 08, 2017 with objective “participants learn to apply PBA tools in practice”. There were two sessions of training; session one covered basics, levels and tools of assessment and blueprinting for assessment and session two PBA and its tools. Tutorial, brainstorming and activity based small group work were methods utilized for the training. Feedback of the participants was taken on semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: Twenty-two participants selected from basic, clinical, and dental sciences and nursing faculty. The participants rated workshop on scale of 1-10 (1=poor, 10=excellent) for usefulness of training (8.64 ± 1.62), content of training (8.27 ± 1.52), relevance of training &amp; content (8.59 ± 1.40), facilitation of training (8.77 ± 1.34) and overall (8.77 ± 1.38). After training participants were very confident in developing blueprint for assessment (3.91±0.61), using mini-CEX (3.64±0.58), and confident using DOPS (3.63±0.73), MSF (3.55±0.74) and Portfolio (3.68±0.84). More than one third of the partici­pants recommended to arrange more training workshop on different aspects of medical education. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Conclusions</span></strong><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">: It was observed from feedback that participants realize the importance of PBA training and stress to have trainings for various aspects of health profession education.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23788 Endourological management of forgotten double J stents: case series 2019-05-19T17:11:45+00:00 Chandra S. Yadav amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com Ashok Kumar Kunwar amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com Sanjesh Shrestha amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com Kabir Tiwari amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com Amit Mani Upadhyay amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com Ganesh Dangal amitmaniupadhyay@gmail.com <p>Putting ureteral stents are an integral part of urological practice. However, stents that fragment or are forgotten for a long time pose a management challenge and also legal dilemma. Our series consists of a review of five patients with forgotten double J stents. All these cases were managed at Kathmandu Model Hospital and all the forgotten stents were retrieved endourologically. Management of such complicated ureteral stents requires a multimodal therapeutic approach incorporating the latest ESWL and endourological techniques. Proper counseling to the patient with reference from post-operative KUB X-ray may prevent this urological tragedy.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23789 Temporal space infection secondary to recurrent buccal space infection from mandibular deciduous molar in 7-year-old child: a case report 2019-05-19T17:11:44+00:00 Sourav Rout Shailesh000@gmail.com Shailesh Gautam Shailesh000@gmail.com Arun Kumar Shah Shailesh000@gmail.com <p>Head and neck space infections are usually secondary to odontogenic infections due to translocation of oral microbes to fascial space via odontogenic route resulting in progression by enzymatic degradation of connective tissue. Various factors like microbiological, host, nutritional and socioeconomic factors are responsible for progression of fascial space infection that might take fatal course if not treated in time. The present case report describes a child with fascial space infection of oral and maxillofacial region who was treated by incision and drainage in department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of this hospital. Fascial space infections are one of the surgical emergencies and need to be addressed in early stage as it has rapid regional and systemic progression leading to fatal outcome. It is multifactorial and all need to be addressed. Incision and drainage with removal of cause with antimicrobial therapy is treatment modality of space infection. Inadequate drainage might lead to recurrence of infection and progression to distant secondary spaces.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23790 Fetal hepatic hemangioma: a case report 2019-05-19T17:11:43+00:00 Manindra Shresth manamshrestha@gmail.com Nishma Bajracharya manamshrestha@gmail.com Ashish Parajuli manamshrestha@gmail.com Amritee Gorkhali manamshrestha@gmail.com Amir Shrestha manamshrestha@gmail.com Ganesh Dangal manamshrestha@gmail.com <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Fetal liver tumors represent approximately 5% of all congenital tumors and hemangiomas account for approximately 15% of all fetal liver tumors. Hemangioma and hemangioendothelioma are benign vascular tumors but they are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality due to high output congestive heart failure and arteriovenous shunting. Ultrasound features of hepatic hemangioma can overlap with arteriovenous malformation. This is a case report of fetal hepatic hemangioma with aretriovenous shunting detected on routine anomaly scan at 20 weeks of gestation in 22 years old Nepalese women who was asymptomatic. Prenatally, a 3.2cm x 2.8cm multicystic mass was seen in the left hypochondrium of the fetal abdomen displacing the stomach. On color Doppler examination, the mass showed internal color flow and multiple tortuous dilated vessels noted around the lesion. After counseling regarding the lesion to the mother and her family; decision to abort the fetus was made. Autopsy was done for the final diagnosis of the lesion, which showed vascular mass in the left lobe of liver insinuating between stomach and spleen.</span></p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JCMC/article/view/23791 Nepalese National Formulary (NNF) 2018 2019-05-19T17:11:42+00:00 Pathiyil Ravi Shankar r_piryani@hotmail.com Rano Mal Piryani r_piryani@hotmail.com Suneel Piryani r_piryani@hotmail.com <p>No abstract available.</p> 2019-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##