Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal <p>Official journal of the College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal. Full text articles available. Also available at <a title="JCMS-Nepal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a>.</p> <p>Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> en-US (Dr. Dipendra Khatiwada) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Histomorphological Spectrum of Lesions in Nephrectomy Specimen <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Nephrectomy is a common and standard surgical practice in urology. It&nbsp; has pivotal role in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of disease.&nbsp; It is indicated in patients with irreversible kidney damage following chronic infection, trauma, obstruction and malformation as well as renal malignancy. The objective of this study was to analyze the histomorphological spectrum of various lesions in nephrectomy specimens with special emphasis on grading and staging of renal carcinoma.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>This is a retrospective study done from January 2015 to December 2020 in the Department of &nbsp;Pathology, Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital (DH - KUH). Relevant clinical data of the patients were obtained from the histopathological records of the patient from the pathology department.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 70 cases were studied, out of which 60 were simple nephrectomy specimens, followed by 8 radical and 2 partial nephrectomy specimens. The age of patient ranged from 2 to 74 years. Highest percentage of &nbsp;nephrectomy was &nbsp;seen in 4<sup>th</sup> decade of life.&nbsp; Male population comprising 54.28% of nephrectomy. Non-neoplastic lesions constituted 53 cases and chronic pyelonephritis was the most common lesion. Out of 17 neoplastic lesions, 76.47% of cases were malignant. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>This study gives a fair insight into the incidence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions of kidney requiring nephrectomy in this institution.</p> Dipika Basnet, Ramesh Makaju, Rachana Dhakal, Binita Lama, Nikita Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Dipika Basnet, Ramesh Makaju, Rachana Dhakal, Binita Lama, Nikita Gautam Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Medical Students’ Perception Regarding E- Learning during Covid-19 Lockdown Period <p><strong>Background and Objectives: </strong>Due to Covid-19 lockdown period undergraduate medical institutions across the country are moving towards e-learning for continuity of education. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of students towards e-learning and to analyze medical students’ perception on e-learning vs. conventional learning.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Method</strong>: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted by distributing an online semi-structured questionnaire consisting Likert scale to undergraduate medical students of Kathmandu Medical College. Data assembled from the survey were analyzed and Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) 24 version software was used for data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>A total of 273 students were enrolled in this study. Most of the students, 83.9% (229) had the perception that conventional teaching method was the best method for learning as compared to e-learning method 16.1% (44). The students mentioned that conventional method of learning is more effective to increase knowledge than e -learning (M= 3.87, M= 2.80) which was statistically significant (p=0.000).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: E-learning was the only option for students to study during lockdown period. But students preferred conventional method of learning as compared to e-learning. It might be due to some disadvantages of e-learning, eg. Technical difficulties, lack of interaction with teacher &nbsp;and patients, etc. So, these measures have to be addressed for improving e-learning for betterment of teaching-learning activity during these types of circumstances in future.</p> Pratibha Manandhar, Naresh Manandhar, Sunil Kumar Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Pratibha Manandhar, Dr Naresh Manandhar, Dr Sunil Kumar Joshi Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness, Enrollment and Utilization of Health Insurance among Adults of Pokhara <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Procuring a health insurance is important because medical care is expensive, especially in private sector. Hospitalization nowadays is very expensive. Financial burden while being sick can be managed wisely by paying a small annual premium which would lessen stress in case of medical emergencies. The objective of study is to assess awareness, enrollment and utilization of health insurance and find out association between awareness and enrollment with demographic variables.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to assess awareness, enrollment and utilization of health insurance among adult of Phulbari-11, Pokhara. The study was conducted during the period from June – August 2019 among 153 adult using purposive sampling. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) version 18.0.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Nearly 61% were young adult. About 2/3<sup>rd</sup> (66%) were female. Majority (82.4%) had received some form of formal education. About 57% were aware about health insurance and 40% had enrolled in it. Among them, more than 2/3<sup>rd</sup> (69%) had procured service at least once. Respondent's awareness is statistically significant with ethnicity. Enrollment in health insurance is significantly associated with age, ethnicity, marital status, history of chronic illness, family history of chronic illness and awareness of health insurance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>Awareness about health insurance is low. Enrollment and utilization of the scheme is not as expected. The enrollment in this scheme can further be enhanced through government effort to increase awareness among community people with the help of health care personnel and media.</p> Dibya Sharma, Priyanka Basnet, Ramchandra Kafle Copyright (c) 2021 Dibya Sharma Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Conventional Pap Smear Cytology in a Tertiary Care Center <p>Abstract:</p> <p>Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women with high mortality. Since it is a preventable cancer, screening for cervical cancer with Papanicolaou test (Pap Test) is considered as the stepping stone in its cure by detecting&nbsp; at its premalignant state. The two methods of acquiring the sample for cytology are Conventional method and liquid based cytology.</p> <p>Methods:&nbsp; The Pap test &nbsp;results of the patients who visited the outpatient clinic of the Gynecologic Department of Gandaki Medical College and Teaching Hospital from January 2012 to December 2017 were reviewed and analyzed from the medical records. The findings of Pap test results were tabulated and categorized as per Bethesda system of classification (2001).</p> <p>Results:&nbsp; A total of 2004 Pap tests were taken. All of the patients in the study were married with mean age of 39.7±10.3 years. A total of 1291(64.42%) Pap tests were normal or negative for intraepithelial lesion whereas 578(28.84%) were inflammatory smears while 37(1.85%) were inadequate for evaluation. There was a presence of low grade intraepithelial lesion in 4(0.2%)&nbsp; and high grade intraepithelial lesion in 15(0.75%). Atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS) was noted in 11(0.55%) and frank malignancy was noted in 1(0.05%) of total Pap test samples.</p> <p>Conclusion: In a developing country like Nepal, Pap test is still the preferred cervical cancer screening tool. All women should undergo the screening test for cervical cancer with any feasible available test.</p> <p>Key words: Bethesda system; cervical cancer; HPV; Pap Test.</p> Tika Kumari Gurung, Shree Prasad Adhikari, Ayushma Adhikari, Reecha Shrestha, Chum Maya Pun, Chum Maya Pun Copyright (c) 2021 Tika Kumari Gurung, Shree Prasad Adhikari, Ayushma Adhikari, Reecha Shrestha, Chum Maya Pun, Chum Maya Pun Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychiatric Morbidity among Children and Adolescents Attending Psychiatric Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: A variety of psychiatric manifestations can be seen in children and adolescents below the age of 19 years. This study aims to examine the socio-demographic, morbidity profiles, and clinical correlates of child and adolescent patients attending the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital (LMCTH).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: It was an observational, cross-section study involving case record analysis of all children and adolescent patients attending the psychiatry out-patient clinic between December 1, 2018 to November 30, 2019 in LMCTH, Nepal. Socio-demographic and clinical data were entered into computer software and analysed. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: One hundred and forty cases fulfilling inclusion criteria were included in the study. There were 96 (68.6%) females and 44 (31.4%) males. Majority of the patients were from 16-19 years age-group. Cases from urban areas predominated the picture. Most common psychiatric diagnosis was conversion disorder (29, 20.7%) followed by depressive disorder (25 or 17.9%) and anxiety disorder (14, 10%). Majority of females had conversion disorder (25 or 26%) followed by seizure disorder (23, 24%) and depressive disorder (15, 15.6%) whereas majority of males had equal count of depressive disorder and seizure disorder (10, 22.7%) followed by anxiety disorder (7, 15.9%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Psychiatric illness was most common in children and adolescents in the age group 16-19 years, followed by 11-15 years age-group. They were more common in female sex, and slightly higher in those from urban background. Common psychiatric diagnoses were conversion disorder followed by depressive disorder and anxiety disorder.</p> Bhaskkar Sharma, Rajesh Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 Bhaskkar Sharma Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile of Patients Admitted with Seizure Disorder in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Central Nepal <p><strong>Introduction</strong>:<strong> &nbsp;</strong>Seizure is one of the common presentation and reason for&nbsp; hospital admission in children. This study aims to address the etiology and clinical characteristics of the patient.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which children of age 1month to 15 years&nbsp; presenting with seizure were included. The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 192 patients,126 (65.6%) were males and 66(65.6%) were females with the ratio of 1.9:1. Distribution of events in different age groups were 16.1%(n=31) in group of 1month to 1 years, 63%(n=121) in group of 1yrs to 5 years,12.1%(n=24) in group of 5years to 10 years and 8.3%(n=16)in&nbsp; children above 10years.70.3% had febrile seizure, with the highest incidence in age group of 1 to 5 years. Generalised tonic clonic seizure was seen in 94.3% and focal motor seizure in 5.7%. No difference was seen&nbsp; in distribution of the type of seizure across different age groups (p= 0.192).Presenting complaints were fever in 75.5%, loss of consciousness in 26.0%, vomiting in 25.0% , headache in 23.4%, altered sensorium in 8.3% and focal neurological deficits in 8.3%. 33.9% of children had a family history of seizure. Causes of febrile seizures included upper respiratory tract infection in 82.2%, acute gastroenteritis&nbsp; in 12.6%, urinary tract infection in 3% and pneumonia &nbsp;in 2.2%. Afebrile seizure was idiopathic in 38.6% and identifiable causes in the remaining were sequelae of birth asphyxia in 17.6%, hypoglycemia in 8.8%, neuronal migration defects and neurocysticercosis in 5.3%. No relation was observed&nbsp; between the history of perinatal asphyxia and the age of onset of seizure (p=0.250). Of all the patients 57.8% were discharged without antiepileptic, 27.6% were treated with monotherapy whereas 14.5% required polytherapy to achieve seizure control.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Seizure is&nbsp; a common problem in children, with the highest incidence in the age group of 1 to 5 years and&nbsp; febrile seizure is&nbsp; the most common type of seizure in children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Isha Bhandari, Kalpana Karmacharya Malla, Pukar Ghimire, Bibek Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 ISHA BHANDARI, Dr, KALPANA KARMACHARYA MALLA, Dr, PUKAR GHIMIRE, Dr, BIBEK BHANDARI, Dr Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding Prevention and Control of COVID-19 among Nurses of Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;COVID-19 has become a global health threat and the disease burden is expected to increase more. Nurses are the front lines of COVID management. Because this work requires close personal exposure to patients with COVID-19, nurses are at high risk of infection, contributing to further spread. Nurses’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices can influence the prevention and control of pandemic. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the prevention and control of COVID-19 among nurses.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp;</strong>Descriptive cross-sectional study design was carried out among 141 nurses from the central hospital, Kathmandu. A purposive sampling technique was used and the data collection date was June 5 to July 20, 2020. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;The study showed that 60.3% of the participants had good knowledge, 53.2% of them had acceptable practice and a cent percent (100%) of them had a positive attitude on the preventive and control measures against COVID-19. More than 3/4th (75.8%) of them were agreed to handle the COVID-19 outbreak confidently in their healthcare setup. Although, 85.8% of participants were worried that they and their family members will probably get infected with COVID-19 while working in the hospital. However, 39% of them were feeling isolated by their community, and relatives due to their profession.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>&nbsp;Nurses have good knowledge, a positive attitude, and acceptable practice about prevention and control of COVID-19. However, the level of some knowledge and practice was still lower than that expected.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp;Attitude;<strong>&nbsp;</strong>COVID; Knowledge; nurses; prevention and control; practice</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Radha Paudel, Sarita Shrestha, Laxmi Gurung Copyright (c) 2021 radha paudel Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gastrointestinal Malignancies: An Eight Years Experience <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gastrointestinal malignancy constitutes a significant cancer burden in terms of mortality. They are most often detected late due to hidden location and lack of symptoms. This study was undertaken with an aim to see age and site distribution, histopathological spectrum, histologic grade and pathologic stage at presentation and to find correlation between histologic grade and pathologic stage at presentation.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This retrospective chart review was carried on 161 cases of GI malignancies received in Department of Pathology of College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital during a time period of 8 years from January 2012 to December 2019.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Age of the patients ranged from 16 to 93 years with a mean±SD of 57.3±16.3 years with maximum 36 (22.4%) cases in 51-60 years age group and a male female ratio of 1.4:1. 29 (18.0%) cases were seen at or below 40 years of age. Stomach was the most common site involved in 69 (42.9%) cases. Majority, 136 (84.5%) cases were adenocarcinoma. Majority, 48 (35.3%) cases of adenocarcinoma were Grade 2. Most 31 (45.0%) cases were Stage III at presentation. There was no statistical significant association between histologic grade and pathologic stage (p = 0.073).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>GI malignancy constitutes a significant cancer burden. Younger individuals are also considerably affected denoting a need of high degree of suspicion. Stomach was the most common site involved. Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type. There was no association between histologic grade and pathologic stage at presentation (p &gt; 0.05).</p> Binita Goyal, Mamata Sedhain, Suman Rai, Pratigya Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Binita Goyal, Mamata Sedhain, Suman Rai Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Psychological Impact and their Associated Factors of COVID-19 Pandemic among Nurses of a Metropolitan City of Central Nepal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> COVID-19 poses a great challenge to the global health system. The nurses worked in COVID ward and fever clinic act as gatekeepers to the health care system in the public health response to COVID-19 epidemic. The consequences of lockdown, quarantine of COVID-19 pandemic has not only caused physical sufferings but also affected the mental health of the nurses around the globe. This study aimed to assess psychological impact and associated factors of COVID 19 pandemic among nurses working in different level of hospital at Bharatpur Municipality Chitwan, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 150 nurses working in different hospitals of Bharatpur Municipality. Non-probability Purposive Sampling Technique was used and Data was collected via online survey using Google Form questionnaire. COVID-19 peritraumatic distress index (CPDI) questionnaire was used to find out psychological impact. Statistical analysis of data was done using SPSS version 20.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Total of 150 nurses were involved in the study where 99.3% were female, 45.3% in the age group of 26-35 years, mean age 27.22±6.612 years, 87.2% bachelor in nursing. Mild to moderate peritraumatic distress was found in 47.33% and 16% of respondents found to have severe distress level. Chi-square test showed that respondents level of knowledge (p=0.003) and presence of chronic disease (p=0.007) was statistically significant with level of distress.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Majority of the nurses had some form of psychological distress. Study highlights the need for counseling for distress and mental health during COVID-19 pandemic. A focus on improving mental wellbeing of nurses should be immediately initiated.</p> Rama Kumari Lamichhane, Bijaya Dhakal, Asha Thapa, Kalyan Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Rama Kumari Lamichhane, Bijaya Dhakal, Asha Thapa, Kalyan Sapkota Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Age Determination by Medial End of Clavicle- Radiological Study <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>The clavicle was a modified long bone and it is placed horizontally. Anatomically, clavicle consist of medial and lateral end. It doesn’t consist of medullar cavity. The medial epiphysis was the last epiphysis of the body to fuse at the age of 25-28 years of age.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>The study was conducted on 369 chest X-ray of a patient from Department of Radiology, Duwakot, Kathmandu between September-November 2020 after getting the ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Committee (reference no. KMC-IRC 2003202005). The Convenient sampling was done. The stages of ossification of the medial epiphysis of clavicle were studied. The data was analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20 version.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Total sample size was 369. Out of that 208(56.4%) were Male and 161(43.6%).&nbsp; The stages of the ossification begin at the age of 15 in Male and 12 in Female. In the both gender, the medial epiphysis completed its ossification the Stages 5 at the age of 26. The right and left side of clavicle start its ossification at the same age group and completed also in same age.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Conclusions </strong></p> <p>The ossification of the medial epiphysis of right and left side of clavicle begins and end at same time. In both the gender, the stages 5 completed at age of 26. This showed that the clavicle fused completely at the age of 26.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sarbada Makaju, Menuka Karmacharya, Sonam Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Sarbada Makaju, Menuka Karmacharya, Sonam Chaudhary Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Health Related Quality of life of Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Elderly in a Municipality of Central Nepal <p><strong>Background</strong><em>: </em>Quality of life (QoL) is the perception of an individual about their position in life. Chronic diseases such as diabetes are said to have influence on QoL. Health condition changes with increased age and chronic disease condition. This study aimed to assess Health-Related QoL of diabetic and non-diabetic elderly.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 167 elderly in Gaindakot municipality of Nawalpur, Nepal. Health related QoL was assessed using World Health Organization QoL Instrument scale. Data was analyzed using descriptive as well as inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><em>:</em> Among the diabetic respondents, highest mean score was obtained in social relationship (68.76), whereas environmental health (69.02) holds highest mean score among non-diabetic.&nbsp; Non-diabetics were in better position in terms of both psychological (63.23 vs 55.77) and physical health (62.23 vs 57.15) than diabetics. Overall QoL and overall health perception were found to be significantly correlated with all domains of QoL at (p&lt;0.05) and (p&lt;0.01) respectively among diabetics. Age group, gender, educational status, marital status and employment status were found to be statistically associated with different domains of QoL in both groups but caste, family type smoking and alcohol intake didn’t show any association with any of the domain of QoL in both groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><em>: </em>Three domains of Health Related QoL (physical, psychological and environmental health) except social relationship were better among non-diabetic compared to that of diabetic respondents. Preventing diabetes and focusing on physical, psychological and environmental health of diabetics are required for a healthy elderly life.</p> Srijana Sapkota, Jiwan Kumar Poudyal, Rajani Shah, Kanchan Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Srijana Sapkota, Ms, Jiwan Kumar Poudyal, Mr, Rajani Shah, PhD, kanchan - Thapa Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ear, Nose, Throat and Head and Neck Surgery Activity in Tertiary Care Center during COVID-19 Pandemic <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the novel virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Till 31<sup>st </sup>August 2020, 39460 COVID-19 positive cases confirmed and 228 deaths occurred in Nepal. The surgical activities in the division of ENT and HNS (Ear, Nose, Throat and Head and Neck Surgery) across the world has been affected with many hospitals confining themselves to only emergency or essential surgeries due to implementation of lockdown by many countries. Manipal Teaching Hospital being a tertiary care referral centre in western Nepal has wide array of cases coming from various parts of the country and due to the pandemic the surgical activity of our ENT and HNS unit has undergone profound changes.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A six months prospective study of “ENT and HNS Surgical Activity in Tertiary Care Center during COVID-19 Pandemic” was conducted in the department of ENT and HNS, Manipal college of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal. Statistical analysis of the study was done for various parameters like age, sex, incidence and types of elective and emergency surgeries and comparing the frequency of surgeries done during the COVID-19 pandemic vs that during the same period in the previous year.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>This study includes a total of 56 surgery cases out of which 26 were emergency and 30 were elective. Among 26 emergency cases, five were ear, one was nose, nine were throat and 11 were head &amp; neck cases. Similarly, among 30 elective cases, six were ear, eight were nose, 11 were throat and five were head &amp; neck cases. The most commonly performed emergency cases were incision and drainage of abscess followed by repair of wounds and rigid oesophagoscopy and removal of foreign body. Commonly performed elective cases were excision of ENT and HNS lesions followed by Functional endoscopic sinus surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The COVID-19 pandemic caused a steep decrease in ENT and HNS surgical activities both the elective and emergency surgery.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Krishna Chandra Rijal, Krishna Prasad Koirala, Bikram Babu Karki, Manita Maharjan Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Chandra Rijal Thu, 24 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Syphilis among Blood Donors <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> Transfusion of blood /component is an essential procedure in modern days of medical practice. As far as safe transfusion is concerned, it is a prime requirement i.e. handles TTIs infections including syphilis and other adverse events.</p> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives: </strong>Focus of the present study is to assess<strong> s</strong>eroprevalence and risk factors of Syphilis among blood donors in greater Gwalior</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> The present retrospective descriptive study was conducted over a period of 8 years. All the samples of voluntary and relative blood donors, who came to donate blood, were tested for transfusion transmissible infections. Prevalence of TTIs and syphilis were analyzed in the view of different parameters of donors and along with its associated risk factors. Chi square (X<sup>2</sup>) test was applied to know the significant <em>(p value) </em>ratio of difference statistically as required.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the present study prevalence of TTIs is 3.44% and for syphilis it is 0.268%, most common age group is 40-51years (41.18%); male to female ratio is insignificant statistically. Ratio of voluntary versus relative donors was 94.21% and 5.79 % &nbsp;and&nbsp; male to female was 91.27% and 8.473% were female respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> An advance knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the volunteer blood donors’ population regarding risk factors will most probably improve public health and increase blood safety and quality.</p> Sachin Singhal, Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Sunita Rai, Anita Arya, Prakriti Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Sachin Singhal, Dharmesh Chandra Sharma, Sunita Rai, Anita Arya, Prakriti Gupta Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000