Journal of Forest and Livelihood <p>The English journal of ForestAction Nepal. Journal of Forest and Livelihood (JFL) is a peer-reviewed journal, targeted for professionals, policy makers and academicians in the field of forestry and natural resource management. JFL is an open access journal and is published biannually.</p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>CC-BY-NC:</strong> This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </span></p> (Rahul Karki) (Sioux Cumming) Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Does High-Value Agriculture Build Resilient Livelihood? Insights from the Study of Cardamom and Vegetable Farmers of Nepal <p>The Nepalese agriculture is shifting from subsistence farming of cereal crops to commercial farming of high-value agriculture (HVA) crops. This shift in agriculture for high income have implications in the livelihood of farmers and the farming system. In this paper, we have explored on these two interlinked issues, HVA based livelihoods and the risks in farming. We took two cases, cardamom from Ilam and vegetables from Makwanpur for in-depth study and collected qualitative data from 52 farmers. We interpreted data following<br>the household livelihood resilient framework and the farming system resilient framework. Findings show that income and employment from HVA strengthen financial asset at the beginning and then contribute to build other livelihood assets which re-enforce each other and improve the livelihood condition of farmers. In addition, HVA crops face risks as a result of price fluctuation and climate change which majority farmers have adapted through mobilisation of assets and additional investments. We conclude that HVA can<br>withstand shocks like price fluctuation and climate change and provide base for resilient livelihood of the farmers. As small farmers have lower adaptive capacity than those with large scale farming, HVA policies and interventions should be favorable and reachable to all farmers, particularly those involved in small-scale farming practice.</p> Sushant Acharya Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies in Trans-Himalaya Region of Nepal <p>Nepal is ranked as one of the highly climate vulnerable nations in the present global climate scenario. Multiple studies have been done across the regions, yet there lacks a detailed study on the impacts of climate change and adaptation practices in mountainous areas such as Mustang region of Nepal. In this context, we aim to examine the impacts of climate change experienced locally and adaptation practices adopted in Muktinath valley of Mustang District, Nepal. A mixed-method approach was employed in gathering qualitative and quantitative data. The household surveys (N=60) were done using a simple random sampling followed by Key Informant Interviews (N=10) and Focus Group Discussions (N=2). The analysis of overall trend of mean annual maximum, minimum and average temperatures from 1985 to 2016 depicted an increment by 0.06℃/yr, 0.0369℃/yr and 0.0217℃/yr respectively. Agriculture, water resources, Non-Timber Forest Products and human health were extremely impacted due to the changing climate. Moreover, several natural hazards like landslide, avalanche, spread of invasive species, and increase in number of pests and flies were<br>experienced. Construction of artificial pond, pest and weed control, change in plantation and harvesting time, and change in cropping pattern were the major adaptation practices adopted by the local people. Similarly, lack of technical and financial resources were the major constraints for adaptation practice. We recommend that the local and provincial governments should focus on local level policies to support the mountain livelihood and landscape.</p> Dinesh Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Conflict-Sensitive Climate Change Adaptation in Nepal: An Analysis of Climate Resilience Policy Frameworks <p>Nepal is experiencing climate change and its impacts on the ground. The effects of climate change will exacerbate the vulnerability of people and communities to varying degrees. In some situations, it causes extreme disruption to cope with climate change impact and render livelihoods of vulnerable people. In countries like Nepal, climate change has exacerbated the social, economic, and political vulnerabilities. This study assesses the status of integration of resilience components of climate conflicts in Nepal’s policy<br>frameworks.. Furthermore, the study focuses on the conflict dynamics of climate change impact to observe the fragility risk. A review of the federal government’s policy framework and a semi-structured interview with the policy experts revealed that components of resilience are poorly integrated, especially peacebuilding. The policy instruments do not attribute climate change to social vulnerability and conflict dynamics. Failure to incorporate the conflict-sensitive approaches in the climate policy frameworks can lead to potential conflict or advance climate conflict instead of resilience. Many peacebuilding initiatives have been recognised in natural resource management practices however, it requires similar integration in climate change adaptation actions to enhance resilience across climate change to develop community cohesion and rebuilding trust in the government together. Finally, the study concludes that climate change policy frameworks should be taken as a peacebuilding strategy by addressing conflict risks associated with climate change through conflict-sensitive policy measures considering climate change as a risk multiplier.</p> Sudeep Thakuri Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biodiversity Beyond Protected Areas: Gaps and Opportunities in Community Forest <p>Amidst its successes on various fronts of forest management, there are still concerns about overall biodiversity outcomes in community forests (CFs) of Nepal. The potential for biodiversity conservation is undermined by an orthodox focus of conservation efforts on protected areas and charismatic species, and the prevalence of management activities that potentially hinder biodiversity in community forests. However, the actual potential for biodiversity conservation and impacts of management activities is obscured by a lack of a robust and comprehensive accounts of biodiversity in CFs. Taking, as a case study, the 22 CFs in the remnant Jalthal forest of Jhapa district in south-eastern Nepal, we examine its biodiversity status, prevalent threats to biodiversity, management interventions and conservation outcomes. We surveyed species across taxonomic groups, identified local uses of plant species, reviewed CF operational plans, discussed with local leaders experienced in forest management, and organised forest transect walks and in situ interviews with local community forest leaders. We demonstrate the richness, uniqueness and conservation significance<br>of Jalthal forest and highlight the key role of biodiversity for the people living in proximity to the forest. Paradoxically, it is evident that along with biodiversity richness, the forest is equally threatened by invasive alien plants. Moreover, timber-centric management is dominant and a high demand for biomass extraction exists across the CFs. Despite playing an important role in protecting and managing Jalthal forest, the existing management practices of CFs are not sufficient to conserve biodiversity and address the emerging threats -primarily because they are weakly informed by relevant biodiversity data. Building an evidence-driven basis<br>for forest management plans and enhancing the capacities of local communities to properly implement these plans can help restore degraded forests, conserve biodiversity and meet the local need for forest products. This paper reinforces the paradigm that conserving biodiversity outside protected areas, such as in community-managed forests, can indeed contribute towards broader biodiversity conservation goals in addition to providing ecosystem services to local forest-dependent populations.</p> Lila Nath Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 What is Choking Nepal’s Domestic Timber Supply? <p>Despite the huge potential, and the government’s stated agenda and policy priorities to increase timber production in Nepal, timber resources are still underutilised and domestic timber supply has to be supplemented by imports. During the course of establishing silvicultural demonstration plots through the first and second phases of the Enhancing Livelihoods and Food Security from Agroforestry and Community Forestry in Nepal (EnLiFT), we uncovered the major constraints that limit timber supply in Nepal. Primarily, we find that: (i) uninformed discourses and uncertain policies around timber industry periodically halt production, and (ii) harvesting activity is generally discouraged by cumbersome regulatory and administrative procedures. Secondarily, (i) the business environment is not friendly towards timber production, and (ii) a lack of technological and skill development also limits production. However, efforts to improve these secondary issues may not bear fruit, as long as the primary constraints remain in place. Though there is room for improvement within the organisation of community and private timber producers, central governmental<br>agencies must play a proactive role in lifting legal and administrative constraints, creating a favourable business environment and supporting technological innovations.</p> Shrabya Timsina Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 07 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000