Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2019-12-24T18:01:35+00:00 Prof.Dr. Subarna Shakya Open Journal Systems The official journal of the Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk Campus. Full text articles available. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System for Space Heating: A Case Study of Resort 2019-12-24T18:01:35+00:00 Tri Ratna Bajracharyaa Rabindra Nath Bhattaraiai Sarika Kumari Mishra Ashesh Babu Timilsina <p> The need of thermal comfort is one of the major topic of energy consumption in building. Alternative means for space heating are required for reducing building energy consumption and also reduce its carbon footprint. Solar thermal systems are matured technology in field of hot water and space heating. Though solar water heater has flourished in Nepal, space heating system is less popular. With an objective to assess the less popularity of such system in Nepal, financial comparison of solar underfloor heating system against commonly used VRF system designed to meet heating requirements of a particular site is done. The selected site is a resort in <em>Nagarkot</em>, Nepal. The selected site has minimum temperature of 3 ºC which is to be maintained at 20 ºC of which the total heating load is 10.527 kW. From the financial analysis, it is seen that though installation cost of solar powered system is more, in long run it turns out to be economic and in this case the system is technically and financially viable. For solar underfloor heating, the levelized cost of energy when subsidized with 3.5 % interest rate is NRs. 13.18 which is slightly more than current rate of electrical energy. The solar powered heating system has very high footprint because of which this type of system is less employed in urban areas and high rise buildings.</p><p><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 1-13</p> 2018-06-04T11:55:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fabrication of Air Freshening Spongy Three Dimensional Electrospun Membrane 2019-12-24T18:01:32+00:00 Purnima Mulmi Hem Raj Pant <p> In this work, air freshening spongey 3D nanofibrous membrane of nylon-6 (N6) is fabricated via electrospinning process. Viscous N6 solution dissolved in formic acid/acetic acid solvent system was allowed for electrospinning to obtain 2D membrane. As-fabricated 2D membrane is converted into 3D one by using gas foaming technique. Lemon grass essential oil as a fragrance was incorporated through 2D and 3D porous membrane by evaporating essential oil at 60°C for 5 hours. The morphology of different membranes was examined from FE-SEM images which showed that 3D membrane is far porous than 2D one. The control fragrance release from the 3D spongy membrane was evaluated from the weight loss of oil-loaded membrane for 60 days which showed that the 3D membrane had more oil uptake and the controlled release of oil over the studied time. FT-IR spectra of oil-incorporated 3D membrane at different interval of times indicated the presence of fragrance even after the 60 days. The result showed that as-fabricated sponge 3D membrane may be a potential candidate for the future air freshening materials.</p><p><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 14-21</p> 2018-06-04T11:55:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Real Power Loss Minimization and Voltage Stability Enhancement by Hybridization of Eagle Strategy with Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm 2019-12-24T18:01:29+00:00 K. Lenin <p class="Default"> In this paper, Hybridization of Eagle Strategy (ES) with Particle Swarm Optimization is proposed to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch Problem. Proposed hybridization of Eagle Strategy with Particle Swarm Optimization (EPSO) enhances the search in rigorous mode. Eagle strategy has been instigating by the foraging behaviour of golden eagles. This stratagem has two important parameters: arbitrary search and exhaustive chase. At first it explores the search space globally, and then in the second case the strategy makes an intensive local search with using an effective local optimizer method. So, Particle Swarm Optimization has been enhanced using ES and employed to solve reactive power optimization problem. In order to appraise the efficiency of the projected EPSO algorithm, it has been tested in standard IEEE 30 bus system and compared other reported algorithms. Results show’s that EPSO algorithm is more efficient in plummeting the real power loss and voltage index also enhanced.</p><p><strong> Journal of the Institute of Engineering,</strong> 2018, 14(1): 22-34</p> 2018-06-04T11:55:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Discrete Dynamical Systems: A Brief Survey 2019-12-24T18:01:25+00:00 Sara Fernandes Carlos Ramos Gyan Bahadur Thapa Luís Lopes Clara Grácio <p class="Default"> Dynamical system is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that is described in time dependent fashion. The time can be measured by either of the number systems - integers, real numbers, complex numbers. A discrete dynamical system is a dynamical system whose state evolves over a state space in discrete time steps according to a fixed rule. This brief survey paper is concerned with the part of the work done by José Sousa Ramos [2] and some of his research students. We present the general theory of discrete dynamical systems and present results from applications to geometry, graph theory and synchronization.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering,</strong> 2018, 14(1): 35-51</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:01+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Post Disaster Reconstruction after 2015 Gorkha Earthquake: Challenges and Influencing Factors 2019-12-24T18:01:22+00:00 Keshab Sharma Apil KC Mandip Subedi Bigul Pokharel <p class="Default"><span class="A2"><span>The Gorkha earthquake on April 25, 2015 has significantly affected the livelihood of people and overall economy in Nepal, causing severe damage and destruction in central Nepal including nation's capital. 800 thousand buildings were affected leaving 8 million people homeless. Challenge of reconstruction of optimum 800 thousand houses is arduous for Nepal Government in background of its turmoil political scenario and weak governance apart from its difficult geographical terrain. Albeit, with significant number of stakeholders involved in the reconstruction process, no appreciable progress has seen to the ground till date, which is reflected over the frustration of affected people. In order to identify factors hindering timely and quality reconstruction, this research has brought basic arguments and ideas prospected by different actors involved in the process. Methodology of the study is comprised with semi structured interviews with social mobilizers, engineers working in the field, and affected people, group discussion, field observations and regular follow-up of the incidents through national newspapers and discussion forums. This study concludes that inaccessibility, absence of local government, weak governance, weak infrastructures, lack of preparedness, knowledge gap and manpower shortage etc. are the key challenges of the reconstruction after 2015 earthquake in Nepal. Good governance, integrated information, addressing technical issues, public participation along with short term and long term strategies to tackle with technical issues are highlighted as some imperative factors for timely and quality reconstruction in context of Nepal.</span></span></p><p class="Default"><span class="A2"><span><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 52-63</span></span></p> 2018-06-04T11:56:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Earth Block Construction in Nepal as Alternative to Reconstruction after the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake 2019-12-24T18:01:19+00:00 Aayush Kasajoo Ma Hongwang <p class="Default"> On April 25, 2015, 7.8 magnitude earthquake occurred in Central Nepal with epicentre in Gorkha District at 11:56 NST (local time). A major aftershock of magnitude 7.3 on May 12, 2015 resulted in enhancement of damages. Almost 800,000 buildings were fully or partially damaged. This paper highlights the different types of buildings in Nepal and the damage patterns recorded from the earthquake. Different causes of failures are highlighted for different types of building including masonry, wooden, reinforced cement concrete etc. 44.2% of the buildings in Nepal are masonry type which in fact performed the worst during the earthquake. One of the main reason was the poor quality of bricks used in the buildings. Most of the masonry buildings in Nepal are located in the rural areas where the economic condition of people are not up to the level. Utilization of local resources and people skill is important. Thus, as an alternative to it, we have put forward the idea of earth block construction which is not only earthquake resillient but lighter, greener sustainable and economical.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering,</strong> 2018, 14(1): 64-74</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Restructuring Examination System of Institute of Engineering for Establishing Center of Excellence in Engineering Education 2019-12-24T18:01:16+00:00 Tri Ratna Bajracharya Babu Ram Dawadi Ram Chandra Sapkota <p class="Default"> There exists different parameters that act as influencing factors to measure the quality of technical education. Nature of examination with its process and activities has direct and indirect relationship towards quality product and result status in any academic institution. Institute of Engineering (IOE) is continuously enhancing the examination process with the objective to increase the quality and pass rate in the semester examination. Being to conduct several bi-annual exams, Examination Control Division (ECD) of Institute of Engineering (IOE) is mostly the busy organization that has to manage examinations for bachelor, masters and PhD degree programs throughout the year. ECD conducts by-annual semester exams for regular and back exam of bachelor of engineering students having 10 streams (Civil, Computer, Electronics, Electrical, Mechanical, Geomatics, Agriculture, Industrial, Architecture and Automobile) in its four constituent campuses and ten affiliated colleges. Similarly, ECD also conducts bi-annual exams for masters of engineering programs having seven streams and 24 sub-streams. There are more than 16,000 examinees in the bachelor exam including regular and back. Additionally, successful conduction of BE/BArch/ M.Sc. entrance examinations is also an integral duty of ECD. The student pass rate in the semester exams of IOE is below expectations. This study is mostly focused on finding the factors affecting the quality results and approaches of optimizations for better education at IOE. After reviewing several factors, we proposed “restructuring of regular and back paper examinations" as one of the major approach that will help to increase the quality of education and consequently increase the pass rate in the semester examination system of IOE.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 75-81</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization for Upgradation of Small Hydropower Plant in Nepal: A Case Study of Sundarijal Hydropower Plant 2019-12-24T18:01:12+00:00 Prahlad Raut Rajendra Shrestha Pashupati Raj Gautam <p class="Default"><span class="A4"><span>Efficiencies of electro-mechanical components of the Sundarijal Hydropower Plant in Nepal has been decreased and the plant has been generating less energy than design generation. The study shows that the plant can be upgraded to 1.1 MW capacity at Q</span></span><span class="A6"><span>60 </span></span><span class="A4"><span>design with rehabilitation. Main objective of the plant rehabilitation is to improve operational stability and reliability of power supply by increasing capacity, efficiency, and safety of the plant. The research is based on the Residual Life Assessment of hydro-mechanical components. Minimum thickness of existing penstock obtained from measurement is six mm which is sufficient for upgradation at Q</span></span><span class="A6"><span>60 </span></span><span class="A4"><span>design. Mechanical and chemical properties of penstock is found to be acceptable for upgradation. Machine foundations are tested to be safe for upgradation. Upgradation can be carried out for two scenarios: i) using two generating units system ii) using three generating units system. Energy generation per annum from two generating units system is 65.92 MWh lower than three generating units system. The difference in annual revenue between two systems is 3.93 thousand USD. Capital cost estimation shows that cost for three generating three generating units system is higher than two generating units system by 152 thousands USD. Cash flow analysis shows that IRR ratio for two generating units system is higher than three generating units system by three percentage. Upgradation with two generating units system is more suitable and beneficial than three generating units system. Optimization of turbine units is also carried out using nonlinear gradient reduction method in excel solver.</span></span></p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering,</strong> 2018, 14(1): 82-95</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modeling Exchange Rate Volatility using APARCH Models 2019-12-24T18:01:08+00:00 Carolyn Ogutu Betuel Canhanga Pitos Biganda <p class="Default">ARCH (Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedacity) and GARCH (Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedacity) models have been used in forecasting fluctuations in exchange rates, commodities and securities and are appropriate for modeling time series in which there is non-constant variance, and in which the variance at one time period is dependent on the variance at a previous time period. In our paper we deal with APARCH models (Arithmetic Power Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity) in order to fit into a data series with asymmetric characteristics. We use Kenyan, Tanzanian and Mozambican data and perform the time series analysis and obtain a model that characterize the data set under consideration.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 96-106</p><p class="Default"> </p> 2018-06-04T11:56:38+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Non-conserving Flow Aspect of Maximum Dynamic Flow Problem 2019-12-24T18:01:05+00:00 Phanindra Prasad Bhandari Shree Ram Khadka <p class="Default">Shifting as many people as possible from disastrous area to safer area in a minimum time period in an efficient way is an evacuation planning problem (EPP). Modeling the evacuation scenarios reflecting the real world characteristics and investigation of an efficient solution to them have become a crucial due to rapidly increasing number of natural as well as human created disasters. EPPs modeled on network have been extensively studied and the various efficient solution procedures have been established where the flow function satisfies the flow conservation at each intermediate node. Besides this, the network flow problem in which flow may not be conserved at nodes necessarily could also be useful to model the evacuation planning problem. This paper proposes an efficient solution procedure for maximum flow evacuation planning problem of later kind on a single-source-single-sink dynamic network with integral arc capacities with holding capability of flow (evacuees) in the temporary shelter at intermediate nodes.</p><p class="Default"><strong> Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 107-114</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Experimental Study on Surface Integrity of Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Ball End Milling 2019-12-24T18:01:02+00:00 Pun Krishna Kaway Xueping Zhang <p class="Default">Titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V, has been widely used in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, and chemical industries due to its exceptional strength to weight ratio, high temperature performance, and corrosion resistance. However, machinability of Ti6Al4V is poor due to high strength at elevated temperatures, low modulus, and low thermal conductivity. Poor machinability of Ti6Al4V deteriorates the surface integrity of the machined surface. Poor surface integrity causes high machining cost, surface defects, initiate cracks, and premature failure of the machined surface. Thus, it is indispensable to obtain better surface integrity when machining titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut have significant effect on the surface integrity when machining titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. Hence, this study investigates surface integrity of Ti6Al4V by ball end milling at different cutting speeds, feed rates, and depth of cuts. Microstructure of subsurface is studied at different cutting speeds, feed rates, and depth of cuts. The results show that the depth of deformation of subsurface increases with increase in the cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 115-121</p> 2018-06-04T11:56:50+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reverse Holder Condition and Space Ap 2019-12-24T18:00:59+00:00 Santosh Ghimire <p class="Default">In this paper, we begin with Reverse Holder condition and class A<sub>p</sub>. We show that a weight function w is in Reverse Holder condition 2018-06-04T11:56:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Effect of Twisted Polymer Fiber on Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Concrete C35 2019-12-24T18:00:56+00:00 Reza Mirzaei Naser Zarifmoghaddam <p class="Default"> Concrete as the most used material, is known as an integral part of construction. So far, many studies have been done in the field of improving the quality of concrete that most of them have examined change in concrete mix which is called concrete mix plan. However, the use of additives and also replacing commonly used materials in concrete with new materials always has been noteworthy. In this study, description of tests that have been done on fiber reinforced concrete will be discussed. Also, the condition of concrete mix plan will be discussed. Comparison between results of the tests showed that Forta reinforced concretes have more compressive, flexural and tensile strength and modulus of elasticity than normal and ordinary concretes.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 126-135</p><p class="Default"> </p> 2018-06-04T11:56:59+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evidences of Hierarchy of Brahmi Numeral System 2019-12-24T18:00:53+00:00 Eka Ratna Acharya <p class="Default">The numeral system developed in South Asian Subcontinent in third century B. C. E. as the ancestor of the Hindu Arabic, Lichhavi, Kharosthi and other different numeral systems is popular by Brahmi numeral system. Ashoka prepared the pillar to preserve the Brahmi inscription with consisting numerals. The Brahmi numerical symbols are found at Lumbini of Nepal, for example a symbol used there tells the division by eight (Athabhagiya) and conversely multiplication of eight. Ashoka pillar with different inscriptions were found at Bihar, Uttarpradesh, Delhi, Madhyapradesh of India and different parts of Nepal like Niglihawa and Lumbini. In this system numerals are written from left to right. This system was very popular in South Asian Subcontinent for a long time and it impacts to the development of other numeral systems. The aim of this paper is to explore the hierchy and the existence of symbols of Brahmi numeral on the basis of document analysis and symbols found at different manuscript and monuments.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 136-142</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of Global Solar Radiation Using Empirical Model on Meteorological Parameters at Simara Airport, Bara, Nepal 2019-12-24T18:00:50+00:00 Janaki Awasthi Khem Narayan Poudyal <p class="Default"> This research work purpose to estimate the daily global solar radiation (GSR) using CMP6 pyranometer at low altitude of Simara Airport (lat. 27°9’33” N and long. 84°58’48” E, Alt.137m respectively). The measured data is used to study the diurnal, monthly, and seasonal variation of GSR. The maximum and minimum value of GSR is found at the spring and winter season respectively. A number of multi linear regression equations were developed to predict the relationship between GSR with one or more combinations of meteorological parameters using the regression technique and calculate the empirical constants from Tiwari &amp; Sangeeta model which is the best empirical model among other tested models. The empirical constants and sunshine hour are utilized to estimate the GSR for the years 2009 and 2010 in the Simara Airport. The annual average solar insolation 4.62 and 4.56 k/m<sup>2</sup>/day is found at Simara Airport for years 2009 and 2010. The performance of each model was analyzed by calculating Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Coefficient of Determination (R2) Mean Bias Error (MBE), and Mean Percent Error (MPE). The finding empirical constants 0.30 and 0.52 can be utilized to estimate the GSR where there is no measured data of GSR at similar meteorological sites of Nepal.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 143-150</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Electricity Generation Potential of Municipal Solid Waste of Nepal and GHG Mitigations 2019-12-24T18:00:47+00:00 Krishna Bahadur Sodari Amrit Man Nakarmi <p> This research is carried out to assess the current status of municipal solid waste of municipalities of Nepal and its potential for energy recovery. During the year 2016, solid waste samples were collected by door-to-door collection method and the total energy content of the municipal waste was calculated using Bomb Calorimeter in the laboratory. During the study period, the total waste generated at Kathmandu metropolitan city was 566 tons per day with 0.3 kg per capita contribution. The major waste constituent was the organic with 67.77% of the total waste volume. Other bulk wastes were plastic and paper constituting 10% and 5% by volume respectively. Rest of the wastes (8%) was categorized as “other". In average, the total moisture content in the wastes was 49.93%. Total waste generation of all municipalities was found 1435 tons per day. The calorific value of the plastic wastes had highest energy content (40.61 MJ/kg). The organic (15.68 MJ/kg) and paper (15.61MJ/kg) wastes had similar energy content while the other wastes had slightly higher energy content (17.57MJ/kg). The net energy available and, thus, lost after dumping of the solid waste was 71,895,056 MJ which is equivalent to 4262 MWh which can run 52 MW plasma arc gasification power plant. The waste to energy potential of Kathmandu Metropolitan city was found to be 19 MW. Total reduction in GHG emission was found 220,690 kg CO<sub>2 </sub>eq kg per day.</p><p><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 151-161</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Petersen-Varchenko’s Identity for Stirling Numbers of the First Kind 2019-12-24T18:00:43+00:00 C. G. León-Vega J. López-Bonilla S. Yáñez-San Agustín <p class="Default">Stirling numbers of the first kind has some interesting interpretations. In this short paper, we exhibit an elementary deduction of an identity for <em>S<sub>n</sub></em><sup>(m</sup><sup>)</sup> obtained by Petersen-Varchenko.</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Study of Job Satisfaction among Civil Engineers Working in Hydropower Sector in Consulting Firms 2019-12-24T18:00:40+00:00 Prabin Thapa Santosh Kumar Shrestha <p class="Default"> An increase in job satisfaction is directly related to an increase in productivity. The study was conducted with the aim of finding job satisfaction of civil engineers working in hydropower sector in consulting firms of Nepal. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among civil engineers in 34 consulting firms. Self-administered questionnaire were distributed among 230 civil engineers where 143 respondents had replied in time. Collected data was analyzed using descriptive as well as inferential statistical method. Study finding shows that on an average, the job satisfaction score of employees was 3.69 out of 5 with standard deviation of 0.63 coefficient of variance equals to 0.17. Similarly, relationship of Job satisfaction by both method (single global rating method and summation job factors method) with independent variables shows that pay systems (0.424 and 0.642), job itself (0.334 and 0.650), relation with supervisors (0.312 and 0.637), working conditions (0.296 and 0.628) and promotion opportunities (0.273 and 0.757) were positively related with overall job satisfaction at 95 % confidence level. Based on finding of the study, it can be concluded that, the majorities of civil engineers were satisfied with their job despite their low rating on pay and promotion opportunities. The management of consulting firms and concerned authorities should focus on improving pay and promotions opportunities and designing proper programs for further improvement of job satisfaction.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 165-169</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Optimization of Process Parameters of Abrasive Jet Machining on Hastelloy through Response Surface Methodology 2019-12-24T18:00:37+00:00 D. V. Sreekanth M. Sreenivasa Rao <p class="Default"><span class="A6"><span>The demand for micro products is rapidly increasing in chemical, marine and aerospace industries. The super alloys which have high strength and corrosion resistance properties play a major role. Hastelloy which is difficult to machine by the conventional processes can be machined by using AJM. Hastelloy C276 sheet of thickness 1mm has been drilled on the AJM test rig using variable process parameters. In this paper optimization of process parameters of Abrasive Jet Machining of Hastelloy C276 by RSM methodology is presented. The values obtained in RSM Analysis were compared with the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Various levels of experiments are conducted using L15 orthogonal array for both MRR and KERF.</span></span></p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 170-178</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:34+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Two Higher Order Iterative Methods for Solving Nonlinear Equations 2019-12-24T18:00:34+00:00 Jivandhar Jnawali Chet Raj Bhatta <p class="Default"> The main purpose of this paper is to derive two higher order iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations as variants of Mir, Ayub and Rafiq method. These methods are free from higher order derivatives. We obtain these methods by amalgamating Mir, Ayub and Rafiq method with standard secant method and modified secant method given by Amat and Busquier. The order of convergence of new variants are four and six. Also, numerical examples are given to compare the performance of newly introduced methods with the similar existing methods.</p><p class="Default"> <strong>2010 AMS Subject Classification: </strong>65H05</p><p class="Default"> <strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 179-187</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:39+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relation of Golden Ratio, Mathematics and Aesthetics 2019-12-24T18:00:31+00:00 Gyan Bahadur Thapa Rena Thapa <p class="Default"><span>The Golden Ratio, mathematics and aesthetics are intricately related among each other. In this paper, we exhibit the presence of mathematics in aesthetic impression that appears in nature, classic art, architecture, logo design and much more. The divine proportion can be found in music, poetry and other forms of art, however our focus here is only in the visual ones. The Golden ratio is considered sacred due to its relationship to nature and even the construction of the universe and the human body. It has been used for centuries in the construction of architectural masterpieces by the great artists, who, being able to see its beauty used it in their designs and compositions. We explain how the applications of the Golden ratio in architectures, paintings and geometrical shapes create the mystery of beauty. Further we present the existence of the divine proportion in human body and natural flora and fauna. There are a diverse number of directions, paths and tangents to which the study of this beautiful concept could take us. Besides mathematicians and artists, we expect that this paper will be interesting for general readers as well. </span></p><p class="Default"><span> </span><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 188-199</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Solar UV Index at Different Altitudes of Nepal 2019-12-24T18:00:27+00:00 Niranjan Prasad Sharma <p>The main objective of this research is to study the satellite estimated solar Ultraviolet data alongside the ground based data in Nepal. Kathmandu (27.72°N, 85.32°&gt;E), Pokhara (28.22°N, 83.32°E) Biratnagar (26.45°N, 87.27°E) and Lukla (27.69°N, 86.73°E) are located at an elevation of 1350m, 800m, 72m and 2850m respectively from the sea level. The ground based measurements and the satellite estimation were performed by NILU-UV irradiance meter and EOS Aura OMI satellite respectively. The NILU-UV irradiance meter is a six channel radiometer designed to measure hemispherical irradiances on a flat surface. Meanwhile the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board, the NASA EOS Aura space craft is a nadir viewing spectrometer that measures solar reflected and back scattered light in ultraviolet and visible spectrum. The study was performed for 3 years Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) data. This study showed that the ratio of predicted OMI Ultraviolet Index (UVI) to that determined from the ground based measurement was less than 1.21 except in Lukla.</p><p><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 200-205</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:50+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gibbs-Wilbraham Phenomenon in Square Wave Function 2019-12-24T18:00:24+00:00 Bhupendra Budha Man Bahadur Subedi <p class="Default">The aim of this paper is to show the fluctuation on overshoots of particular term due to change in magnitude of discontinuity in the square wave function represented in Fourier series and also is to address the mathematical relation between those parameters. Along with that, some graphical plots of different terms are given to illustrate the results and to interpolate data with smooth curves using Cubic spline interpolation in MATLAB.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 206-215</p> 2018-06-04T11:57:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Big Data Challenges for e-Government Services in Nepal 2019-12-24T18:00:21+00:00 Pratima Pradhan Subarna Shakya <p class="Default"><span class="A4"><span>With the digital disruption governments all over the world have envisaged into big data technology with the purpose of seeking values for the benefit of governmental activities. Governments have taken up this technology as a game changer of the e-governance. Citizen centric data over the web access and activities over the smart handsets have driven large volume of data not only in structured form but largely in unstructured form. The necessity of processing and analyzing the exploding data sets has driven governments to adopt this technology. This paper studies the possibility of digitalizing Nepal e-government services with innovative problem solving measures by adapting the Big Data applications. Following the global trend of digitalization and the ICT infrastructure development, Nepal e-Government services can initiate Big Data technology to resolve many of the governmental services. This paper explores some big data applications for the e-government of Nepal and further studies some challenges that Nepal could face while adopting the Big data in the e-government services.</span></span></p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 216-222</p> 2018-06-04T11:58:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of English Language Proficiency on the Job Grabbing Process of Engineers in Nepal and the Other Countries: A Bird's Eye View 2019-12-24T18:00:17+00:00 Rup Narayan Shrestha Jai Raj Awasthi Bharat Raj Pahari <p class="Default"> This paper presents the findings of a research carried out on the impact of English language proficiency on the job grabbing process of the engineers in Nepal and a few other countries. Based mainly on the review of literature that were available in the internet websites, this paper sheds light on the facts that the English language proficiency is extremely important for the global engineers today. It reveals that the ability to communicate in English efficiently in their workplace is of paramount importance for engineers not only in Nepal but also in the other countries. In the present day context, the employers want to hire merely those candidates who possess sufficient proficiency in English.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering,</strong> 2018, 14(1): 223-234</p> 2018-06-04T11:58:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of 30m Resolution SRTM DEM in Nepal 2019-12-24T18:00:14+00:00 Raghunath Jha <p class="Default"> Digital Terrain Model (DTM) or Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is an important data for Raster Analysis in modern GIS. Its use is extremely important for almost all fields of engineering, especially Water Resources Engineering. In Nepal, high-resolution DTM is not available, and often funds are limited to generate high-resolution DTM using modern day technology such as LiDAR or Aerial Photography. As a result most of the works are based on SRTM DEM which is available free of cost. Presently, 1arc second DTM is available in SRTM for Nepalese Territories. In this study, the applicability of 1arc second or 30m resolution SRTM is checked in comparison with the Department of Survey Digital Topographic Map. It is found that SRTM DEM performs better than DEM generated from Data available with Survey Department.</p><p class="Default"><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 235-240</p> 2018-06-04T11:58:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## "Kath Tatha Kastha-Pravidhima" Prayojanparak Engineering Bhashik Bhed Ek Adhyayan "काठ तथा काष्ठ प्रविधिमा" प्रयोजनपरक इन्जिनीरिंग भाषिक भेद एक अध्ययन 2019-12-24T18:00:11+00:00 Yadav Prasad यादव प्रसाद Dhungana ढुंगाना <p>Not Available.</p><p>उपलब्ध छैन </p><p><strong>Journal of the Institute of Engineering</strong>, 2018, 14(1): 241-244</p> 2018-06-04T11:58:16+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##