Journal of the Institute of Engineering 2020-02-14T19:44:13+00:00 Prof.Dr. Subarna Shakya Open Journal Systems The official journal of the Institute of Engineering, Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk Campus. Full text articles available. Software Defined IPv6 Network: A New Paradigm for Future Networking 2020-02-14T19:43:25+00:00 Babu Ram Dawadi Danda Bahadur Rawat Shashidhar R. Joshi <p>Recent advancement in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has encouraged all stakeholders to move towards the new networking paradigm. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addressing, Software Defined Network (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are regarded as technologies for enhancing network efficiency and effectiveness. However, the technology migration becomes one of the central challenges for the stakeholders such as service providers, end users, and regulatory bodies. This is more challenging in case of developing countries due to lack of sufficient cost and skilled human resources. In this paper, we provide an overview and survey of SDN and IPv6 networking technologies, their benefits and future challenges. Then we introduce Software Defined IPv6 (SoDIP6) network as a next generation networking technologies and their unified approach of deployment over the Tier-3 ISPs of the developing nations that could help for speedy and smooth migration with optimized cost. The demonstrated superior features of SDN enabled IPv6 network from different perspectives with its contributions to green ICT are recognized as the networks of the future generation in the networking world.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Behavioural Adaptation for the Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Offices 2020-02-14T19:43:27+00:00 Hom B. Rijal Michael A. Humphreys J. Fergus Nicol <p>Office workers use a variety of adaptive opportunities to regulate their indoor thermal environment. The behavioural adaptations such as window opening, clothing adjustments, and use of heating/cooling are important factors for adaptive thermal comfort. It is well-known that they are the most important contributors in the adaptive thermal comfort model. Thus, if we understand the behavioural adaptation properly, we can explain the mechanism of the adaptive model. The indoor thermal environment is often adjusted using the air conditioning in Japanese office buildings to improve thermal comfort and productivity. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research on the behavioural adaptation in the offices because the occupant behavior is different from behaviour in dwellings. In order to record the seasonal differences in behavioural adaptation and to develop an adaptive algorithm for Japanese offices, we measured temperatures in 11 office buildings and conducted the thermal comfort and occupant behaviour survey for over a year. We collected 4,660 samples from about 1,350 people. The proportion of ‘open window’ in the free running mode (neither heating nor cooling being used) is significantly higher than that of the air conditioned mode. The behavioural adaptation is related to the outdoor air temperature. The behavioural adaptations such as window-opening, heating and cooling use predicted by regression analysis are in good agreement with the measured data. These findings can be applied to building thermal simulation to predict the behavioural adaptation and energy use in office buildings.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Direct Method for the Determination of Coefficients of Characteristic Equation of a MDOF System 2020-02-14T19:43:29+00:00 Mahesh Chandra Luintel <p>Dynamic response of any single degree of freedom (SDOF) vibratory system is studied by evaluating its natural frequencies whereas that of any multi degree of freedom (MDOF) vibratory system is studied by evaluating its natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes. Efficient method to determine the natural frequencies and mode shape of a MDOF system is to determine its dynamic matrix and to calculate its eigen-values and eigen-vectors. As the number of degree of freedom (DOF) of the system increases, the size of the dynamic matrix increases and the use of a computer program or package become essential. Hence this paper proposes a new method to directly calculate the coefficients of characteristic equation of any degree of freedom system from which eigen-values and then natural frequencies can be determined.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Flood Inundation Mapping of Babai Basin using HEC-RAS & GIS 2020-02-14T19:43:30+00:00 Pawan Bhattarai Prajwal Khanal Prachanda Tiwari Nischal Lamichhane Prasanna Dhakal Prakash Lamichhane Niranjan Raj Panta Prashant Dahal <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">The main objective of this research is to prepare inundation map of a section of Babai Basin and to find out the inundated areas for different return periods. In order to achieve the objectives, Geographic Information System (GIS) and HEC-RAS along with HEC-GeoRAS extension were used as tools. Coordinates were used as primary parameter and were obtained from survey to generate geometric data such as Triangular Irregular Networks (TIN), streamline, river bank and flow paths. After importing the geometry data into HEC-RAS, hydraulic modelling was applied by using flow data as main input. As a result, the watershed area of the Babai basin has been successfully modelled and map showing the flooded areas along the Babai basin has been delineated. The flooded area was geometrically overlaid on the topographic map to outline the affected areas. The area under the influence of the flood were assessed which shows that about 49% of total inundated areas comprises farming land. Also a sensitivity analysis was performed to predict the change in percentage of flooded areas when Maning’s parameter was increased by 10% and when kept same in both banks and channel. However, differences in figure of inundated areas are insignificant to variations made in Maning’s n. </span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment on Corrosion Damage of Steel Reinforced Concrete Structures of Kathmandu Valley Using Corrosion Potential Mapping Method 2020-02-14T19:43:32+00:00 Nav Raj Phulara jagadish Bhattarai <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A3"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">Present study is focused to investigate the corrosion damage conditions of steel reinforced twenty eight different types of the concrete structure samples from Kathmandu valley using a non-destructive technique of the corrosion potential mapping (CPM) method in accordance with ASTM C876-91 Standards. It is found from the present assessment that the building roof of public owners house, hume pipes and building pillars used in Kathmandu valley are generally under the low risk of reinforced steel corrosion in these concrete structures, that is, less than 10 % probability of the corrosion damage, although the fencing pillars and the roof slabs of different office buildings are found to be high risk of reinforced steel corrosion damage, that is, more than 90 % probability of corrosion damage among twenty eight concrete structures.</span></span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Islanding Detection in Distributed Generation Integrated Thimi – Sallaghari Distribution Feeder Using Wavelet Transform and Artificial Neural Network 2020-02-14T19:43:34+00:00 Basanta Pancha Rajendra Shrestha Ajay Kumar Jha <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A4"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">In response to the problem of increased load demand, efforts have been made to decentralize the power utility through the use of distributed generation (DG). Despite the advantages of DG integration, un-intentional islanding remains a big challenge and has to be addressed in the integration of DG to the power system. Islanding condition occurs when the DG continues to power a part of the grid system even after the connection to the rest of the system has been lost, either intentionally or un-intentionally. The unintentional islanding mode of operation is not desirable as it poses a threat to the line workers’ safety and power quality issues. There are many methods which may be used to detect the islanding situation. Passive methods such as under/over voltage and under/over frequency work well when there is an imbalance of power between the loads and the DG present in the power island. However, these methods has larger Non Detection Zone (NDZ) and fail to detect the islanding condition if there is a balance of power supplied and consumed in the island. Remote technique of islanding detection is reliable but is not economical in small network area. Active technique of islanding detection distorts the power quality of the system as it introduces external signal in the system. This paper uses the Wavelet Transform (WT) to extract the features of voltage signal at PCC (Point of Common Coupling) and these features have been used to train Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANN model trained by these WT features, which understands the pattern of input feature vector, have been used to classify the islanding and non-islanding events. In this proposed method, NDZ has been efficiently eliminated which is created due to difference between active and reactive power during islanding condition. No power quality problem exists in this method as there is no disturbance injection. Hence, this proposed method is better than conventional passive and active methods.</span></span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis and Characterisation of Polyester Resin Matrix Composites Reinforced with Pineapple Leaf Micro Particles 2020-02-14T19:43:35+00:00 Stephen Durowaye Olatunde Sekunowo Catherine Kuforiji Ganiyu Lawal Jacob Okon <p>&nbsp;Reinforcement of polymers with particles to enhance their mechanical properties for various applications cannot be over emphasized. Hence, the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of polyester resin matrix composites reinforced with pineapple leaf particles was studied in order to develop an engineering material for industrial applications. Pineapple leaf particles treated and untreated with NaOH were separately blended with unsaturated polyester resin. 1 g of catalyst and 0.5 g of accelerator were added to the mixture to achieve a homogeneous interfacial interaction. The composites were made by mould casting and their microstructure and mechanical properties were evaluated. The NaOH treated pineapple leaf particles reinforced composite exhibited the highest tensile strength of 98.73 MPa at 15 wt. % and impact energy of 20.73 J at 20 wt. %. Microstructure showed a fairly uniform distribution of the pineapple leaf particles in the polyester resin matrix coupled with the strong interfacial bonding of the filler and matrix as the major factors responsible for the enhancement of the tensile strength and impact energy of the composites.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Facile Synthesis of Magnetic Activated Carbon Composite for Arsenic Adsorption 2020-02-14T19:43:37+00:00 Bivek Karki Pragya Pandey Rinita Rajbhandari Sahira Joshi Agni Raj Koirala Ram Kumar Sharma Hem Raj Pant <p>Porous activated carbon (AC) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used for the removal of arsenic from water body. Fabrication of composite material of iron oxide NPs on the surface of porous AC can further enhance this activity for commercial application. In this research, a magnetic AC composite for arsenic adsorption was prepared by facile hydrothermal treatment of aqueous solution containing activated carbon obtained from lapsi seed stone, iron(II) chloride, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethanol. Several analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) nanoparticles on the surface of porous AC. The prepared materials were accessed for their arsenic adsorption capacity using arsenic (III) trioxide solution and found that composite Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/AC can remove the arsenic from water far more effectively than activated carbon alone. For 0.5 g/ltr loading of composite sample with contract time of 5 hours, the arsenic content was significantly reduced, which shows that as-fabricated composite can be used potentially for water treatment.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Approach to Detect Image Forgery by Discrete Wavelet Decomposition 2020-02-14T19:43:39+00:00 Dibakar Raj Pant <p>&nbsp;Image forgery or manipulation by using the multimedia technology is becoming a challenging issue. The most common type of image forgery is copy-move forgery where some part of one image is copied and spliced in the other image. In this article, first the images in RGB color space is converted into YCbCr color space and the four-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is implemented to detect image forgery. The output of the DWT is further processed by using the image gradient technique for the edge detection of spliced objects. Morphological operation and Wiener filtering are applied for locating the tempered region in the forged image. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy calculated for spliced images of CASIA datasets are obtained 89%, 86% and 88% respectively.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Analysis of Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification in up and down Flow Reactors 2020-02-14T19:43:40+00:00 Rabin Maharjan Iswar Man Amatya Ram Kumar Sharma <p>Use of ground water containing ammonical nitrogen has been increasing in Kathmandu valley. The use of locally and cheaply fitted Hydrogenotrophic Denitrification (HD) has been taken as an effective way to remove the nitrates in this study. Comparative analysis of HD reactors had been studied for the determination of the effective flow direction of water as Up Flow or Down Flow. The result reviled that flow direction as Down Flow HD reactor performed slightly better than Up Flow HD reactor. The maximum NO<sub>3</sub>-N conversion reached 100% for Down Flow and 98.65% for Up Flow reactor with maximum of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removed were 41.11% and 33.89% for Down Flow and Up Flow reactor respectively. The difference in NO<sub>3</sub>-N conversion and TIN removal were observed. As the NO<sub>2</sub>-N was accumulated, suggesting NO<sub>3</sub> conversion is higher than NO<sub>2</sub> conversion thus, and majorly incomplete denitrification existed. The NO<sub>2</sub>-N in water reached to maximum of 78.89 mg/l and 72.55 mg/l for Down Flow and Up Flow rector.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analysis of the Behavior of a Chaotic Dynamic System under Different Types of Couplings and Several free Dynamics 2020-02-14T19:43:42+00:00 Clara Grácio Sara Fernandes Luís Lopes Gyan Bahadur Thapa <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt;">In this paper, we analyze how the behavior of a chaotic dynamical system changes when we couple it with another. We focus our attention on two aspects: the possibility of chaos suppression and the possibility of synchronization. We consider a Symmetric Linear Coupling and several free dynamics. For each of them we study the evolution of the coupling behavior with the coupling strength constant, defining windows of behavior. We extend the analysis to some other couplings. This is a survey paper. </span></p> <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt;">&nbsp;</span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Water Quality Assessment of Begnas and Rupa Lakes, Lesser Himalaya Pokhara, Nepal 2020-02-14T19:43:43+00:00 Ramesh R. Pant Khadka Bdr. Pal Nanda L. Adhikari Subash Adhikari Akkal D. Mishra <p>This study was conducted to assess water quality variations and identify potential pollution sources in two lakes namely Begnas and Rupa, Lesser Himalayas Pokhara, Nepal during monsoon season in June 2016. A total of 18 water samples (n= 9, from each lake) were collected and major physicochemical parameters were analyzed: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate-nitrogen (NO<sub>3</sub>-N), phosphate- phosphorus (PO<sub>4</sub>-P), ammonia, chloride, free CO<sub>2</sub> and total hardness (TH).The results revealed that the water of both lakes were relatively pure with very less TDS as compared to other lakes considered for the comparison with this study. However, the concentrations of CO<sub>2</sub> and phosphates were found to be higher than WHO guidelines for drinking water and also indicated the problem of rapid eutrophication in both of the lakes. Thus, the higher concentrations of organic pollutants and the rapid eutrophication process could be the serious threats that should be considered by the concerned authorities for the sustainability of the lakes in future.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Agro Waste Particles on the Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Unsaturated Polyester Resin Matrix Composites 2020-02-14T19:43:45+00:00 Stephen Durowaye Olatunde Sekunowo Catherine Kuforiji Chiemelie Nwafor Chidiebere Ekwueme <p>&nbsp;The efficacy of reinforcement of polyester resin matrix composites with agro waste particles to effect improvement on the disadvantage of low mechanical properties for optimal performance was studied. 5-25 wt. % of coconut shell, periwinkle shell, and cow bone particles were applied in reinforcing unsaturated polyester resin matrix by mould casting and the microstructural and mechanical characteristics of the composites were evaluated. There was uniform distribution of the agro waste particles in the polymer composites matrix from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) result. The hybrid composite at 15 wt. % reinforcement demonstrated the highest mechanical properties in terms of ultimate tensile strength (66.73 MPa), flexural strength (76.76 MPa), hardness (87.76 BHN), and impact energy (23.16 J). This shows the efficacy of hybridisation and the high potential of the composite for wider applications.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Performance Analysis of Structured Matrix Decomposition with Contour Based Spatial Prior for Extracting Salient Object from Complex Scene 2020-02-14T19:43:46+00:00 Ramesh Bhandari Sharad Kumar Ghimire <p>&nbsp;Automatically extracting most conspicuous object from an image is useful and important for many computer vision related tasks. Performance of several applications such as object segmentation, image classification based on salient object and content based image editing in computer vision can be improved using this technique. In this research work, performance of structured matrix decomposition with contour based spatial prior is analyzed for extracting salient object from the complex scene. To separate background and salient object, structured matrix decomposition model based on low rank matrix recovery theory is used along with two structural regularizations. Tree structured sparsity inducing regularization is used to capture image structure and to enforce the same object to assign similar saliency values. And, Laplacian regularization is used to enlarge the gap between background part and salient object part. In addition to structured matrix decomposition model, general high level priors along with biologically inspired contour based spatial prior is integrated to improve the performance of saliency related tasks. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on two demanding datasets, namely, ICOSEG and PASCAL-S for complex scene images. For PASCAL-S dataset precision recall curve of proposed method starts from 0.81 and follows top and right-hand border more than structured matrix decomposition which starts from 0.79. Similarly, structural similarity index score, which is 0.596654 and 0.394864 without using contour based spatial prior and 0.720875 and 0.568001 using contour based spatial prior for ICOSEG and PASCAL-S datasets shows improved result.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Alum Sludge in Phosphate Phosphorus Removal from Contaminated Water 2020-02-14T19:43:48+00:00 B Ojha R K Sharma I. M. Amatya <p>This study determines application of alum sludge in phosphate phosphorus (PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P) removal from contaminated water. For the study the alum sludge was collected from Mahankal Water Treatment Plant and dewatered by drying in micro oven under 105°C and crumble to average particle size of 5 mm. 10.7 ppm Synthetic PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P solution was prepared by dissolving Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O. Batch test was conduct to determine the PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P removal efficiency and to develop adsorption isotherm. The phosphorus removal efficiency was tested for 8 g, 16 g, 24 g, 32 g and 40 g alum sludge per L PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P solution for different contact time. The PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P content in the sample solution was determine by L-Ascorbic Acid method using Spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UVmini-12400) in the lab of Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering Tribhuvan University. The PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>/P removal efficiency was found to be 95.5% for 8 g/L dosing and 98.4% % for 40 g/L. The contact time decreases with increase in dosing 50 min for 8 g/L and 5 min for 40 g/L dosing. The adsorption process best fit Freundlich isotherm with higher correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.87) and Freundlich intensity parameter (1/n) less than unit (1/n = 0.76) upto 50min contact time and beyond 50min contact time intensity parameter (1/n) greater than unit. The adsorption capacity determine from isotherm indicate increase in adsorption capacity with increase in dosing. The adsorption capacity increases from 1.39 to 28.07 mg/g when contract time varies from 1 to 120min.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Development of an Arithmetic Function using Euler’s Phi Function and Study of its Properties 2020-02-14T19:43:49+00:00 Nischal Maharjan Bhupendra Budha <p>Available with full text.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Note on Full-Rank Factorization of Matrix 2020-02-14T19:43:51+00:00 Gyan Bahadur Thapa J. López-Bonilla R. López-Vázquez <p>We exhibit that the Singular Value Decomposition of a matrix <em>A<sub>nxm</sub></em> implies a natural full-rank factorization of the matrix.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Idling Fuel Consumption and Emissions of Public Vehicles run by Bhaktapur Minibus Sewa Samiti and its Reduction Possibilities 2020-02-14T19:43:52+00:00 Ravi Suwal Bhakta Bahadur Ale <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">This research paper is carried out to analyze the idling fuel consumption and emissions of public vehicles of Bhaktapur Minibus Sewa Samiti (BMSS) and quantify the reduction possibilities of idling emission. In order to reduce the air pollution in Kathmandu Valley, low carbon technology like idling reduction has become necessity. Idling of passenger vehicle is mainly due to waiting for passengers at the bus stops and stopped by traffic. Idling contributes significantly to energy consumption without any useful output. Many researchers found that idling is harmful to engine and increases maintenance. For that, idling data of different routes were collected and fuel consumption were tested using pseudo method. These data were used to calculate the total idling time, fuel consumption, GHG emissions and financial loss in the routes. Idling time was as high as an hour in a trip. About 18% to 32 % of idling time was due to traffic only and the traffic were high at day (11 am – 5 pm) and evening. The idling fuel consumption and GHG emissions were 117.56 ml to 181.16 ml and 0.31 kg to 0.478 kg per trip in the routes of BMSS respectively. Using 3 minutes of limit, the fuel consumption and emissions could be reduced by 22.48 ml to 59.45 ml and 0.059 kg to 0.157 kg per trip respectively. Rs. 943,783 out of Rs. 3,214,872 of financial loss could be saved in selected routes annually.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Activated Carbons Derived from Date (Phoenix dactylifera) Seeds with Excellent Iodine Adsorption Properties 2020-02-14T19:43:53+00:00 Aabhash Kumar Mallick Abhimanyu Jha Bhadra Prasad Pokharel Rinita Rajbhandari Rajeshwar Man Shrestha <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A3"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">Activated carbons were prepared from date seed powder by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH)as activating agent at different temperatures (400, 500, 600 and 700 °C). Date seed powder was impregnated with KOH (1:1weight ratio) and carbonizations were carried out under a constant flow of nitrogen (120 cc/min) in a tubular furnace. The activated carbons thus obtained were characterized by powder X- Ray diffraction and Raman scattering. XRD patterns revealed amorphous carbon structure, which was further confirmed by the Raman scattering. Surface morphology of ACs was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Date seed derived activated carbons showed good iodine adsorption properties giving iodine number value of 850mg/g, which is much higher than the commercial activated carbons. Therefore, KOH activated date seed derived carbons would have potential in dye adsorption and waste water treatments.</span></span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Generalized Dynamic Flow on Lossy Network 2020-02-14T19:43:55+00:00 Santosh Gautam Urmila Pyakurel Tanka Nath Dhamala <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;">Despite of implicit flow conservation on every arc of traditional network flow model, the generalized network flow model assumes the proportional and symmetric loss factor on each arc. This paper considers two terminal lossy networks specifying the portion of flow entering an arc at its tail node that reaches to its head node. We studied the generalized maximum continuous dynamic contraflow (GMCDCF) and generalized continuous earliest arrival contraflow (GCEACF) problems. The problems are efficiently solved with pseudo-polynomial time algorithms. Moreover, a fully polynomial time approximation scheme (FPTAS) is proposed in polynomial time.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Brief Review of Firefly Algorithm: Application in Structural Optimization Problem 2020-02-14T19:43:57+00:00 Sujan Tripathi <p>&nbsp;Firefly Algorithm is a recently developed meta-heuristic algorithm, which is inspired by the flashing behaviour of Firefly. Initially, Firefly algorithm was used to solve the optimization problems of continuous search domain. Further, many researchers have successfully implemented this algorithm in several discrete optimization problems. Although the firefly algorithm behaves like another meta-heuristic method (i.e. Particle Swarm Optimization particle), however, the firefly is robust than that. Due to the presence of an exponential term in its movement equation, firefly algorithm is capable to search optimum value more efficiently than others. This study is, mainly, focused to show the strength of the firefly algorithm to solve the complex problems and to explore the possible research area on the structural engineering field. This study shows about the robustness of the firefly algorithm on the basis of recently published papers that was used to solve the size, shape and topology optimization of the spatial truss structure with discrete design variables. The review result shows that the performance of the Firefly Algorithm is remarkable compared to other nature-inspired-algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization. This study concludes with some remarkable points that will be more beneficial to the future researchers of this area.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study of Wear, Hardness and Fractography of Millscale Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites 2020-02-14T19:43:59+00:00 Stephen Durowaye Olatunde Sekunowo Ganiyu Lawal <p>Ceramic matrix composites were developed by powder metallurgy and the blended matrix was reinforced with millscale particles from 3-18 wt.% at particles size distribution of 106-250 μm. Microstructural, hardness and wear characterisations were carried out on the composites using standardised methods. The results showed that the 106 μm millscale particles reinforced composite exhibited desirable hardness value of 124 BHN, low wear rate of 1.99 x 10<sup>-6</sup> g/m and appreciable high wear resistance indicating a potential for effective performance in service. The composites worn surfaces revealed abrasion, adhesion and grooves formation. These features derived from the composites microstructure formed the basis on which enhancement procedures could be developed.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the Image Pixels Classification Methods 2020-02-14T19:44:00+00:00 Santosh Ghimire <p>&nbsp;In this article, we first discuss about the images and image pixels classifications. Then we briefly discuss the importance of classification of images and finally focus on various methods of classification which can be implemented to classify image pixels.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Conjunctive Use of Water Resources in Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Terai Nepal 2020-02-14T19:44:01+00:00 Debi Prasad Bhattarai Narendra Man Shakya <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span class="A2"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">The need of conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources in agricultural sector arises due to the continuous increase in population and its growing demand for the production of food and fiber globally. United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 also targets to double the agricultural productivity to feed the growing population and ensure sustainable food production systems by 2030. The conjunctive uses allow the utilization of ground water and surface water simultaneously as per the demand and supply requirement of available water resources. This paper presents an overview of the conjunctive use practices in the different parts of the world in general and specific issues for conjunctive use of irrigation for sustainable agriculture in the Terai region of Nepal. It covers a synopsis of literatures available regarding the conjunctive use of irrigation system in different irrigation command area of Nepal and unveils some research issues that need to be addressed. The review also covers an overview of different computer based models developed for the management of conjunctive water use for irrigated agriculture. Based on the review conclusions are drawn which could be helpful for further research and for the management of conjunctive irrigation system in the Terai region of Nepal.</span></span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## E-government Use in Nepal: Issues of Database Management and Data Security 2020-02-14T19:44:03+00:00 Shailendra Giri Subarna Shakya <p>&nbsp;E-government uses information and communication technologies (ICTs) tools and systems to provide better public services. Database Management System (DBMS) is a very significant part in e-governance activities and process in the nation. Security of the data is a main concern of the organizations and private. Proper database management and data security are the major issues in present era. The aim of the paper is to try analyzing necessity of database management and data security. The author used survey methods during research to collect the data and analyze it. This paper concludes that the data backup is key profession while using computer in an institute or people. Hard disk, external hard disk, pen drive, memory card, server and open drive are the major storage Medias. People and employees don’t create backup of data due to lack of knowledge, device and don’t know about importance. The authors conclude that using Antivirus on computer, password on file and computer system, data and information backup, firewall, encryption and decryption technology are the data security tools. Data security protect against the unauthorized use, disclosure, access, destruction, modification and loss of data. Confidential password security and regular monitoring on password are very necessary to secure data. An online security system, as well as manual security systems, should be managed attentively.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Handling of the Grievances in the National Reconstruction Authority (NRA) after the 2015 Earthquake in Nepal 2020-02-14T19:44:05+00:00 Hikmat Raj Joshi <p>&nbsp;An algorithm to handle the grievances from the earthquake victims after the first processing of the data collected from them have been proposed and implemented. Suggestions to improve the performances in data collection, processing and handling have been proposed</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Art, Human Condition and Beyond … 2020-02-14T19:44:06+00:00 Rena Thapa <p>&nbsp;Philosophers of different ages have made rigorous attempts to define art aiming to establish a set of characteristics applicable to all kinds of fine arts. However to point a definite meaning of art is elusive task. Similarly the question whether art can be didactic to provide knowledge, or insight is as old as philosophy itself. Art can be appreciated, enjoyed and loved for the powerful emotional values it reflects to the beholders. The production of art deals with creativity, imagination and innate ability of an artist. Art evolves from the culture that inspires artistic expression and art is born from the inner necessity of the artist. To determine the coherent ontological status of works of art has been a problematic issue despite the consistent philosophical practices. The metaphysical categorization of art as “the imaginary experience of the total activity" of the artist recreated by competent viewer is not all inclusive perception of art. The more liberal outlook of art as abstract cultural entities that are created at certain time through human activities seems convincing and relevant.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## नेपालमा इन्जिनियरिङ् शिक्षा प्रदान गर्ने विश्वविद्यालय र अपाङ्गता Nepalma Engineering Shikshya Pradan Garne University ra Apangata 2020-02-14T19:44:07+00:00 न्हूछेनारायण Nhuchhenarayan श्रेष्ठ Shrestha <p>विश्व एक्काइसौ शताब्दीमा प्रवेश गरे संगै शिक्षामा पनि आमूल परिवर्तन गर्दै प्राविधिक शिक्षा र व्यावहारिक शिक्षालाई समय सापेक्ष परिवर्तन गर्दै देश सुहाउंदो, देशको लागि आवश्यक पर्ने दक्ष, प्राविधिक जनशक्ति उत्पादन गर्ने मूल ध्येय नेपालमा खोलीएका ६ वटा विश्वविद्यालयको कांधमा रहेको छ । नेपालमा खोलीएका प्राविधिक बिषय अध्ययन अध्यापन हुने विश्वविद्यालयहरु विश्व प्रतिष्पर्धी, समय सुहाउंदो हुनु आवश्यक रहेको छ । नेपालको संविधान २०७२ अनुसार नेपालमा अपांगता भएका हरुलाई उचित रुपमा शिक्षा प्रदानका लागि राज्यलेनै महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निर्वाह गर्नुपर्दछ । अहिलेको युग भनेको सूचना र प्रविधिको युग हो । अहिलेको वर्तमान समयमा बिज्ञान तथा प्रबिधी अन्तरगतको इन्जिनियरिङ शिक्षाको महत्व नेपालमा मात्र नभई विश्वमानै उच्च रहेको छ । अहिले पनि दक्ष र क्षमतावान प्राविधीकहरुको माग संसार भरीनै बढेको तथ्याङ्कहरुबाट देख्न सकिन्छ । भौगोलिक रुपमा अविकसित राष्ट्र नेपालमा अहिले सम्म पनि गुणस्तरिय प्राबिधिकहरुको निकैनै खांचो देखिन्छ । भुकम्पले ध्वस्त भएका पुराना संरचनाको पुनःनिर्माण र नयां संरचनाको बिकास, जलस्रोतको धनि साथै सूचना तथा प्रबिधिमा खासै फड्को मार्न नसकेको अवस्थामा नयाँ संविधान मार्फत देशको राजनीतिक तथा भौगोलिक परिवर्तन संगै देशमा प्राबिधीक दक्ष जनशक्तिको आवश्यकता बढ्दै गएको र नेपाल सरकारको समृद्घि र विकासलाई सार्थक तुल्याउन समेत प्राविधिकहरुको ठूलो हात रहेको हुन्छ । नेपालको संविधानले अपांगता भएकाहरुलाई समानताको, शिक्षा सम्बन्धी मौलीक हकको ब्यबस्था गरेको छ र ती प्रावधानहरु कार्यान्वयन गर्नु सबैको कर्तव्य पनि हो । नेपालमा अपांगमैत्री भौतीक संरचनाहरु निर्माणका लागि पाठ्यपुस्तकमै समावेश गर्नुपर्ने र व्यवहारमा समेत लागु गर्दै जानुपर्ने टड्कारो आवश्यकता रहेको छ अतः प्राविधिक बिषय अध्ययन अध्यापन गराउने विश्वविद्यालयहरुले इन्जिनियरिङ् शिक्षा सहजरुपमा प्रदान गर्नका लागि अपांगता भएकाहरुलाई भौतीक संरचना लगायत पाठ्यपुस्तक निर्माण गरी कार्यान्वयनमा ल्याउनु अपरिहार्य रहेको छ ।</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Note on Teaching and Learning Linear Algebra in Tribhuvan University 2020-02-14T19:44:09+00:00 Tulasi Prasad Nepal <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">The teaching of linear algebra has </span><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">always been </span><span style="font-size: 10.5pt;">a challenge for teachers of mathematics, because it is extremely important that students become introduced into complex and abstract mathematical system of linear algebra and learn concepts which can be successfully applied later in other mathematical topics. It is necessary that teachers better understand how students learn, and recognize and allow that the appropriate content, methods and context could be different in different environments. As mathematicians, we are aware of the significant interconnections of different ideas and concepts, which is difficult to recognize and understand. We should not forget that understanding of these kinds of interconnections develops through active and hard exploration of mathematical topics through permanent discovering of new interconnections and relations. Thus, primary role of a teacher is to try to move students to take an active part during the class concerning important and difficult concepts, either through the form of individual opinion or through the form of group discussions. It is not easy to suggest teaching methods, especially in comparison to traditional lectures, which would be effective and would actively, engage students and generate stimulating learning. </span></p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Methodology for Modelling of Steady State Flow in Pelton Turbine Injectors 2020-02-14T19:44:11+00:00 Tri Ratna Bajracharya Rajendra Shrestha Ashesh Babu Timilsina <p>&nbsp;Pelton turbine is a high head-impulse type turbine. The high-speed jet strikes the symmetrical semi ellipsoidal buckets, thus transferring the momentum within short period of time, impulse. The conversion of potential energy of water to kinetic energy in the form of jet is done by a nozzle with internally fitted spear or needle, the assembly in known as injector. The jet quality includes but is not limited to jet velocity, velocity distribution ‘velocity profile’, core location etc. In this study, the modeling of flow in Pelton turbine injector is done by commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solver on a three-dimensional flow domain. The results obtained from CFD modelling are then compared against the experimental observations and previously published literatures. The jet streamline, jet velocity profile and jet core location are then studied. As observed experimentally, the mean jet diameter reduces as the nozzle opening decreases. In addition, like the experimental observations, the jet first contracts and then expands. The diameter of the contraction is then normalized with nozzle exit diameter and is plotted for both experimental observations as well as the results of the numerical simulation. The maximum error between experimental and numerical analysis of jet contraction is 20%. The jet core is located at region axially ahead of needle tip.</p> 2019-07-31T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##