Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 2019-01-16T11:25:57+00:00 Prof. Dr. Jagadeesh Bhattarai Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of Institute of Science and Technology </em>(JIST) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science journal published by Institute of Science and Technology (IOST), Tribhuvan University (T.U.), Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING OF HIMALAYAN LANGUR (Semnopithecus entellus) IN SOUTHERN FLANK OF THE HIMALAYA 2019-01-16T11:25:41+00:00 Laxman Khanal Mukesh Kumar Chalise Xuelong Jiang <p>&nbsp;The species and subspecies status of various populations of the Himalayan langur (<em>Semnopithecus entellus</em>) have been disputed in many literatures. Before delineating the taxonomic boundaries, it is important to identify the potential distribution areas of extant populations of the species. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) can be coupled with the systematic survey of species presence to identify the species’ potential distribution range. Therefore, we did extensive survey and population census of the Himalayan langur across three major river basins (Koshi, Gandaki and Karnali) of Nepal and analyzed the population patterns. In addition, we also modelled the ecological niche of the species by using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm. We counted a total of 559 individuals from 33 troops that accounted the average troop size of 16.94 (±8.39) individuals. Within Nepal territory, the highest population of langurs was observed from the Gandaki River basin followed by the Karnali River basin. We revealed that Himalayan langurs have a wide range of altitudinal (49 m - 4190 m above sea level) distributions from Bhutan to Kashmir across southern flank of the Himalaya. We warrant for the detail distribution assessment and taxonomic analysis of Himalayan langurs using ecological, morphological and genetic variables.</p> 2018-12-30T06:25:40+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE MID-HILL FOREST OF WESTERN NEPAL: A CASE OF PANCHASE PROTECTED FOREST 2019-01-16T11:25:42+00:00 Ananta Ram Bhandari Udhab Raj Khadka Keshav Raj Kanel <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">This paper identified ecosystem services of Panchase Protected Forest (PPF) in the mid-hills of western Nepal using the Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity (TEEB) framework. Transect walk, focus group discussion, key informants interview and expert’s consultation were used. This study revealed that PPF offered wide range of ecosystem services including provisioning, regulating habitat, and cultural and amenity services. Provisioning services offered by PPF included food (35 species), raw materials (22 species), energy (17 species), medicines (40 species), ornamental resources (3 species) and water resources. The forest was also a source of water for irrigation and domestic consumption. The regulating services offered by PPF included water flow regulation, erosion prevention, water purification, soil fertility maintenance, air quality regulation and climate regulation. PPF provided habitat for 589 species of flowering plants, 24 species of mammals and 262 species of birds maintaining life cycles and genetic diversity. By maintaining landscape integrity and heritages, PPF provided opportunities for recreation and tourism. A total of 3,600 tourists and 25,340 pilgrims visit PPF every year. The beneficiary of ecosystem services from PPF ranged from local level to sub-national, national and global levels.</span></p> 2018-12-30T06:47:35+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND CONSTITUENTS OF HEXANE EXTRACT OF MELASTOMA MALABATHRICUM L 2019-01-16T11:25:43+00:00 Dil Prakash Giri Meena Rajbhandari <p>&nbsp;Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and 50 % aqueous methanol extracts of leaf, flower and fruit of <em>Melastoma malabathricum </em>were screened for the presence of different classes of phytochemicals. In phytochemical screening, ethyl acetate, methanol and 50 % aqueous methanol extracts showed the presence of phenolics and flavonoids. Glycosides were found only in the 50 % methanol extract of fruit. Free radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of leaf, flower and fruit was determined using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Total phenolic content was measured spectrophotometrically using Folin-Ciocalteu, total flavonoids content by using aluminum chloride and total sugar content by using anthrone reagent. Gallic acid was used as a standard for the calibration of phenolics, catechin for flavonoids and glucose for carbohydrates. The highest amount of phenolic was found in the 50 % methanol extract of leaf (242.88 ± 3.52 mg GAE/g extract), the highest amount of flavonoids was found in the ethyl acetate extract of leaf (127.41 ± 6.33 mg CE/g extract). Total sugar in 50 % methanol extract of fruit was found to be 151.12 ± 8.79 mg GE/g extract. Methanol extracts of flower showed the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 17.23 μg/ml. Silyl derivative of hexane extracts were prepared by using <em>N</em>-methyl-<em>N</em>-(trimetylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide for gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) analysis. The GC-MS analysis of hexane extract allowed the identification of 17 phyto-constituents by comparing the fragmentation pattern of each component in mass spectrum with the standard NIST mass spectral database.</p> 2018-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FLUID ANALYSIS OF MAGNETIZED PLASMA SHEATH IN A CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY 2019-01-16T11:25:44+00:00 P. K. Thakur R. R. Pokhrel R. Khanal <p>&nbsp;Plasma sheath formed in front of a material wall plays an important role in overall plasma properties. Magnetized plasma sheath for both collisional and collisionless cases in a cylindrical co-ordinate system was studied using a fluid model. The fluid equations were compiled for the considered geometry and were solved numerically, using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method for prescribed boundary and initial conditions. The ion velocity along the axis of the cylinder and the ion density profiles were studied for collisionless and collisional cases and at different obliqueness of the magnetic field. The ion velocities acquired its maximum value at the wall with monotonic increment in collisionless cases, whereas the ion density profile was not monotonic in collisionless case as well as when the obliqueness of the magnetic field starts increasing. In such cases, the ion density increases close to the entrance and then decreases monotonically towards the wall. The study provides insight to plasma properties in cylindrical plasmas which are common in discharge tubes, light sources and plasma jets.</p> 2018-12-30T09:19:29+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HUMAN-WILD MAMMAL CONFLICT IN A HUMAN DOMINATED MIDHILL LANDSCAPE: A CASE STUDY FROM PANCHASE AREA IN CHITWAN ANNAPURNA LANDSCAPE, NEPAL 2019-01-16T11:25:45+00:00 Jagan Nath Adhikari Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai Tej Bahadur Thapa <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Issues of human wildlife conflict (HWC) always challenges in conservation and management. Crop raiding, property damage, livestock depredation and human casualties are the most common forms of conflict. It was investigated the issues of human wild mammal conflict in and around the Panchase area in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape of Nepal from March 2017 to April 2018 using semi-structured questionnaires and focal group discussion. Wide spread human wildlife conflict was observed in Panchase area. Monkey, muntjac deer, porcupine and rabbit were the main crop raider that resulted in total economic loss of US$ 29.56 per household (HH). Overall economic loss by livestock depredation was estimated US$ 11254.54 (US$ 112.54/HH). Leopard contributed to the highest cases of livestock depredation. A total of five human attack cases were recorded including one fatal and four injuries. Himalayan black bear contributed to 80 % of the total attacks and 20 % by leopards. Present study focused on the issues and status of conflicts in the Panchase area, a representative of midhills and Chitwan Annapurana Landscape. This study suggests that future study related to mitigation and preventing methods should be conducted to minimize the issues of human wildlife conflicts.</p> 2018-12-30T09:32:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT UROPATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM MID STREAM URINE SAMPLES 2019-01-16T11:25:47+00:00 Nisha Regmi Sonali Kafle Rabin Paudyal <p>A frequent and consistent evaluation of the prevalence, etiologic agents and predisposing factors of urinary tract infection (UTI) is necessary in developing country like Nepal to reduce its severe consequences. A regular and routine monitoring of multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates is essential in laboratory practice. Five hundred and ninety one mid stream urine samples were collected from Bharosa Hospital of Kathmandu and a semi-quantitative method was used to determine the frequency of MDR uropathogens in the urine samples. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria were done by standard microbiological procedure. From the total samples, 161 samples were found to be positive for UTI (27.24 %). Among these bacterial isolates, 57.14 % were found to be MDR. Nitrofurantoin, amikacin and ceftriaxone were found to be the most effective antibiotics against uropathogens.</p> 2018-12-30T09:39:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ADSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF TRACE CONCENTRATION OF FLUORIDE FROM WATER USING CERIUM LOADED DRIED ORANGE JUICE RESIDUE 2019-01-16T11:25:48+00:00 Hari Paudyal Katsutoshi Inoue <p>&nbsp;Two adsorbents for fluoride ion removal were developed from dried orange juice residue (DOJR) after loading Ce(III) and Ce(IV) in this study. The characterization of adsorbents was done by an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy and chemical analysis. The experimental results indicated that the fluoride removal efficiency of both the adsorbents was influenced significantly by pH and the optimum operating pH was found to be 4. The equilibrium data were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of Ce(III)-DOJR and Ce(IV)-DOJR for fluoride were evaluated to be 0.67 and 1.22 mmol/g, respectively. Leakage of cerium from Ce(IV)-DOJR was negligible for trace concentration of fluoride but it was significant for high concentration of fluoride at pH below 3 resulting fluoride precipitation. Therefore, cerium-loaded DOJR investigated in this study can be considered as an efficient, environmentally benign and promising alternative for the treatment of fluoride contaminated with trace amount of fluoride ion.</p> 2018-12-30T09:48:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FLOW OVER TIME PROBLEM WITH INFLOW-DEPENDENT TRANSIT TIMES 2019-01-16T11:25:49+00:00 Durga Prasad Khanal Urmila Pyakurel Tanka Nath Dhamala <p>&nbsp;Network flow over time is an important area for the researcher relating to the traffic assignment problem. Transmission times of the vehicles directly depend on the number of vehicles entering the road. Flow over time with fixed transit times can be solved by using classical (static) flow algorithms in a corresponding time expanded network which is not exactly applicable for flow over time with inflow dependent transit times. In this paper we discuss the time expanded graph for inflow-dependent transit times and non-existence of earliest arrival flow on it. Flow over time with inflow-dependent transit times are turned to inflow-preserving flow by pushing the flow from slower arc to the fast flow carrying arc. We gave an example to show that time horizon of quickest flow in bow graph <em>GB </em>was strictly smaller than time horizon of any inflow-preserving flow over time in <em>GB </em>satisfying the same demand. The relaxation in the modified bow graph turns the problem into the linear programming problem.</p> 2018-12-30T09:55:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF ACORUS CALAMUS L. RHIZOMES OF RUPENDEHI DISTRICT (NEPAL) 2019-01-16T11:25:50+00:00 Susan Joshi Sundar Bashyal <p>The essential oil from the air dried powder of wild <em>Acorus calamus L. </em>rhizomes was isolated using Clevenger-type hydrodistillation apparatus and its chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. A total numbers of fourteen chemical constituents were identified and quantified occupying 100 % of total oil composition. The major chemical constituents are reported to be β-asarone (68.96 %), 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (8.73 %) shyobunone (8.65 %), p-methoxyphenyl butanone (4.16 %) and the minor chemical constituents are δ-cadinene (0.84 %), isoelemicine (2.68 %), muurolene (1.92 %) and cis-ocimene (1.44 %). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil isolated from the wild <em>Acorus calamus </em>L. rhizomes was carried out using paper disc method against one Gram positive bacteria of <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>and three Gram negative bacteria of <em>Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>and <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>. The isolated essential oil from the dry powder of <em>Acorus calamus </em>L. rhizome showed a good potentiality of the antibacterial effect against tested bacteria.</p> 2019-01-01T05:04:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WILDFIRE DYNAMICS AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE FOREST RESOURCES AND PUBLIC PROPERTY IN NEPAL 2019-01-16T11:25:51+00:00 Krishna Bahadur Bhujel Rejina Maskey Byanju Ambika P. Gautam <p>&nbsp;NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has detected several intensive wildfires from the local to global level in 2016. However, deeper study on the dynamics of wildfire and its consequences are still inadequate. This study was carried out to find wildfire dynamics and its effects on the forest resources and public property in Nepal. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spector-Radiometer (MODIS) was used for active fire data of 2016 in Nepal. Wildfire-related national and international published articles, report, website and media were reviewed. Data were analyzed using ArcGIS and MS Excel. The result showed an abnormal wildfire incidence areas in 2016, adverse effect on the forest resources and public property. One hundred forty burnt days were recorded. Density of wildfire incidence and burnt area were found to be 0.09 number and 3.4 hectares per km<sup>2</sup>, respectively, which was around 33 % more than of the last 15 years. The huge forest resources and its tangible as well as intangible services were lost during the year of 2016. Loss of forest resources account for about NRs 11,750,000 (US$ 107,798) as per local market price for the year. Total eleven people were killed and over hundred people injured. The findings of the present study will be useful baseline information for implementers, researchers and decision-makers in future.</p> 2019-01-01T05:14:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STATUS, DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT SPECIFICITY OF BENTHIC MACRO-INVERTEBRATES: A CASE STUDY IN FIVE TRIBUTARIES OF BUDDHIGANGA RIVER IN WESTERN NEPAL 2019-01-16T11:25:53+00:00 Bipul Bhandari Ram Devi Tachamo Shah Subodh Sharma <p>&nbsp;Benthic macro-invertebrates are organisms that inhabit the bottom of substrates such as sediments, debris, logs, macrophytes and filamentous algae of streams, rivers and lakes for some span of their lifecycle. They are important part of food chain since they are source of food for different species of fishes and process organic matters. These organisms are considered vital tools to assess any environmental change caused by anthropogenic interference in the river ecosystems. In this study, we sampled macro-invertebrates from 5 different rivers across altitudinal ranges of 600- 800 m and 1500-1700 m above sea level. We observed that the macro-invertebrate diversity varied substantially across altitudinal ranges. The diversity of macro-invertebrates was higher in lower altitudinal range, where 11 families were found, more than the higher altitudinal range. Some rare and dominant families were also identified in our study. We also examined the substrate specificity of macro-invertebrates. Results revealed that Ephemeroptera,Tricoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Odonata were found in all seven substrates namely bedrock, boulder, cobble, stone, pebble, gravel and sand. The richness and abundance of macro-invertebrates were documented in cobble, stone and pebble substrates. Similarly we also investigated the ecological river quality class of rivers using Ganga River System Biotic Score-Average Score per Taxon (GRS-BioS/ASPT) system which indicated good status. The outcomes of this study serve as a baseline data since no prior research has been done in these rivers.</p> 2019-01-01T05:35:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE OF VEHICULAR EMISSION CONTROL POLICY AND PRACTICES: AN INTERFACE WITH KATHMANDU VALLEY CASE, NEPAL 2019-01-16T11:25:54+00:00 Bhupendra Das Prakash V. Bhave Siva Praveen Puppala Rejina M. Byanju <p>Transport sector is growing most rapidly around the world in line with the urban and socio-economic growth, which is contributing to severe air pollution. Air pollution has been of much concern mainly due to air quality, human exposure, public health, climate change, and visibility reduction. At present, in the media and policy arena, significant attention is given to the transport air pollution and its effect. Although most of the developed countries established vehicular emission control practices, it is very primitive in the developing countries including Nepal. This paper highlights global policies/legislations that have been practiced for emissions control from high emitting vehicles based on the available literature. The insights and lessons based information presented in this paper will add value to the policy makers for creating strong policy packages of air quality management for Kathmandu valley including other parts of Nepal.</p> 2019-01-01T05:48:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ADSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF PHOSPHATE ONTO IRON LOADED LITCHI CHINENSIS SEED WASTE 2019-01-16T11:25:55+00:00 Asmita Shrestha Bhoj Raj Poudel Manoj Silwal Megh Raj Pokhrel <p>&nbsp;Raw and charred Fe(III)-loaded <em>Litchi chinensis </em>seed waste (FeRLW and FeCLW) as bio-adsorbents was investigated to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Various physico-chemical parameters such as equilibrium time, pH and adsorbent dosage were studied by batch experiment method. The maximum adsorption capacities for phosphate removal by FeRLW and FeCLW were found to be 96.5 mg/g and 100 mg/g, respectively. The experimental results revealed that biomaterials of FeRLW and FeCLW can be used as effective and economically viable adsorbents for the removal of phosphate from waste water.</p> 2019-01-01T06:19:03+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BEAT FREQUENCY AND VELOCITY VARIATION OF IONS IN A MAGNETIZED PLASMA SHEATH FOR DIFFERENT OBLIQUENESS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD 2019-01-16T11:25:56+00:00 B. R. Adhikari S. Basnet H. P. Lamichhane R. Khanal <p>&nbsp;Beat frequency and velocity variation of ions in a magnetized plasma sheath has been numerically investigated by using a kinetic trajectory simulation (KTS) model for varying obliqueness of the external magnetic field in presence of an electric field. Angular dependence of mean value, maximum amplitude, damping constant, frequency of oscillation and beat frequency have been studied. As the obliqueness of the field changes the mean values, beat frequency as well as the maximum amplitude of the velocity components also change but frequency of oscillation remains almost the same.</p> 2019-01-01T06:31:36+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##