Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 2021-12-29T17:03:34+00:00 Prof. Dr. Chhatra Mani Sharma Open Journal Systems <p><em>Journal of Institute of Science and Technology </em>(JIST) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science journal published by the Institute of Science and Technology (IOST), Tribhuvan University (TU), Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Shigella spp. Isolated from Patients Suspected of Acute Gastroenteritis 2021-12-07T13:09:43+00:00 Bishal Basnet Dhirendra Niroula Jyoti Acharya Shaila Basnyat <p>Shigellosis, an intestinal infection caused by <em>Shigella</em> species, is manifested by bloody diarrhea. Due to the surge in multidrug-resistant (MDR) <em>Shigella</em> species, the control of shigellosis has been a big challenge. This study aims to determine the prevalence and assess the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of <em>Shigella</em> species. During our study period of five months from April 2014 to August 2014 at Sukraraj Tropical and Infectious Disease Hospital, Teku, Kathmandu, a total of 653 stool samples were collected from the patients suspected of acute gastroenteritis. The standard microbiological procedure was followed for the isolation and identification of <em>Shigella</em> species. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the <em>Shigella</em> species was done by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. The study found 25(3.82%) cases were<em> Shigella</em> positive. Among them, 18(72%) were <em>S. flexneri</em>, 6(24%) were <em>S. dysenteriae</em>, and 1(4%) was <em>S. sonnei</em>. The patients in the age group 16-45 years were highly susceptible to infection as the higher proportion 16(64%) of <em>Shigella </em>species were isolated from this age group (p&gt; 0.05). <em>Shigella</em> species were found to be highly susceptible to Cefotaxime (100%), a third-generation cephalosporin. Nalidixic acid, on the other hand, was the least effective antibiotic as 20(80%) of the <em>Shigella</em> isolates were resistant, followed by Ampicillin 18(72%), Cotrimoxazole 13(52%), and Ciprofloxacin 9(36%). A higher proportion of [10(40%)] of our study isolates were MDR. Our results show that Nalidixic acid, Ampicillin, Cotrimoxazole, Ciprofloxacin, and Ofloxacin cannot be used as empirical therapy for the treatment of <em>Shigella</em> infection as <em>Shigella</em> species were highly resistant to these antibiotics. So, for the MDR <em>Shigella</em> infection, we suggest third-generation cephalosporin as an option.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. A Glimpse of Blue Sheep (Pseudois nayaur) Hunting in Api Nampa Conservation Area (ANCA) Nepal 2021-12-08T03:41:44+00:00 Tek Bahadur Yakha Mukesh Kumar Chalise <p>Higher altitudes of Api Nampa Conservation Area have become a hunting destination for the local people bringing a threat to blue sheep and other wildlife. Blue sheep has been a national concern in Nepal due to being the main prey species of snow leopard and trophy hunting. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of hunters in Api Nampa Conservation Area (ANCA), Darchula, Nepal. This study was carried out around Api Nampa Conservation Area in 2016. Mixed methods of questionnaires were developed to collect data, and quantitative analysis was done by applying SPSS 16. A hundred percent of hunters like to hunt in this protected area. The hunted animals were goral, blue sheep, barking deer, boar and tahr. Site-specific characteristics like vegetation density, terrain and rugged land topography often vary markedly across surveys. Due to the regular and yearly use of grazing by the livestock in the area, it becomes imperative to study their feeding habits and document their food plants. Consequently, poaching and livestock grazing are important challenges for the conservation of blue sheep. Hunting, deforestation, forest fires, grazing and shifting agriculture are identified as major threats to the wildlife of Api Nampa Conservation Area. Envisioning, critical thinking, building partnership in decision-making, awareness, and stringent action against hunting activities must be adopted early. Api Nampa Conservation Area has received little research attention from grassland ecologists and specialists in pastoral management.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Water Quality of Marshyangdi River, Nepal: An Assessment Using Water Quaity Index (WQI) 2021-12-08T05:46:30+00:00 Reeta Singh Sadhana Pradhanang Kayastha Vishnu Prasad Pandey <p>Water quality index (WQI) is a valuable arithmetic tool that depicts the overall status of water quality in a single number to prioritize for management interventions<strong>. </strong>This study aims to assess water quality based on the WQI to provide insights into the status of the aquatic ecosystems in the Marshyangdi River basin, a tributary of the Narayani River, originating from the Himalaya. Water samples were collected from twenty-one sampling locations in the Marshyangdi River covering four districts from upstream (Kangsar) to the downstream region (Mugling) during pre-monsoon season (May) 2019. Eight selected physico-chemical parameters (TDS, pH, EC, DO, Cl<sup>-</sup>, NH<sub>3, </sub>PO<sub>4</sub><sup>3-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) were analyzed and aggregated in the form of WQI. Results showed that WQI ranges from 32.5 to 46.9, indicating the excellent water quality suitable for the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem at all the sampling locations. These study results are expected to provide the baseline information on the present status of water quality along the longitudinal section of the Marshyangdi River, which could be helpful for the concerned authorities to manage water quality for the sustenance of the aquatic ecosystem.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Regeneration Status of Sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) in Community Managed Forests, Tanahun District, Nepal 2021-12-08T16:24:31+00:00 Prativa Poudel Anjana Devkota <p>The present research aims to know the regeneration status of community managed <em>Shorea robusta</em> (Sal) forests; managed for 6-21 years in Tanahun district, a part of <a href="">Gandaki Province</a>, Nepal. These forests were categorized into two groups according to management duration (more than 10 years and equal or less than 10 yrs). The regeneration status of the forest was estimated by calculating the density of each species in each developmental phase (seedling, sapling and tree). The total tree density of community forest managed for more than 10 years (MCF forest; 1230 plants/ha) was less than the community forest managed for equal or less than 10 years (LCF forest; 1314 plants/ha). The results suggest that the size class distribution of the trees resembling inverse-J shaped indicates the good regenerating capability of both forests. After the handover of forests to the community, Sal density had increased rapidly in both the forests. Community management had a significant positive impact on the regeneration of the forest, and thus, the productivity of the forest. Thus, the study of regeneration of forest trees has important implications for the conservation and management of natural forests.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment using Open-Source Data in the Far Western Nepal Himalaya: Case Studies from Selected Local Level Units 2021-12-09T16:31:19+00:00 Kabi Raj Paudyal Krishna Chandra Devkota Binod Prasad Parajuli Puja Shakya Preshika Baskota <p>This paper explores openly available geo-spatial and earth observatory data to understand landslide risk in data scarce rural areas of Nepal. It attempts to explore the application of open-source data and analytical models to inform future landslide research. The first step of this procedure starts from the review of global open datasets, literatures and case studies relevant to landslide research. The second step is followed by the case study in one of the mountainous municipalities of Nepal where we tested the identified open-source data and models to produce landslide susceptibility maps. Past studies and experiences show that the major potential sites of landslide in Nepal are highly concentrated in a geologically weak area such as the active fault regions, shear zones, axis of folds and unfavorable setting of lithology. Triggering factors like concentrated precipitation, frequent earthquake phenomenon and haphazard infrastructural development activities in the marginally stable mountain slopes have posed serious issues of landslides mostly through the geologically weak regions. In this context, openly available geo-spatial datasets can provide baseline information for exploring the landslide hazard scenario in the data scarce areas of Nepal. This research has used the available open-source data to produce a landslide susceptibility map of the Bithadchir Rural Municipality in Bajhang District and Budiganga Municipality in Bajura District of the Sudurpaschim Province of Nepal. We used qualitative analysis to evaluate the parameters and assess the susceptibility of landslide; the result was classified into five susceptibility zones: Very High, High, Moderate, Low, and Very Low. Slope and Aspect were identified to be the major determinants for the assessment. This approach is applicable, specifically, for the preliminary investigation in the data scarce region using open data sources. Furthermore, the result can be used to plan and prioritize effective disaster risk reduction strategies.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Determinants of Municipal Solid Waste in Urban Zone of Baglung Municipality, Nepal 2021-12-13T04:07:56+00:00 Tejendra Regmi Manisha Ghimire Suman Man Shrestha <p>The studies on the solid waste generation and characterization with their relationships with different determinants are limited in Nepal which helps in the implementation of the solid waste management approach. This study is focused on the quantification of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generation rate and its characterization in the Baglung Municipality, Nepal. Factors affecting MSW generation with perceptions towards the MSW management were also evaluated through household survey. The study was carried out in the month of January 2021 in four wards of urban zone in the municipality. The average waste generation rate in 188 households (HHs), 20 institutions, and 20 commercial sites were 0.43 kg/c/d, 0.83 kg/institute/day and 2.75 kg/commercial site/day, respectively. The largest component, which accounted for about 74% household waste, 75% institutional waste and 52% commercial waste composed of organic waste. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant variation in between MSW generation rate with respect to household size and type of days. Regarding affordability of MSW management, most of the households can be able to afford service fee ranged from US$ 0.5 to 1.0 (55.38%). Most of the households dispose of solid waste in the municipal vehicle. From this study, the residents of the municipality are suggested to prepare compost manure at the source for the minimization of waste volume to be transported and disposed of. Higher production of recyclable MSW depicts there is a possibility of revenue generation and importance of MSW management in community mobilization in the municipality.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Crab-Eating Mongoose Herpestes urva: Occurrence and its Activity in Mid-Hills of Nepal 2021-12-13T05:11:02+00:00 Hari Prasad Sharma Binaya Adhikari Shivish Bhandari Kedar Baral Ripu Mardhan Kunwar <p>Small carnivores are able to adapt to patchy forests and human dominated landscape in proximity to water sources. Small carnivore’s population is declining due to anthropogenic effects, and in most of the areas, their occurrence is little known. We aimed to identify the spatial occurrence of crab-eating mongoose, the factors affecting the occurrence of species and coexistence with other species using camera trap. The crab-eating mongoose mostly preferred the shrub-land habitat (65%) and followed by agriculture land, forest and grassland. Almost all preferred habitats were near to water sources. The occurrence of crab-eating mongoose was influenced by human disturbances. Their occurrences were decreased with increasing disturbances. In addition, the crab-eating mongoose’s occurrence was also decreased with increasing distance to water sources. The movement activities of crab-eating mongoose were varied according to time period (F = 6; df = 14; p &lt; 0.013), and was mostly active at day to mid-night (16.00 to 12.00 hours) and mid-night to early morning (12.00 to 8.00 hours). The crab-eating mongoose co-exists with other carnivores including Leopard, Jungle cat, Masked-palm civet, Small Indian mongoose, Leopard cat, Yellow-throated martin, and Large Indian civet. In addition, its occurrence was affected by human interference. The data available from this study can be used to develop site/species-specific conservation plans that aid stewardship for biodiversity conservation.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Effect of Plasticizers on the Physicochemical properties of Bioplastic Extracted from Banana Peels 2021-12-13T09:03:03+00:00 Khagendra Chapain Sambridhi Shah Binod Shrestha Rajendra Joshi Naresh Raut Rajesh Pandit <p>Plasticizers are the binding substances used to increase the elasticity of materials. In this research work, bioplastic is extracted from banana peels using various plasticizers such as, glycerol, urea, distilled water and glucose. The prepared bioplastics were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis which showed that the peak at 3355 cm<sup>-1</sup> indicate the H-bonding formation between N-H urea and starch. The physicochemical properties such as water absorption test, soil decomposition and load test of synthesized bioplastics were analyzed at ambient temperature. The water uptake analysis showed that bioplastic absorbs water for up to 4 days without being decay. The load test showed that urea plasticized bioplastic has a high tensile strength of 2.3 KPa. The result revealed that the bioplastic with glucose as a plasticizer showed the effective result in water uptake and soil decomposition test whereas the urea plasticized bioplastic showed relatively good tensile strength.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Effectiveness of Zr(IV)-Loaded Banana Peels Biomass for the Uptake of Fluoride Anion from Water 2021-12-14T04:03:53+00:00 Ram Lochan Aryal Bhoj Raj Poudel Megh Raj Pokhrel Hari Paudyal Kedar Nath Ghimire <p>The present study reports the fluoride uptake potential of Zr(IV)-loaded saponified banana peels (Zr(IV)-SBP) from water. Zr(IV)-SBP was synthesized by loading Zr(IV) onto banana peel biomass after saponification and sorbent characterization was performed by using different techniques including FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red) spectroscopy and zeta potential analysis. Batch experiments were carried out to examine the monitoring factors for the uptake of fluoride onto the investigated adsorbent. The optimal pH and contact time were found to be 2.94 and 300 minutes, respectively. The results from characterization techniques concurred that Zr(IV)-SBP have prominent adsorption sites favorable for the sorption of fluoride ions. The sorption behavior of fluoride onto Zr(IV)-SBP was best fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The maximum adsorption capacity of Zr(IV)-SBP was 36.02 mg/g using the Langmuir isotherm model. The coexisting ions like chloride and nitrate caused very small interference, elevated concentration of sulphate notably lowers the fluoride adsorption percentage in the binary system, and the sorption using multiple systems was lowered significantly which is due to the synergistic effect of co-existing interfering ion. The adsorbed fluoride was completely desorbed using 2M NaOH solution. Fluoride sorption performance of Zr(IV)-SBP demonstrated that it can be a low cost, environmentally benign and one of the highly potent alternatives for the remediation of fluoride ions to avoid ablation on the water.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Does the High Elevation Climate along Mt. Everest can be Represented by Lower Elevation Stations? 2021-12-21T10:22:02+00:00 Binod Dawadi Shankar Sharma Kalpana Hamal Nitesh Khadka Yam Prasad Dhital Shiva Kumar Mahato <p>Climate change studies of the high mountain areas of the central Himalayan region are mostly represented by the meteorological stations of the lower elevation. Therefore, to validate the climatic linkages, daily observational climate data from five automated weather stations (AWS) at elevations ranging from 2660 m to 5600 m on the southern slope of Mt. Everest were examined. Despite variations in the means and distribution of daily, 5-day, 10-day, and monthly temperature and precipitation between stations located at a higher elevation and their corresponding lower elevation, temperature records in the different elevations are highly correlated. In contrast, the precipitation data shows a comparatively weaker correlation. The slopes of the regression model (0.82–1.13) with (R<sup>2</sup>&gt;0.74) for higher altitude (5050 m and 5600 m) throughout the year, 0.83–1.12 (R<sup>2</sup>&gt;0.68) except late monsoon season for the station at 4260 m and 5050 m asl indicated the similar variability of the temperature between those stations. Similarly, Namche (3570 m) temperature changes by 0.81–1.32°C per degree change in corresponding lower elevation Lukla station (2660 m), except for monsoon season. However, inconsistent variation was observed between the station with a large altitudinal difference (2940 m) at Lukla and Kala Patthar (5600 m). In general, climate records from corresponding lower elevation can be used to quantitatively assess climatic information of the high elevation areas on the southern slope of Mt. Everest. However, corrections are necessary when absolute values of climatic factors are considered, especially in snow cover and snow-free areas. This study will be beneficial for understanding the high-altitude climate change and impact studies.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Eccentric and Concentric Motion Motion of Hamstring during the Leg Curl 2021-12-21T09:54:42+00:00 Shiva Bikram Thapa Suresh Basnet Raju Khanal <p>The force experienced by the hamstring during the leg curl has been numerically investigated using the conservation theorem. The center of the meniscus is assumed to be the pivot point along with the uniform distribution of forces in the frictionless environment. The variation of force experienced by the hamstring during the concentric motion of the leg curl has been derived and graphically illustrated. It is found that the force experienced by the hamstring increases with the increase in length of the lower leg and its weight as well. The magnitude of force decreases with the increase in distance from the pivot to insertion. However, the magnitude of force increases from about 3.60 to 4.79 kN in the practically valid region 3 to 4 cm distance from the pivot to insertion with the increase in weight of lower leg from 5 to 15 kg. On the other hand, the magnitude of force increases from about 3.75 to 9.80 kN with the increase in weight suspended on the machine from 10 to 40 kg. In addition, the force decreases with the increase in upper leg dimension, but it linearly increases with the increase in the angle of suspension.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Dust Properties of Two New Cavity Structures Nearby Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: The IRAS Survey 2021-12-21T14:11:23+00:00 Sujan Prasad Gautam Ashok Silwal Mijas Tiwari Seema Subedi Manish Khanal Ajay Kumar Jha <p>We studied the dust properties of two cavity structures (namely FIC21+54 and FIC16-56) nearby Asymptotic Giant Branch stars using Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) maps. Dust color temperature, Planck function, dust mass, and visual extinction with their distribution within the region of interest were examined. The temperature of dust was found to lie in the range of 22.24 ± 0.81 K to 23.27 ± 0.21 K, and 25.12 ± 0.43 K to 26.17 ± 0.62 K, and the mass of dust was obtained within the range of 4.21 × 10<sup>26</sup> kg to 3.6 × 10<sup>27</sup> kg, and 2.1 × 10<sup>27</sup> kg to 3.31 × 10<sup>28</sup> kg, for FIC21+54 and FIC16-56, respectively. Some unusual behaviors on the distribution of dust temperature indicated the effect of nearby sources within the studied structures. Moreover, we observed the trend of dust particles along the major and minor diameters, and plots represented that the particles were oscillating with a sinusoidal pattern in both cavities. The negative slope between 25 µm and 60 µm in far-infrared spectral distribution was encountered for both structures, which portrayed less number density of particles in 60 µm band; interaction between AGB wind and the ambient interstellar medium could be the possible reason behind this. These findings support the prior results for two new cavity structures nearby AGB stars within the galactic plane -10° &lt; b &lt; +10°.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Box Counting Fractal Dimension and Frequency Size Distributon of Earthquakes in the Central Himalaya Region 2021-12-24T09:52:57+00:00 Ram Krishna Tiwari Harihar Paudyal <p>To establish the relations between b-value and fractal dimension (D<sub>0</sub>) for the earthquake distribution, we study the regional variations of those parameters in the central Himalaya region. The earthquake catalog of 989 events (Mc = 4.0) from 1994.01.31 to 2020.10.28 was analyzed in the study. The study region is divided into two sub-regions (I) Region A: 27.3°N -30.3°N and 80°E -84.8°E (western Nepal and vicinity) and (II) Region B: 26.4°N -28.6°N and 84.8°E -88.4°E (eastern Nepal and vicinity). The b-value observed is within the range between 0.92 to 1.02 for region A and 0.64 to 0.74 for region B showing the homogeneous nature of the variation. The seismic a-value for those regions ranges respectively between 5.385 to 6.007 and 4.565 to 5.218. The low b-values and low seismicity noted for region B may be related with less heterogeneity and high strength in the crust. The high seismicity with average b-values obtained for region A may be related with high heterogeneity and low strength in the crust. The fractal dimension ≥1.74 for region A and ≥ 1.82 for region B indicate that the earthquakes were distributed over two-dimensional embedding space. The observed correlation between D<sub>0</sub> and b is negative for western Nepal and positive for eastern Nepal while the correlation between D<sub>0</sub> and a/b value is just opposite for the respective regions. The findings identify both regions as high-stress regions. The results coming from the study agree with the results of the preceding works and reveal information about the local disparity of stress and change in tectonic complexity in the central Himalaya region.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. Review of the Geology of the Arun-Tamor Region, Eastern Nepal: Present Understndings, Controversies and Research Gaps 2021-12-14T06:16:01+00:00 Drona Adhikari Champak Babu Silwal Lalu Prasad Paudel <p>Systematic study of the eastern Nepal Himalaya was started after 1950 when Nepal opened up for foreigners. Thereafter, several geological studies have been carried out in the Arun-Tamor region of eastern Nepal Himalaya. The Tibetan-Tethys sedimentary sequence, the Higher Himalayan amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic crystalline sequence, the Lesser Himalayan sedimentary and greenschist facies metasedimentary sequences, and the Siwalik foreland molassic sedimentary sequence are the four major tectonic units of this area. The individual nomenclature schemes of stratigraphic units, the correlational dispute, the positions and interpretations of regional geological structures are some examples that have created controversies regarding the lithostratigraphy and structural arrangements. The difference in age and genesis of the Main Central Thrust and its effects in the metamorphism of the eastern Nepal Himalaya are the exemplification of the contradiction in the interpretation of the tectonometamorphic history. There is a gap in research in the tectonics and episodic metamorphic evolution of the area owing to the bare approach in the microstructural and geochronological investigation. Future investigations should be focused on solving the above mentioned controversies and narrowing down the research gaps in tectonic and metamorphic evolution.</p> 2021-12-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U.