Journal of Institute of Science and Technology <p><em>Journal of Institute of Science and Technology </em>(JIST) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science journal published by the Institute of Science and Technology (IOST), Tribhuvan University (TU), Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University en-US Journal of Institute of Science and Technology 2467-9062 <p>The views and interpretations in this journal are those of the author(s). They are not attributable to the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. and do not imply the expression of any opinion concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers of boundaries.</p> <p>The copyright of the articles is held by the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U.</p> Human-Leopard Panthera pardus (Linnaeus, 1758) Conflict in Godawari Municipality, Lalitpur, Nepal <p>Leopard (<em>Panthera pardus</em>) is a globally vulnerable large cat, widely distributed in Nepal. It occurs in different protected and outside protected areas in the human-dominated landscape. We used semi-structured questionnaires to know the Human-Leopard Conflict (HLC) and people’s perception towards Leopard conservation in the conflict-prone areas of Godawari, Lalitpur. The signs survey was conducted to know the presence of Leopards in the study area. Households were sampled using the snowball sampling technique. The presence of signs such as scats, pugmarks, and scents marks in the forest and nearby settlement areas indicated that there was a frequent occurrence of leopards in the study area. The Leopard frequently attacked livestock and pets and sometimes humans. Local people believed that the major reasons behind HLC were insufficient prey species and human disturbances in the habitat of Leopards. The majority of the respondents were against the conservation of Leopards because of the frequent depredation of domestic animals in the study area. The research findings will be useful in making a conservation action plan for Leopards and conflict mitigation strategies in such human-dominated semi-urban and urban landscapes.</p> Alina Maharjan Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-09-23 2022-09-23 27 2 1 11 10.3126/jist.v27i2.51171 Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) and Blue Pine (P. wallichiana) Forests in West Nepal: Comparing Associated Plant Species <p>Chir pine (<em>Pinus roxburghii</em>) and blue pine (<em>P. wallichiana</em>) are two dominant tree species in the mid-hill forests of Nepal that also contribute significantly to the country’s total forest area. The associated vegetation pattern in pine forests is influenced by environmental and edaphic factors. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between soil chemical properties and the composition of associated plant species of two pine forests in the Kailash Sacred Landscape, Nepal. We used the quadrat sampling method to collect vegetation and soil data. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the relationship between soil chemical properties. Generalized Linear model (GLM) to assess the effect of soil properties on species richness, and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) for species composition. Our analysis showed that soil pH was negatively correlated with soil chemical properties and species richness of associated species. There was a high number of associated plant species in the blue pine forest than in chir pine forest. Associated plant species generally prefer high nitrogen and phosphorus content. Between the two pine forest types, there was a higher number of associated plant species in the blue pine forest than in chir pine forest. The study showed that two closely related pine forests differ in associated plant species diversity and richness. Soil nutrients play an important role in determining the species richness and composition but may not be the only factors affecting these patterns. Pine forests play an important role in the socio-economy from the national to community levels while the associated plant species have more significant functions in the livelihoods of local communities.</p> Chandra Kanta Subedi Maan Bahadur Rokaya Janita Gurung Binu Timsina Prabin Bhandari Ram Prasad Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-10-15 2022-10-15 27 2 13 21 10.3126/jist.v27i2.51214 Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminth Parasites in Livestock of Kavrepalanchok <p>The study was carried out in Mandandeupur Municipality, Kavrepalanchok from December 2018 to May 2019. A total of 131 fecal samples of livestock were collected and examined under a microscope by using direct smear and sedimentation technique. Overall, 65.65% of samples were found positive with various types of gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Samples were collected from cows, buffaloes, and goats. Among the samples collected, the highest prevalence (76.47%) was observed among the cows and the least was found among buffaloes (57.14%) but was found statistically insignificant (p&gt;0.05). The study revealed a prevalence of nematodes (74.47%), cestodes (7.70%) and trematodes (3.10%). The prevalence of <em>Strongylus</em> sp. was found highest (35.88%) and the prevalence of <em>Cooperia</em> sp., <em>Hymenolepsis</em> sp., <em>Enterobius</em> sp. and <em>Fasciola</em> sp. were found similar (0.8%). In sex wise study, both males and females of livestock were found about equally infected. In the same way, the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was found about similar in both the winter and summer seasons. In age wise prevalence, the adult was more infected (68.27%) with gastrointestinal helminth parasites than the young (55.55%) which was statistically insignificant (p&gt;0.05). In the present study, single infection was found highest (47.29%) and multiple infections were found least (2.29%). The samples collected from non-dewormed livestock were found highly (71%) positive for gastrointestinal helminths. The relation between deworming and prevalence was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Only 37.25% of farmers maintain the cleanliness of the shed by removing feces from the animal shed every day and only 23.53% of farmers know about the mode of transmission of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock.</p> Semsal Tamang Punya Ram Sukupayo Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 27 2 23 29 10.3126/jist.v27i2.39465 Assessment of Oral Cancer: A Study in Nepal Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Harisiddhi, Lalitpur, Nepal. <p>Oral cancer is becoming very common and increasing day by day in Nepal. It ranks 6<sup>th</sup> in the world and 5<sup>th </sup>in Nepal among all types of cancer as of 2018. This is a hospital-based retrospective study. Required details of 128 patients who underwent surgery from 1<sup>st</sup> April 2018 to 30<sup>th</sup> October 2019 in Nepal Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lalitpur. Data were collected age-wise, sex-wise, site-wise, and stage-wise prevalence was figured out. The data were analyzed using MS excel 2007. It was found that males were more commonly affected than females with the mean age for males at diagnosis being 53.3 years and females being 55.62 years. The tongue was the most affected site followed by GBS then buccal mucosa and RMT. Most people knew about cancer growing on them only at advanced stages.</p> Kapil Thapa Puja Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 27 2 31 37 10.3126/jist.v27i2.39139 Impacts of Livestock Grazing on Vegetation and Soil in Lowland Grassland Ecosystem of Nepal <p>Livestock grazing is one of the largest sectors for land use globally, and contrasting impacts (negative, neutral, and positive) of livestock grazing on vegetation and soil have been observed. In Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve (KTWR), livestock grazing is one of the major problems but has been feebly addressed in previous research. This study, therefore, aims to determine the impacts of livestock grazing on vegetation and soil quality in grasslands of core and buffer zones of KTWR. Less grazing intensity was observed at the core zone compared to the buffer zone. Livestock grazing was observed with negative impacts on the richness and diversity of the plant species causing changes in the community assemblages. Invasive plant species richness, however, was found higher in the low grazed areas. Differences in soil pH, phosphorus, and potassium content between high and low grazed areas were not observed. In contrast, soil electrical conductivity, bulk density, and nitrogen content were significantly higher in the high grazed areas. Controlled grazing is recommended at buffer zone grasslands of KTWR to enhance plant diversity and nutrient availability. The core areas of the reserve should be managed for reducing the abundance and distribution of invasive alien plant species.</p> Ritu Tuladhar Ramesh Prasad Sapkota Ashok Parajuli Birendra Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 27 2 39 48 10.3126/jist.v27i2.43568 Antibacterial Activity of Lemon Juice on Multi-Drug Resistant Klebsiella species Harboring blaOXA-48 Gene <p><em>Klebsiella </em>species cause a wide range of infections, and infections caused by multi-drug resistant species have significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Extended spectrum β-lactamase ESBL prodan emergingd carbapenem resistant <em>K. pneumoniae</em> is emerging problem in hospital settings worldwise. However, the distribution of <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48 </sub>in <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae </em>has rarely been described from Nepal. This study was carried out to evaluate <em>in vitro</em> antibacterial activity of lemon juice against clinical isolates of <em>Klebsiella </em>having <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48 </sub>gene. A total of 667 clinical specimens were processed for the identification of <em>Klebsiella</em> species by morphological, cultural and biochemical tests. Methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and confirmation of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) were adopted from the guidelines of the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2018), and <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48 </sub>gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The antibacterial activity of lemon juice was assayed using agar well diffusion, and the bactericidal effect of lemon juice was determined by the broth dilution method. Out of 204 culture positive isolates, 29.5% were <em>Klebsiella</em> species of which 16.7% were ESBL producers. Among 19 isolates positive to Modified Hodge test, 68.4% were detected with the plasmid mediated <em>bla</em><sub>OXA-48</sub> gene. The MIC of lemon juice ranged from 12.5-50% (v/v), and the bacteriostatic activity was observed after 6-8 hours of exposure. The tested varieties of lemon juice showed potential inhibitory activity against <em>Klebsiella</em> species indicating that lemon juice has the potential to be used as an antibacterial agent.</p> Babita Malla Santosh Khanal Sudeep K C Binod Kumar Yadav Dev Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-11-26 2022-11-26 27 2 49 59 10.3126/jist.v27i2.37483 Formulation and Evaluation of Cream Using Moringa oleifera L. Leaf Extract <p>There are an increasing number of studies on the cosmeceutical properties of medicinal plants growing in various climatic zones. The formulation of phenolic rich plant extracts into cosmetic cream products can maximize the commercial value of such products. Most of the herbs used in Nepal for cosmetic purposes are locally available Ayurvedic herbs. The antioxidant property of the ethanolic extracts of <em>Moringa oleifera </em>L. leaves collected from Rupandehi and Makawanpur districts respectively were determined by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. Total phenolic and total tannin content was determined by Foline Ciocalteu reagent. Total phenolic content was found from 35.51 and 42.89 mg/100 g gallic acid in the Makawanpur and Rupandehi districts. Overall, findings revealed that there were slight differences in antioxidant properties between the two samples. The cream formulated from the Makawanpur plant sample had considerable physiochemical parameters within the range of acceptance. These findings provide strong evidence for further development of commercial creams with antioxidant properties</p> Rajendra Gyawali Dinesh Bhattarai Niraj Bartaula Ramendra Bastola Shantosh Bhatta Srijana Suwal Prem Narayan Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 27 2 61 66 10.3126/jist.v27i2.51322 Scientific Evaluation of Buddleja asiatica, Camellia sinensis, and Polygala arillata of Nepal <p>Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Medicinal plants remain to play an important role in the amelioration of diabetes and its complications. In this study,<em> Buddleja asiatica, Camellia sinensis</em>, and <em>Polygala arillata </em>were investigated for α-amylase inhibition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. Methanolic extracts of these three plants were investigated for their potential antioxidant activity using DPPH assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of extracts were evaluated by the following standard methods. The α-amylase inhibition assay was also carried out by starch-iodine assay and DNS assay method. Methanolic extract of<em> B. asiatica, C. sinensis, </em>and<em> P. </em><em>arillata</em> exhibits a total phenolic content of 116.47 ± 6.62, 157.17 ± 18.79, and 44.27 ± 2.97 mg GAE per gm in dry weight of extracts (p &lt; 0.0001) and flavonoid levels 5.99 ± 1.00, 34.28 ± 2.63, and 37.07 ± 2.24 (p &lt; 0.0001) mg QE per gm in dry weights of extracts respectively. The extract showed promising antioxidant activity against DPPH with the IC<sub>50</sub> values of <em>C. sinensis</em> (19.15 ± 4.32 μg/mL), <em>B. asiatica</em> (26.86 ± 2.00 μg/mL), and the standard the quercetin (2.36 ± 0.13 μg/mL). The extract showed modest α-amylase inhibitory activity. Methanolic extract of <em>B. asiatica </em>and <em>C. sinensis</em> were found effective against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> with zone of inhibition of 12.5 mm and 17 mm respectively. Therefore, obtained results support the traditional uses of these plants and also showed α-amylase inhibition activities although there are no reports about it.</p> Kabin Chemjong Bimala Subba Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 27 2 67 76 10.3126/jist.v27i2.51325 Maximum Capacity Path Problem with Arc Reversal <p>In a network with capacitated arcs, the maximum capacity path problem is to find the bottleneck path between two nodes that has the maximum capacity among all the paths between the nodes. In this work, a problem of identification of such a path is considered allowing arc reversals in a directed graph where the capacity of the reversed arc can be added to the capacity of its counterpart. We propose an <strong><em>O(m)</em></strong> algorithm to solve the problem in a directed graph with arcs.</p> Hari Nandan Nath Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 27 2 77 83 10.3126/jist.v27i2.47223 Structural Parameter of a Merging Compact Dwarf Galaxy CG 0315 <p>Structural parameters like size, Sersic index, total luminosity and ellipticity are important tools to study galaxy formation and evolution. This work studies a compact dwarf galaxy CG 0325, originated from a merger, and performs a detailed analysis of morphological parameters. The galaxy size is derived by using two different methods, i.e., parametric and non-parametric. The parametric uses the Sersic modeling, but it is found that the observed light profile of CG 0325 cannot be modeled with a simple Sersic function. This is, however, common in merging feature galaxies. Therefore, for further analysis, the half-light radius derived from the non-parametric method can be used as the size of the galaxy. CG 0315 is far more compact than a typical galaxy. We measured its effective radius of 4.05 arcseconds and half-light radius of 2.60 arcseconds that corresponds to a physical value of 221 parsec. Its ratio between the minor and major axis is 0.82, and the position angle is 179 degrees to the North. The star formation rate of the galaxy is 0.051M<sub>ʘ</sub> year<sup>-1</sup>. We conclude from these observational data that CG 0315 will continue to be a compact dwarf galaxy when star formation stops and transforms into a well-known compact elliptical galaxy. Therefore, CG 0315 might be a progenitor of an elliptical galaxy.</p> Daya Nidhi Chhatkuli Sanjaya Paudel Amrit Sedhain Binil Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 27 2 85 89 10.3126/jist.v27i2.35312 Macrofungal Diversity of Brahakshetra Community Forest, Ghorahi, Dang, Nepal <p>Fungi are a diverse group of organisms ranging from microscopic to macroscopic mushrooms. Being a major group of decomposers, they are essential for the survival of other organisms in the ecosystem and important for the degradation of organic matter. The main aim of this study was to study the macrofungal diversity of Brahakshetra Community Forest, Ghorahi, Dang. The forest is mainly dominated by <em>Shorea robusta</em> and other associated species. The study was made from June to September 2020. The sampling was done by using a 10×10m quadrate in a line transect and each plot was divided into 5×5m quadrats and samples were collected during the rainy season from different habitats of the forest. Mushrooms were photographed in their natural habitat and preserved in dry and liquid preservation. The specimens were identified by examining their macroscopic and microscopic features, and also by using references from standard literature and websites. In the study, a total of 66 species were recorded under 30 genera belonging to 21 families, and 8 orders. Among them, 65 belong to basidiomycetes and 1 belongs to Ascomycetes. Agaricales was found as the largest order followed by Russulales and Boletales. The diversity indices, the Shannon Weiner index and Simpson diversity index were found to be 3.59 and 0.93 respectively. The result of this study concludes that the Brahakshetra Community Forest was rich in macrofungal diversity, especially ectomycorrhizal. There were positive trends between species richness of macrofungi and environmental variables, i.e., tree canopy, soil pH, soil moisture, and leaf litter which means species increased with increasing these environmental variables.</p> Sadikshya Thapa Shashi Shrestha Sanjay Kumar Jha Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 27 2 91 107 10.3126/jist.v27i2.51359 Tree Species Diversity and Regenerating Potential along Disturbance Gradient in Chandragiri Hill, Kathmandu, Central Nepal <p>Tress species regeneration is greatly influenced by climatic, topographic, and anthropogenic activities. Present study was designed to examine the tree species diversity and their regeneration patterns along the anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the temperate forest of Chandragiri Hill, Central Nepal. Data were obtained from 90 sample plots ranging between 1560 to 2290 m asl after randomly sampling along three disturbance classes classified based on canopy coverage and degrees of disturbance activities in 2021. Circumference at breast height (1.37 m height above the ground) of each tree individual was measured and classified into tree, sapling, and seedling. A total of 47 tree species belonging to 42 genera and 26 families were obtained by this study. The highest species richness for seedlings and saplings was obtained in severely disturbed areas and tree species richness in the moderately disturbed area. The tree stands density varied between 350 to 1017 individuals ha<sup>-1</sup> with the total basal area between 12.7 to 72.78 m<sup>2</sup> ha<sup>-1</sup> with the least value in a highly disturbed area and highest in the least disturbed area. The seedling and sapling densities were found increased from lower to more disturbed forests indicating that the forest fragmentation negatively affected the regeneration. The highest values of the Shannon Weiner index, Pielou Index, and the lowest value of the Simpson index were observed at moderate disturbance areas. About 36 to 60% of species were found regenerating in the less disturbed and moderately disturbed forests and no regeneration in severely disturbed areas. Elevation, canopy cover, landslide, and slopes were found to be the most influential variables in forest regeneration as significantly represented by CCA1. The present study has found a moderate level of disturbance to become beneficial for better regeneration of tree species. So, the reduction of excessive disturbance from local people would be a better option for the adequate regeneration of tree species.</p> Ram Sharan Dani Chitra Bahadur Baniya Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 27 2 109 124 10.3126/jist.v27i2.49614 Characterizing the Effects of Friction Angles on Earth Pressures in the Flow of Granular Mass along Down-slope and Cross-slope in a Rough Incline <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 333.748px; top: 431.155px; font-size: 14.944px; font-family: sans-serif; transform: scaleX(1.01559);" role="presentation">The tendency of the sliding mass to deform or deposit during the flow is dictated by the earth pressure coefficient (K) in the dynamics of a finite mass of cohesionless granular material discharged from rest on a rough inclined plane. When the flow’s velocities along the x and y-axes are decreasing, K=K_(y pas)^(x pas), the flow becomes convergent, and depositional behavior appears. On the other hand, if the flow velocity is increasing along x-axis but decreasing along y-axis, 〖K=K〗_(y pas)^(x act) and the flow is divergent and hence mass spreads. For K=K_(y act)^(x pas) and K=K_(y pas)^(x pas), the flow is neither convergent nor divergent, it remains constant throughout the domain. The mathematical relationship provided here and the associated 2D and 3D representation demonstrate how the internal angle (ϕ) and basal angle (δ) of frictions have a significant impact on the earth pressure coefficient in the dynamics of dry granular mass along a rough plane. The mathematical correlations for the soil mechanics are discussed along with these coefficients.</span></p> Jeevan Kafle Ramuna Pandey Bekha Ratna Dangol Copyright (c) 2022 Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 27 2 125 134 10.3126/jist.v27i2.48880