Journal of Institute of Science and Technology <p><em>Journal of Institute of Science and Technology </em>(JIST) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary science journal published by Institute of Science and Technology (IOST), Tribhuvan University (T.U.), Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>The views and interpretation in this journal are those of author(s). They are not attributable to the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U. and do not imply the expression of any opinion concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, area of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers of boundaries.<strong> </strong></p><p> The copyright of the articles is held by the Institute of Science and Technology, T.U.</p> (Prof. Dr. Jagadeesh Bhattarai) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 28 Jun 2019 13:04:50 +0000 OJS 60 Data Protection in the EU and its Implications on Software Development outside the EU <p>In May 2018, the <em>General Data Protection Regulation </em>(GDPR 2016) came into effect in the European Union (EU), defining requirements on how to handle personal data of EU citizens. This report discusses the effects of this regulation on software development organisations outside the EU, and summaries the software requirements that result from GDPR and therefore apply to most information technology (IT) systems that will handle data of individuals based in the EU.</p> Ralf Kneuper ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 07:05:22 +0000 Determination and Contamination Assessment of Heavy Metals in Street Dust from Different Types of Land-Use in Kathmandu District, Nepal <p>A total of forty seven street dust samples, collected from five different types of land use <em>viz.</em>, industrial, urban, heavy traffic road, residential and undisturbed areas (control) of Kathmandu district (Nepal), were subjected to characterize the physico-chemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductance (EC), total alkalinity (T. Alk), total organic carbon (TOC) and particle size distribution. Four heavy metals of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in dust samples using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). It was found that all types of dust samples possessed alkaline nature along with variation in EC, T. Alk and TOC values. Results revealed that the dust of industrial areas contained high concentrations of Zn (143.3 mg/kg) and Cu (106.42 mg/kg), whereas the heavy traffic areas were mainly affected by Cd (0.90 mg/kg) and Pb (70.08 mg/kg). The average metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in dust of all the types of land use in Kathmandu were found to be 0.73, 68.86, 51.46 and 104.30 mg/kg and their average metal enrichment factors were 2.28, 5.50, 1.92 and 3.17, respectively. The results were also compared against heavy metals status in street dust from various cities/countries around the world. Pollution indices such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (CD) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) showed different classes of metal contamination in street dust of Kathmandu indicating traffic emission, automobiles, construction and demolition activities and other anthropogenic activities as the potential sources.</p> Sudarshana Shakya, Samikshya Baral, Priya Belbase, Mohd Nur E Alam Siddique, Abd Naser HJ Samoh, Banani Das, Prem Kumar Shrestha, Pawan Raj Shakya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 09:14:00 +0000 Synthesis and Characterization of Urea–Formaldehyde Eco-Friendly Composite Based On Natural Fibers <p>&nbsp;Present work explains the synthesis of urea–formaldehyde composites with Allo (<em>Girardinia diversifolia</em>) and cotton (<em>Gossypium arboreum</em>) fibers. Urea–formaldehyde resin was synthesized by condensation polymerization of urea and formaldehyde monomers. Cellulose fibers were extracted by various chemical treatments of natural fibers. Composites were prepared with neat and extracted cellulose from Allo and cotton fibers by solution casting method. Fibers and composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and micro-indentation tests. Results showed that composite with treated Allo fibers had better morphological, mechanical and thermal properties than untreated Allo and cotton fibers.</p> Netra Lal Bhandari, Babu Raj Dhungana, Ralf Lach, Sven Henning, Rameshwar Adhikari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 09:35:01 +0000 Progress in Optoelectronic Oscillators <p>An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) generates a spectrally pure and ultra-stable radio frequency signal from a continuous wave laser source (Yao <em>et al. </em>2004). In a conventional electrical oscillator, the energy storage capacity is limited, which compromises stability of the signal. To address this issue, Yao and Maleki invented the optoelectronic oscillator in 1996. This novel oscillator uses low-loss optical fiber to extend the length of the oscillator and thereby increases the amount of energy that can be stored (Madjar &amp; Tibor 2006). Due to this additional energy storing component in the system, the purity and stability of the signal increase significantly. Following their invention, many modifications have been made over the years to improve the frequency stability of OEOs (lower phase noise and timing jitter). This review article discusses some of those key developments and then introduces some ongoing work devoted to understanding the impact of using electrical filters with Q &gt;10<sup>9</sup>.</p> Nabin K. Raut, Jeffery Miller, Jay Sharping ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 09:50:18 +0000 Assemblage of Insects on Medicinal Plants: An Insight from ICIMOD Herbal Garden in Godavari of Lalitpur, Nepal <p>Present study was conducted within the herbal garden of International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in Godawari of Kathmandu valley to explore the insect communities in medicinal plants. Five medicinal plants, viz. <em>Rauvolfia serpentina </em>(= Sarpagandha), <em>Urtica dioca </em>(= Sissnu), <em>Zanthoxylum armatum </em>(= Timur), <em>Valeriana jatamansii </em>(= Sungandhawal) and <em>Mentha spicata </em>(= Pudina) were selected for the study. Insects were randomly sampled during four seasons from September 2017 to June 2018 using different collecting techniques, like hand picking, pit-fall traps, net-sweeping and stem beating. A total of 869 insects individuals belonging to 42 different genera were collected and identified. It was found that the abundance of insects was high during spring season (299 insects comprising 35 % of collected species), followed by summer (255 insects comprising 29 % of collected species) and winter (219 insects comprising 25 % of collected species) seasons, and low during autumn season (96 insects comprising 11 % of collected species). It was further found that the abundance of insect species was temperature-dependent, but was independent of relative humidity. The maximum indicator species were present on <em>M. spicata. </em>Taxonomic distinctness (delta+) of insects was high on <em>V. jatamansii</em>, but low on <em>U. dioca.</em></p> Daya Ram Bhusal, Sweta Shrestha, Kishor Chandra Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 09:59:14 +0000 Cost-Based Query Optimization in Centralized Relational Databases <p>Query optimization is the most significant factor for any centralized relational database management system (RDBMS) that reduces the total execution time of a query. Query optimization is the process of executing a SQL (Structured Query Language) query in relational databases to determine the most efficient way to execute a given query by considering the possible query plans. The goal of query optimization is to optimize the given query for the sake of efficiency. Cost-based query optimization compares different strategies based on relative costs (amount of time that the query needs to run) and selects and executes one that minimizes the cost. The cost of a strategy is just an estimate based on how many estimated CPU and I/O resources that the query will use. In this paper, cost is considered by counting number of disk accesses for each query plan because disk access tends to be the dominant cost in query processing for centralized relational databases.</p> Nawaraj Paudel, Jagdish Bhatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:04:58 +0000 Screening and Optimization of Thermo-Tolerant Bacillus Sp. For Amylase Production and Antifungal Activity <p>Amylases are starch degrading enzymes which are produced by plants, animals and microorganisms. Amylases produced by microorganisms have a wide range of industrial applications such as in pharmaceutical, food, textile and paper industries. However, there are still limitations in the isolation of amylase producing microorganisms. The objective of this study was to isolate the potent amylase producing <em>Bacillus </em>sp. from soil samples and evaluate their abilities for inhibiting the aflatoxin producing <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>. In this study, 30 soil samples were used. For the screening and identification of <em>Bacillus </em>strain, morphological and biochemical tests were performed. Iodine assay was done to screen the potent amylase producers. Two parameters (pH and temperature) were used to optimize the cultural conditions for the production of amylase. To determine the total reducing sugar, dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay was used. Altogether 29 colonies were selected and identified as <em>Bacillus </em>spp out of which 16 were selected to determine enzyme activity by cup plate method. Four isolates (DK9, DK10, IM4 and KD7) showing highest amylolytic activities (16 mm, 12 mm, 14 mm and 14 mm zone of hydrolysis) were subjected for further study. Isolate KD7 showed the highest amylolytic activity (0.19 U/mL) compared to other isolates. Maximum amylase production was found at pH 6 and temperature 50° C (0.19 U/mL). Among these 4 isolates, DK9 and KD9 showed strong antagonistic activity against <em>Aspergillus flavus </em>while DK10 and IM4 showed moderate antifungal activities<em>. </em>Thus, the bacterial isolate KD7 was identified as the most potent strain for maximum amylase production.</p> Susmita Sapkota, Sujan Khadka, Aava Gautam, Rojina Maharjan, Ruby Shah, Sandhya Dhakal, Om Prakash Panta, Santosh Khanal, Pramod Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:39:49 +0000 Antibacterial, Antidiabetic and Brine Shrimp Lethality Activities of Some Selected Medicinal Plants from Kavrepalanchok District of Nepal <p>The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants collected from Kavrepalanchok district of Nepal were subjected to their potential bioactivity viz. antibacterial, antidiabetic and toxicity tests. Antibacterial property of the extracts was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by agar well diffusion method and antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase inhibition assay. The toxicity of plant extracts was assessed by brine shrimp lethality test. All the nine different plant extracts showed antibacterial activity with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 5 to 35 mm. Among the studied plant extracts, <em>Psidium guajava </em>showed the highest ZOI against <em>Salmonella typhi </em>(35 mm) while <em>Melia azedarach </em>was most effective against <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(22 mm). The percentage of α- amylase enzyme inhibition was found up to 88.56 ± 3.50 in dose dependent manner. The enzyme inhibitory concentration IC<sub>50</sub> value of standard, acarbose was 166.01 μg/mL while the most effective anti-diabetic plant extract of <em>Utrica dioica </em>has 186.67 μg/mL. Moreover, various plant extracts depicted various levels of toxic activities; <em>Curcuma longa </em>demonstrated significant toxicity to <em>Artemia salina </em>with LC<sub>50</sub> value 62.10 μg/mL, while <em>Agerantina adenophora, P. guajava </em>and <em>M. azedarach </em>showed moderate toxicity with 103.77, 109.37 and 383.58 μg/mL, respectively.</p> Khaga Raj Sharma, Rupak Kharel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:51:47 +0000 Determinants of Distribution of Large Mammals in Seti River Basin, Tanahun District of Western Nepal <p>Forest landscape in Seti River basin of Western Nepal is not conserved within the protected area network. Wildlife habitats in Seti River basin are more vulnerable due to high anthropogenic disturbance and habitat fragmentation. Present study mainly focused to evaluate the major factors that determine the distribution of large mammals in Seti River basin by walking through 34 line transects that covered a total of 59.89 km. The distribution of large mammals was greatly affected by habitat types, human disturbances, topography and altitude. Himalayan gorals were recorded in the steep grass covered areas where as Muntjacs were found in most of the habitats and slopes. There was low occurrence of all species nearer to the settlements and roads. Besides, water sources played a vital role in distribution of wildlife, as there were more occurrences of signs of large mammals nearby water resources. In the study area, community forests played a major role in the conservation of viable population of large mammals. However, habitat fragmentation due to scattered human settlements and degradation of foraging grounds such as grasslands by succession and invasion of alien plant species added more threats to the survival of large mammals. Therefore, such situation can be improved through the protection of connecting forest patches and scientific management of forests and grasslands.</p> Jagan Nath Adhikari, Bishnu Prasad Bhattarai, Tej Bahadur Thapa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2019 05:19:07 +0000 Crop Raiding Status by Assamese Monkeys (Macaca assamensis) along the Kaligandaki River, Western Nepal <p>A study on Assamese monkeys (<em>Macaca assamensis</em>) in Kaligandaki river basin at Ramdi of Palpa and Syangja districts of western Nepal was performed. The field study was conducted from February 2015 to January 2016 spending 1804 hours to explore the ecology and feeding behavior of Assamese macaque. The study mainly focused the Ramdi village area. A total of 24 individuals of Assamese monkeys were counted towards Palpa district and 18 individuals were counted towards Syangja district. Crop raiding status was examined each year by questionnaire survey method for local household villagers as well as direct observation by the researcher. It was found that maize (47.14 %) was the highest raided among the crops, followed by fruits (16.43 %), wheat (11.13 %), millet (5.72 %), rice (4.58 %), potato (4.27 %), lentil (4.07 %), mustard (1.26 %), pumpkin (1.14 %), bread (0.96 %), brown lentil (0.81 %), broad beans (0.80 %), sesame (0.60 %), black pulses (0.35 %), dal (0.20 %), cauliflower (0.14 %), tomato (0.1 %), egg (0.1 %), <em>samosa </em>(0.1 %) and gram (0.1%).</p> Suvas Chandra Ghimire, Mukesh Kumar Chalise ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2019 05:25:24 +0000 Removal and Recovery of Phosphate from Water and Wastewater Using Metal-Loaded Agricultural Waste-Based Adsorbents: A Review <p>There is a growing research interest in the development of adsorbents based on agricultural wastes (AWs) for the removal of phosphate from waste water sources, which otherwise can cause eutrophication. Nevertheless, due to the lack of active exposed surface sites, raw AWs-based adsorbents are usually inefficient for the adsorption of phosphate from aquatic environment. Consequently, modification of raw adsorbents has been frequently used to improve their phosphate adsorption capacity. Of the various methods of modification, this review paper focused on most widely used chemical modification method. It presents a critical and comprehensive review of the literature on the effectiveness of metal-loaded agricultural wastes (MLAWs)-based adsorbents in removing and recovering of phosphate from waste waters. Mechanisms and factors affecting phosphate adsorption as well as phosphate desorption and regeneration from MLAW adsorbents are critically evaluates. If phosphate from waste waters can be of economical value, regeneration may partly overcome the future shortage of global phosphate rock reserves. It is evident from the literature survey presented herein that MLAWs-based adsorbents exhibited as potential adsorbent for the removal/recovery of phosphate from waste waters. However, there still needs a refined practical utility of these adsorbents on a commercial scale, which may serve as the novel, cost effective and environmentally benign methods of modification.</p> Megh Raj Pokhrel, Bhoj Raj Poudel, Ram Lochan Aryal, Hari Paudyal, Kedar Nath Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2019 05:45:07 +0000 Study on the Effects of Multiple Matings in Coccinella transversalis for its Behaviour and Reproduction <p>The evolution and maintenance of multiple mating (repeated mating or polyandry) in predaceous ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an adaptive puzzle; since a single ejaculate of male often provides enough sperm to female for her lifetime egg production. Despite numerous studies on multiple mating evaluating reproductive attributes, there are negligible studies that investigated changes in behavioural patterns in ladybirds during multiple mating. In the present study, effects of multiple mating on mating behavioural pattern of males and reproductive attributes of females have been assessed using <em>Coccinella transversalis </em>as an experimental ladybird species. Results revealed that during copulation behaviour, time for the commencement of mating, latent period, wriggling movement duration, number of bouts and mating duration decreased with increase in number of mating; whereas interval between successive bouts increased significantly. Moreover, fecundity and egg viability of females increased with increase in number of mating<em>.</em></p> Mahadev Bista ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 27 Jun 2019 05:55:01 +0000