Accepted Articles

1. FORAGING VARIATION OF Bombus SPECIES WITH PLANT FAMILIES AND FLORAL COLORS IN CHITWAN ANNAPURNA  LANDSCAPE, NEPAL

Kishor Chandra Ghimire, Anjeela Pandey, Ganesh Datt Joshi, Daya Ram Bhusal*
Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal
*Corresponding author: daya.bhusal@cdz.tu.edu.np

Abstract

Little is known about the effect of the type of vegetation and floral color on the foraging behavior of Bombus species. In this work, we have investigated the differential foraging association of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) with the specific flower color and the plant families in Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL). The specimens were collected between April to October 2019 and field visits were carried out by following accessible walking transects between 600 to 3500 m asl covering different habitats of the study area. The bumblebees were collected by opportunistic methods using a sweeping net. We found that the relative frequency of Bombus spp. varied significantly with the families of local flowering plants and the particular colors of flowers. Some of the bumblebees visited at the specific plant family for nectar and pollen indicating the specific association with particular flower morphology and color. This study, therefore, gives an insight into the differential foraging preference of Bombus spp. to certain plant families with selected specific colors in CHAL.

Keywords: Bombus spp., CHAL, foraging, floral color, plant families, pollinators

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2. A BRIEF SURVEY ON THE INVERSE GALOIS PROBLEM

Bigyan Adhikari, Tulasi Prasad Nepal*
Central Department of Mathematics, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur, Kathmandu
*Corresponding author: tpnepal1@gmail.com

Abstract

Inverse Galois problem (IGP) states whether any finite group is realizable as a Galois group over the field K. It is the question of the structure and representation of the Galois group and also questions its epimorphic images. So, it is called an inverse Galois problem. For K=Q (the field of rational number), it is called a classical inverse Galois problem (CIGP). This paper reviews the positive answers to the classical inverse Galois problem (CIGP) for all finite abelian groups and some finite non-abelian solvable groups. We also discuss this problem (CIGP) for some finite non-solvable groups in this paper. This problem still remains to solve, but if we find the true value of the statement ‘All subgroups of order m of the symmetric group (Sm) for all m are realizable as Galois group over Q’ then its truth value gives the answer of CIGP. We check this statement for m=1,2,3,4 and 5 in this paper, where we get that this statement is true. If this statement is true, then CIGP has a positive answer. But if this statement is false then CIGP has a negative answer.

Keywords: Abelian group, Galois group, Galois extension, irreducible polynomial, solvable group

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3. THE LAW OF THE ITERATED LOGARITHM

Santosh Ghimire*, Hari Thapa
Department of Applied Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University
Kathford College of Engineering and Management, Tribhuvan University
*Corresponding author: santoshghimire@ioe.edu.np

Abstract

The article begins first with the history and the development of the law of the iterated logarithm, abbreviated LIL. We then discuss the LIL in the context of independent random variables, dyadic martingales, lacunary trigonometric series, and harmonic functions. Finally, we derive a LIL for a sequence of dyadic martingales.

Keywords: Law of the iterated logarithm, lacunary series, dyadic martingales, independent random variables

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4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ESSENTIAL OIL, ESTIMATION OF PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF Epherda pachyclada BOISS

Lekha Nath Khanal (Department of Chemistry, Prithvi Narayan Campus, Tribhuvan University, Pokhara, Nepal)

Khaga Raj Sharma (Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Yuba Raj Pokharel (Faculty of Life Science and Biotechnology, South Asian University, New Delhi, India)

Surya Kant Kalauni*(Central Department of Chemistry, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal)
*Corresponding author: skkalauni@gmail.com

Abstract

The northern areas of Nepal are rich in biodiversity and contain a large number of medicinal plant species including the Genus Ephedra of evergreen gymnosperm, belonging to the family Ephedraceae. The plants have been used by the peoples of the Himalayan region for the treatment of asthma, blood pressure, and gastritis for many years. This study was aimed for the evaluation of phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and n-hexane extracts, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) profiling of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ephedra pachyclada Boiss from Mustang district of Nepal. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-dipheny-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and antimicrobial activity by the agar well diffusion method. Total phenolics and total flavonoid content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The methanol extract contained the highest total phenolic content of 54.42 ± 1.40 mg GAE/g followed by the ethyl acetate (46.84 ± 0.62 mg GAE/g), DCM extract (19.58 ± 0.24 mg GAE/g), and the lowest TPC was shown for n-hexane extract (5.21 ± 1.40 mg GAE/g) of the dry weight. The methanol extract showed the maximum TFC of 33.28 ± 0.48 mg QE/g, followed by ethyl acetate extract (31.73 ± 0.52 mg QE/g), DCM extract (31.64 ± 0.56 mg QE/g), and the least value was obtained for the n-hexane extract (21.44 ± 2.91 mg QE/g). The methanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 37.81 ± 2.24 μg/mL. The methanol extract showed potent activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with zones of inhibition of 13 mm and 12 mm respectively. Ethyl acetate extract showed a slight potency against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with a zone of inhibition of 9 mm. The essential oil contained diisooctyl phthalate (46.90%), dodecane, 2,6,11-trimethyl-(16.35%), dodecane, 4,6-dimethyl- (11.59%), tetrapentacontane (11.56%), and myrtenol (4.37) as the major compounds. The plant exhibited significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activities which could be used as the source to isolate the active natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent as the drug candidate in the future drug discovery process.

Keywords: Ephedra pachyclada, Mustang district, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity

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5. AN INITIAL SPATIOTEMPORAL ASSESSMENT OF COVID-19 CLUSTERS IN NEPAL

Bipin Kumar Acharya (Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China; Institute of Fundamental Research and Studies (InFeRS), Kathmandu, Nepal)

Samir Kumar Adhikari (Ministry of Health and Population, Government of Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Shreejana Pandit (Kanti Children’s Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu 44616, Nepal)

Basanta Kumar Neupane (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing, China)

Binod Kumar Paudel (Communication University of China, Beijing, China)

Laxman Khanal* (Central Department of Zoology, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu 44618, Nepal) 
*Corresponding author: lkhanal@cdztu.edu.np

Abstract

Nepal has been strongly influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic and struggling to contain it with multiple interventions. We assessed the spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 in the context of various restrictions imposed to contain the disease transmission by employing prospective spatiotemporal analysis with SaTScan statistics. We explored active and emerging disease clusters using the prospective space-time scanning with the Discrete Poisson model for two time periods using COVID-19 cases reported to the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP), Government of Nepal during 23 January – 21 July, and 23 January – 29 November 2020 taking the cutoff date of 21 July (end date of nationwide lockdown). The results revealed that COVID-19 dynamics in the early transmission stage were slower and confined to a few districts. However, since the third week of April, transmission spread rapidly across the districts of Madhesh and Sudurpaschim Provinces. Despite nationwide lockdown, nine statistically significant active and emerging clusters were detected between 23 January and 21 July 2020, whereas seven emerging clusters were observed for an extended period to 29 November. After lifting the nationwide lockdown, COVID-19 clusters developed had a many-fold higher relative risk than during the lockdown period. The most likely cluster was located in the capital city, the Kathmandu valley, making it the highest-risk active cluster since August. Movement restriction appears to be the most effective non-pharmaceutical intervention against the COVID-19 in countries with limited health care facilities. Our findings could be valuable to the health authorities within Nepal and beyond to better allocate resources and improve interventions on the pandemic for containing it efficiently.

Keywords: Disease clusters, geospatial dynamics, pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, SaTScan

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6. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS ON MIXED CONVECTIVE MHD FLOW OF SECOND GRADE FLUID PAST A VERTICAL INFINITE PLATE WITH VISCOUS DISSIPATION AND JOULE HEATING

Bharat K. Swain* (Department of Mathematics, IGIT, Sarang-759146, Odisha, India)

R.N. Barik (Department of Mathematics, Mangala Mahavidyalaya, Kakatpur, Higher Education Government of Odisha, India)

*Corresponding author: bharatkeshari1@gmail.com

Abstract

An attempt is made to study an unsteady, two-dimensional, laminar, mixed convective Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible visco-elastic fluid (Walters fluid model) past an infinite vertical plate. The reduced governing equations are solved analytically using two-term harmonic and non-harmonic functions. The effects of different pertinent parameters are discussed with the help of graphs and tables. The novelty of the present study is to account for the effects of viscous and joules dissipative heat and a linear first-order chemical reaction of diffusive species and mixed convective flow phenomena on an infinite vertical plate subjected to time-dependent suction velocity and a transverse magnetic field acting at a distance. The important findings reported herein are: increasing values of chemical reaction parameter cause low velocity and concentration, a decline in concentration profile is seen for the higher values of Schmidt number, Prandtl number contributes to more active convection. The application of the present study may be seen in combustion systems, nuclear reactors, and chemical processes. Before concluding the considered problem, our results are validated with previous results and are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: MHD flow, viscous dissipation, Joules heating, mixed convection, second-grade fluid, chemical reaction, mass transfer

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7. REVIEW ON THE DIFFERENT PROCESSES OF UREA PRODUCTION FOR ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN NEPAL

Yuvraj Chaudhary (Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 44600, Nepal)

Saswat Gautam (Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 44600, Nepal)

Axit Raj Poudyal (Investment Board Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal)

Rajendra Joshi (Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 44600, Nepal)

Bibek Uprety* (Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Kathmandu University, Dhulikhel 44600, Nepal)

*Corresponding author: bibek.uprety@ku.edu.np

Abstract

Infrastructural development in agriculture will directly help achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the least developed countries (LDCs) as the majority of the population in these regions depend on agriculture. This study presents the case of Nepal, one of the LDCs and suggests the establishment of a urea manufacturing plant for improving agriculture productivity and fulfilling the SDGs of zero hunger, no poverty and decent work, and economic growth. Herein, in the context of Nepal, we have reviewed: (i) the status of SDGs of Nepal, (ii) agricultural productivity associated with usage and supply of urea, (iii) technologies associated with urea production, (iv) the feasibility of establishing a urea plant based on the raw material availability and sustainability and (v) the opportunity for economic and technological development. The hydropower-powered electrolysis and CO2 capture from cement industry flue gas were determined to be the strategically feasible and sustainable pathway for urea production and consequently, the fulfillment of SDGs in the context of Nepal. A detailed project study on the economics of the electrolysis-based urea manufacturing process is recommended to foster a sustainable development national plan for Nepal. Although this report highlights the various aspects of urea production in Nepal, this study can be useful for other LDCs dependent on agriculture to achieve SDGs.

Keywords: agricultural productivity, CO2 capture, Nepal, Sustainable development goals, urea, electrolysis