Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS <p>Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (Jjis) is a multidisciplinary journal that covers a wide range of disciplines. It publishes original researh article, review article, general article and book review. It is published annually by Janapriya Research and Consultancy Center (JRCC), a research wing of Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal. </p> Janapriya Research and Consultancy Centre en-US Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2362-1516 Sustainable Tourism: Conceptual Clarity and Contextualization in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42620 <p>Considering the paucity of empirical research, the purpose of the paper is to communicate the conceptual facets and empirical frameworks of sustainable tourism that can be contextualized in the context of Nepal. This paper is an analytical review, building on previous view. Empirical evidences, Systematic open discourse among stakeholders, Pragmatism Philosophy, Sustainable Mindset, Destination exploration and branding, Industry-Community-Government interrelationship, learning from best practices are prerequisites of initiating and implementing sustainable tourism practices in Nepal. Sustainability tourism is result of continuous efforts. The academic and business model depends upon context and mindset. This study attempts to offer some empirical models that can be contextualized in Nepalese context. In Nepalese context, revival and exploration of new destinations is needed before sustainability dimension. The research paper has suggested some of the research issues and models in which future research on Nepalese perspective could be conducted. Moreover, study has disseminated contextual remedies for initiating and implementing sustainable tourism scenario in Nepal.</p> Biranji Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Biranji Gautam 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 161 167 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42620 Changing Patterns of Migration in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42621 <p>Migration is the major factor that affects the change in the population of the given territory and its distribution of natural resources along with fertility and mortality. It also affects almost all areas of life i.e. social, economic, demographic, political, and environmental. The main cause of migration in Nepal is poverty, destitution, unequal allocation and distribution of resources, geographical variation of labor demand (Pull and push factors). The main objective of this study is to analyze the general patterns of migration in Nepal. This study is based on secondary data obtained from the census 1952/54 to 2011. The absentees and Labor statistics obtained from Nepal Labor Migration Report are also used. Regression analysis is applied to measure the trend values. Student’s t-statistic is used to measure the significance between migration to India and other countries. The percentage of absentees is threefold (2.3% to 7.3%) within the given period. The trend of absentees is steady up to 2001 and then increases rapidly. The forecasted absentees are 2.1 million for 2021 and a 2.6 million for 2031. The labor migration to India increases gradually while the migration to other countries increases rapidly. The t-test shows that there is no significant difference between trends of absentees of India and other countries. The main destination of labor migrants in Malaysia followed by Qatar and Saudi Arabia besides India. Though remittance contributes a major part of Nepal’s economy more than seventy percent of out-migrants are involved in the private job and the majority of the migrants are unskilled. </p> Madhab Prasad Baral Copyright (c) 2021 Madhab Prasad Baral 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 168 177 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42621 Medicinal Plants and their Uses in Begnas-Rupa Lake Area Pokhara, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42625 <p>Medicinal plants contain important phytochemicals and can be used for therapeutic functions. These plants were used and inherited to the people of Nepal from generations. Such plants have been used for health care by many people in rural area and deep rooted in villages of Nepal. Therefore, these plants are valuable assets of natural vegetation.</p> Om Prasad Dwa Copyright (c) 2021 Om Prasad Dwa 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 178 184 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42625 Exploration of Entrepreneur’s Challenges to Cope with Nepalese Tourism Market Dynamics https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42582 <p>Change is inevitable in every sphere of human life; tourism activities are rapidly changing than other activities. The Nepalese tourism industry has also brought changes in different aspects, how those changes are perceived by the entrepreneurs of the industry is the main concern of the study. The primary objective of this study is to explore the dimensions of tourism<br>market dynamics and entrepreneur’s readiness to cope with the perceived challenges. A qualitative framework has been adopted of an in-depth interview with leading entrepreneurial personalities of the tourism industry of Nepal. Representing hospitality, catering, trekking, and travel with at least 20 years of experience in tourism-related activities are considered as the true representation to collect primary data. Manual thematic content analysis has been employed to generate the theme of the interview. Major changes in customer expectation because of the market shift, technological advancement but not appropriate application, lacking experienced trained human resources, and travel-related inconvenience are the major challenges for tourism entrepreneurs of Nepal.</p> Bal Ram Bhattarai Manoch Prompanyo Copyright (c) 2021 Bal Ram Bhattarai, Manoch Prompanyo 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 1 16 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42582 Knowledge Management Enablers and Faculty’s Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Academic Institutions of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42583 <p>Uncovering the factors that propel knowledge sharing behavior of faculty members in the context of Nepal shall have some practical implication. First it is a high time to move forward the discourse of implementing formalized knowledge management system in Nepal. For this, the study has identified training and development, monetary reward system, trust as significant<br>predictors of knowledge sharing behavior. Moreover, it is a bitter paradox of knowing and not doing. There exists knowing-internalizing-doing-being gap in knowledge management context of Nepal. The core job responsibilities of faculty members may be redefined in the contemporary period where academicians have to transform their students from knowing to doing to being state of excellence.</p> Bishwash Raj Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 Bishwash Raj Poudel 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 17 36 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42583 Assessing Payment for Ecosystem Services of Panchase Conservation Area: Exploring the Potentialities https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42584 <p>Adoption of “Payment for Environmental Services (PES)” scheme can be one option to protect the forest area and the Phewa Lake for sustaining the existing benefits. The study was carried out to explore the adoption possibility of PES mechanism in Panchase Conservation Area (PCA) for the sustainable management of the forest and the Phewa Lake. The study was focused on people of Bhadaure and Chapakot villages of Panchase area as upstream dwellers and different downstream communities benefitted from the lake. Major environmental services were prioritized for both upstream and downstream dwellers and the major impacts on the downstream communities were also found out. Multiple linear regression model was adopted to assess the factors affecting the downstream communities for providing suitable incentives to upstream dwellers. Watershed protection was found to be the major environmental service prioritized by both upstream and downstream respondents. Most of the people of both upstream and downstream communities are willing to accept (WTA) and pay (WTP) for the protection of the prioritized environmental service. Hotel communities were seem to have highest WTP followed by boating, fishing and agricultural communities. Also, Income, education, household member and residential distance were statistically significant to WTP of downstream beneficiary group. Based on the WTP of the downstream beneficiary groups, it is concluded that the area is potential for initiating PES mechanism for the sustainable conservation of watershed and regulate benefits on sustained basis. Education based activities should be organized to enhance participation of more beneficiaries and upstream dwellers whereas proper policy mechanism should be formulated for assuring community people before the implementation of PES.</p> Muna Sharma Suman Bhattarai Shivaraj Thapa Bharat Panthi Hom Bahadur Chhetri Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Muna Sharma, Suman Bhattarai, Shivaraj Thapa, Bharat Panthi, Hom Bahadur Chhetri, Deepak Gautam 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 37 50 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42584 Assessing the Effectiveness of Foreign AID and Its Mobilization in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42585 <p>This paper has focused on the effectiveness of foreign aid for economic progress of developing nations with emphasis of Nepal. Nepal has the momentum of uplifting developing nations from the least developed countries by accepting foreign aid through the effective mobilization. This study has been conducted by using the historical data over the period of 1992/93-2019/20.<br>The paper has argued that the concept of granting and withholding of foreign support useful resources changed into and nevertheless getting mobilization to steer the macroeconomic policies of growing developing nations. The paper has argued that foreign aid effectiveness reflected in terms of improving people’s livelihood with better status. To measure the effectiveness of the foreign aid, the simple statistical tools have been applied. The present study has found that foreign aid granted to&nbsp; overnment of Nepal and enhanced great effort in the economy but it changed into positive prerequisites with the aid of using donors and debt which impacted negatively to its motive ensuing Nepal’s government turning into depending on foreign aid effectiveness mobilizations.&nbsp;</p> Khom Raj Kharel Dipak Bahadur Adhikari Ramesh Bahadur Khadka Copyright (c) 2021 Khom Raj Kharel, Dipak Bahadur Adhikari, Ramesh Bahadur Khadka 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 51 64 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42585 Topp-Leone Fréchet Distribution with Theory and Application https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42611 <p>We have defined a new distribution as a generalization of Frechet distribution called the Topp-Leone Frechet distribution. Some properties and characteristics of the proposed distribution are presented. The hazard rate function can have the shape of the reverse-j, right-skewed and unimodal. The parameters of the proposed model are estimated by employing the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method and asymptotic confidence intervals for MLEs are also provided. R software is used for computational purpose. The application of the Topp-Leone Frechet distribution is presented by considering a real dataset and found that the proposed model provided a good fit as compared with some competing models</p> Laxmi Prasad Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Laxmi Prasad Sapkota 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 65 80 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42611 Causes of Occupational Changes among Dalit Communities of Kaski District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42612 <p>Occupational change from traditionally adopted occupations to new occupations is an increasing trend in the new generation of Nepalese society. And this seems relatively high in the people of Dalit communities. This study aims to investigate the status of occupational change and their causes among the Dalit communities of the Kaski district. This study has conducted by using the quantitative nature of data collected from primary sources with the help of a structured questionnaire. Total 300 head of the household covering 150 from each urban and rural area including 50 each from three Dalit caste groups namely Nepali (Sarki), Pariyar (Damai), and Bishowkarma (Kami) are the sample for this study. The information regarding the occupational change was collected from the head of the household. The study reveals that there is a statistically significant difference in the involvement in a particular occupation in the past and at present. The tendency of abandoning past &amp; caste-based occupation and shifting to new &amp; modern occupation is high (63.33%) among the people of the Dalit communities. While investigating towards causes for occupational change; insufficient for livelihood, low return compares to costs &amp; efforts, lack of skills &amp; knowledge of past occupations, skills &amp; knowledge of other occupations, lack of work for a whole year in traditional occupations, have found as the key causes for the occupational change in the Dalit communities. However, 36.67 percent still involved in past occupations, and the key causes for no change in the past occupations are lack of other skill &amp; knowledge, satisfaction in the past occupation, and lack of capital.</p> Amin Palikhe Netra Prasad Subedi Hari Bahadur Bhandari Nabin Bahadur Adhikari Copyright (c) 2021 Amin Palikhe, Netra Prasad Subedi, Hari Bahadur Bhandari, Nabin Bahadur Adhikari 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 81 94 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42612 Occupational Change and Socioeconomic Status among Dalit Communities in Kaski District https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42613 <p>The purpose of the study is to examine the occupational change, socio-economic status among, and the inherent association between occupational changes and socioeconomic status. This study has conducted among the people of Nepali, Pariyar, and Bishwokarma caste of the Dalit communities in the Kaski district of Nepal using the quantitative nature of the information collected from primary sources with the help of a structured questionnaire. The total sample of this study is 300 head of the family member covering 150 from each urban and rural geographical region consisting of 50 from each caste. The data and results show the involvement in a particular occupation in the past and at present have significant variation, as well as the tendency of leaving the caste-based traditional occupation and adopting new &amp; modern occupations is high. From the overall economic perspective, Nepali caste people stand at the first position followed by Bishowkarma, and the last position occupied by Pariyar. While looking from the socio-cultural perspective, Bishowkarma caste people stand at the first position followed by Nepali, and the last position occupied by Pariyar. At the regional level, residence of urban areas have a better overall economic and socio-cultural position compared to the rural areas. However, test statistics reveal the economic status is statistically significant at the caste and regional level whereas, the socio-cultural status is not statistically significant at both caste and regional levels. Finally, while investigating the association between occupational change and socioeconomic status, the results reveal that the overall economic status is the best of those people who have completely changed their past occupations while the overall socio-cultural position is the best of those who have not changed. However, these variations are not statistically significant. </p> Netra Prasad Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Netra Prasad Subedi 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 95 106 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42613 Forecasting International Tourists Arrival to Nepal Using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42614 <p>This paper analyses the tourist arrival in Nepal during the last 56 years using various quantitative techniques. By the use of autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model in projecting the tourist arrival in Nepal based on historical data. Box &amp; Jenkins methodology has been employed to forecast a variable using a database of international tourist arrival. Autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) have been used along with Ljung-Box Statistics for the test of stationary. Parameters p, d, q has been identified based on different diagnostic test statistics such as stationary R2, MAPE, Normalized BIC, ACF, and PACF. Conclusively, the model ARIMA (1, 1, 1) has been selected with the least BIC and tourist arrival forecasted to be 1,322,000 (LCL: 919,090 and UCL: 1,724,909) in the year 2025.</p> Rajendra Prasad Upadhayaya Copyright (c) 2021 Rajendra Prasad Upadhayaya 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 107 117 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42614 Solid Waste Generation and Management Practice in Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42616 <p>This study aimed to identify the current status of solid waste generation and its management in Pokhara. For this purpose, eleven institutions were chosen from all the 33 wards of Pokhara Metropolitan City for collecting the information regarding waste generation and composition. Further focus group discussions were carried out with five private sectors involved in the solid waste management system of Pokhara. The per capita waste generation rate was found to vary from minimum value 0.016kg and to a maximum value of 0.082 kg. along with the average of 0.035 kg. The analysis of waste composition showed that landfill matter accounted for the highest fraction, making up 39.23 % of landfill waste, 35.14% of reusable/recycle waste and 25.63% of organic waste. The challenges of solid waste management are increment of waste generations as well as per capita generation with respect to population growth and catchment area, scarcity of garbage collection vehicle, very difficult to manage dead animals, lack of proper management of medical and Industrial waste and hazards waste, health problem of solid waste management staff. The results can be used as part of the waste management planning purpose for the concerned stakeholders</p> Sarmila Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Sarmila Bhattarai 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 118 124 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42616 Impact of Covid-19 on Tourism Business in Pokhara Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42617 <p>None of the sectors in human society is out of the assault of covid-19 pandemic. Every sphere of human life is affected by this contagion virus nonetheless the severity of influence and impact may vary Tourism is one of the highly injured sectors during on-covid period and so as the situation of Pokhara and its vicinity. This paper, therefore, is an attempt from ‘situation analysis perspective’ to have a bird’s eye view of the impact and implication of covid pandemic over the tourism industry of Gandaki province with special focus on Pokhara by taking three vital variables; investment, employment and volume of transactions. It’s a kind of ‘situation analysis research’ based mainly on secondary information backed up by sufficient primary data and information. The two main impacts of Covid-19 over the tourism domain of Pokhara and its vicinity seem to be the shutdown of substantial numbers of hospitality businesses and the bulk loss of employment from tourism sector.</p> Shreekanta S. Khatiwada Ramji Sharma Suresh Ranabhat Copyright (c) 2021 Shreekanta S. Khatiwada, Ramji Sharma, Suresh Ranabhat 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 125 139 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42617 Prevalence of Hypertension and its Associated Factors among Retired Army in Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42618 <p>Hypertension can be caused by a number of factors. Tobacco usage, excessive alcohol use, a poor diet, high salt intake, verweight and obesity, and physical inactivity are among these factors. Demographic factors such as age, ethnicity and family history also play a role in causing hypertension. When inherited factors are paired with an unhealthy lifestyle, the chance of high blood pressure rises. A cross-sectional descriptive research design was used for this study. Non probability purposive sampling was done to select the sample. Three hundred and fifteen retired army were chosen as a sample. Semi- structured interview schedule was used to collect data. Over all prevalence of hypertension was 58.41% with newly diagnosed cases of 33(10.4%) and previous cases of 151(47.9%) and this was significantly associated with Age, years of retirement, smoking, chewing tobacco and salt consumption. The burden of hypertension was high, and it has become a major health concern among retired army. To deal with life-threatening consequences and chronic debilitating morbidity, a community screening program, timely detection, lifestyle adjustment, treatment, and prevention are all critical.</p> Shreena Ranjitkar Sunita Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Shreena Ranjitkar, Sunita Sharma 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 140 148 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42618 Quality Assessment of Water from Some Selected Sources in Pokhara, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/42619 <p>The present study was carried out to analyze and compare the physicochemical properties of water from Seti Gandaki river, Kali stream, irrigation canal, bore well and potable sources in Pokhara Metropolitan-1, Kaski, Nepal by using standard techniques. Observed properties from different sources were compared to each other and with recommended standard World Health Organization (WHO) values. The result of the study showed that the large number of physical and chemical parameters such as color odor, temperature, specific gravity, relative turbidity, suspended solid (SS), total dissolved solid (TDS), total solid (TS), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, carbonate, bicarbonate, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), boron, chloride, sulphate, nitrate and nitrite-N, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, total hardness, oil and grease, phenol, surfactants were within the permissible limit of WHO. The observed color of river water and irrigation water was glacial creamy white due to excess of cream white colored suspended colloidal particles in water. The analyzed amount of iron for the sample from different sources was more than that of permissible limit of WHO standard and iron amount was much more for bore well sample. On the basis of analyzed result and WHO standard values, it was concluded that potable water, bore well water and stream water can be used for washing, bathing, irrigation, and industrial purposes after proper treatments. In this study, most of the physicochemical and organic parameters were also analyzed but not the microbiological species. </p> Thaneshwor Subedi Copyright (c) 2021 Thaneshwor Subedi 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 10 01 149 160 10.3126/jjis.v10i01.42619