Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS <p>Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies (Jjis) is a multidisciplinary journal that covers a wide range of disciplines. It publishes original researh article, review article, general article and book review. It is published annually by Janapriya Research and Consultancy Center (JRCC), a research wing of Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal. </p> Janapriya Research and Consultancy Centre en-US Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2362-1516 Sexual Games of Power and Status in Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf ? https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53905 <p>This article explores the use of sexuality as a tool to achieve power and status by the characters in Edward Albee's drama Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? In this drama, the characters ignore the values of marriage, love, and sex in order to dominate others or control the situation for their intended goal. Reading Michel Foucault's discursive nature of power based on his work The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction, this study has justified the characters use of trivial sexual games and their motives to obtain power and status in a highly intellectual society. The characters of Albee's drama are prone to exercise power using their own sexuality. Negotiating and subverting the roles of gender and sexuality in private/public sexual games, they frequently foreground to fulfill personal desire in the existing social milieu. To unveil these aspects, this article has interpreted Albee’s drama with the theoretical dimension of power and sexuality postulated by Foucault, and has applied the content analysis method.</p> Bishwo Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Bishwo Raj Adhikari 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 1 9 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53905 An Eco Critical Reading of Lohani’s 'Gaia' and V.S. Rai’s 'Corona Says' https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53906 <p>Environment is the indispensable domain of human beings which provides the larger platform of various activities. Essentially, violation of environmental ethics has been the hue and cry at present. This paper aims to explore the environmental issues imbedded in the poems of Shreedhar Lohani’s Gaia and Vishnu Singh Rai’s Corona Says. The purpose of this research is to explore and highlight the anthropocentrism, man-nature relationship and the consequences of the transgression of nature. This qualitative research investigates the select poems ‘Gaia’ and ‘Corona Says’ from an eco-critical approach. The qualitative method of interpretation is used to analyze both of the poems. The secondary data has been used to interpret the texts as they are published in the text books. An examination on these poems sheds lights on the idea that the random use of resources and human indifference to nature brings immeasurable consequences to human beings. The study concludes that the poems are thematically interconnected, rich in eco critical awareness and reaffirm that the excessive practice of any ideology either eco centrism or anthropocentrism has adverse effects on environment. From the study, it is deduced that green ecology and the ecological balance should be the new human agenda in the 21st century.</p> Chet Bahadur Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Chet Bahadur Pokhrel 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 10 20 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53906 Tenets of Nātyaśāstra on Abhijnānaśākuntalam https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53908 <p>This paper examines and unveils the tenets of Nātyaśāstra postulated by Bharatmuni in Kālidāsa’s play, Abhijnānaśākuntalam. Kālidāsa invokes Lord Śiva through his eight embodied forms – water, fire, priest, the time setting sun and moon, earth, sky and air. This is the pattern of Nāndῑ (benediction) as developed by Bharatmuni. The play also implements Bharatavākya as a concluding part of the play where Duśyanta extends wishes for the welfare of all. The dramatist divides the play in seven acts which is the parameters of Anka proclaimed in Nātyaśāstra. He exploits the paradigm of Prāsangika, which is known as the sub plot of the play. It revolves around the characters like Anasūyā, Priyamvadā, Mātali, Menakā, and so on. Likewise, there are five Sandhis (junctures) in the play like Mukha, Pratimukha, Grava, Vimarśa and Nirvahana. The eight rasas (sentiments) like Sringāra, Hāsya, Karunā, Raudra, Vira, Bhayānaka, Bibhatsa, and Adbhuta consolidate the essence of the play. All these tenets are so integrated in the play that they elevate the readers carrying them to the plenum of aesthetic pleasure. This play, in this regard, becomes the perfect exemplification by blending the tenets of Nātyaśāstra as propounded by Bharatmuni. The paper applies the dynamics of qualitative approach, applying the interpretive design to expose the dynamics of Nātyaśāstra.</p> Churamoni Kandel Copyright (c) 2023 Churamoni Kandel 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 21 32 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53908 Rhetorical Analysis of Women’s Status and Social Injustice in Taslima Nasrin’s Speech and Interview https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53909 <p>This paper explores Taslima Nasrin in terms of the issues related to women’s status, freedom of expression, secularism, and religious fanaticism, using her speeches and interviews. She opposes ritual practices of Islam in particular and all religions in general, which limit women’s rights and freedom of expression. She herself has become the victim of the subjugation due to her revolutionary ideas for the empowerment of women. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to find how women are marginalized in multiple ways by religious practices that have created problems in societies, making a division among the fanatical people. She shows how religion and patriarchy have been trying to dominate women without advocating for freedom and equality. Secularism and dogmatic ideas have caused the segregation of women. Her emphasis is on the reformation of those narrow concepts. Based on her interviews and speeches, rhetorical analysis is made regarding the status of women in Islamic countries and religious fundamentalism. This paper applies descriptive method to make analysis of her speeches and interviews which are the primary source of the concepts. The finding refers to take collective effort for the liberation and empowerment of women. Speeches and writings can best be used to persuade people for the status of women and reformation in the society.</p> Ganga Ram Paudyal Copyright (c) 2022 Ganga Ram Paudyal 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 33 43 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53909 Exploration of Indigenous Tamang Identity and Values in Yambunera https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53910 <p>Examining the identity politics of Tamang people – about what and how Tamang identity is made to mean and the effects of their articulation- through literary writing, especially in Yambunera, is the central concern of this research work. As writing is the best way to express real-life experience and the mode of cultural practice, this study examines how Tamang indigenous identity is properly reflected in Yambunera and how particular aspects of Tamang life style and behaviours can be meaningful in searching for their indigenous identity. ‘Yambu’, as a symbol, Tamang people are at the marginal state, always away from Yambu, the centre of politics, power, rights and central culture. They are obliged to accept the position silently or have to speak for their rights and identity. In both conditions, they live with their identity. This identity is the heritage and the storehouse of their understanding and anticipation of system of life. It includes and represents the community attached to their geo-cultural identity. The language Tamang people speak, the profession they adopt from their tradition, the cultural practice they anticipate, and the traditional outfits they wear really parade their real impressions of indigenous identity. This research explicates different modes of indigenous identity of Tamang people reflected in Yambunera on the basis of the theory of Indigenous Studies.</p> Keshav Raj Chalise Copyright (c) 2022 Keshav Raj Chalise 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 44 56 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53910 Exposition of Karuna Rasa (Sentiment of Pathos) in William Shakespeare’s Macbeth https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53911 <p>Rasa theory is an Eastern literary theory. Rasa realization in the works produces pleasure and conveys themes and ideas. This study has explored karuna rasa (pathetic sentiment) experience in Shakespeare’s Macbeth. This study used a textual analysis method to expose karuna rasa. The finding of the study is that karuna rasa is identified angi (major) rasa in Macbeth. The karuna rasa (pathetic emotional forces) help to heighten sentiment of tragic feelings in Macbeth. The emotion of sorrow produces the rasa of pathos in the literary texts. The depiction and realization of karuna rasa (pathetic sentiment) upraises the grandeur of the play. Understanding rasa formation and rasa realization in the play make lively existence of the play Macbeth. Karuna rasa has elevated the state of being liked and enjoyed of Macbeth. The play represents human emotions and messages to audience.</p> Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2022 Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 57 66 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53911 A Panopticon Revelation of the Power and Self-Discipline in Orwell's 1984 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53912 <p>The article aims to study and analyze Michel Foucault's concept of Panopticism and its implication in daily life and in literary texts. Panopticism is a concept where self-surveillance, distance surveillance and central control mechanisms are developed and implemented. Panopticism is the term used by Michel Foucault in which the surveillance, observations and monitoring systems are regulated in different ways and methods in different time periods. Panoptic surveillance of eighteenth century and the present systems of CC TV surveillance in Offices, Schools, Colleges and Banks is the mechanical representation of the panoptic concept. This panoptic observation creates power and controls people, create law and order, and also creates the dictatorial ruling over general people. This article follows the method of studying Jeremy Bentham and Mitchel Foucault's terms Panopticism and attempts to assimilate in the present concept of mechanics of distance surveillance through technology. It also applies the concept to study George Orwell's novel 1984. It concludes that the present concept of CC TV surveillance and others type of distance controlling systems resembles the idea as noted by Bentham, Foucault and applied by Orwell in the novel 1984. The issue of controlling people with Big Brother power in the novel is the panoptic observation and ruling over people by the rulers.</p> Rohit Prasad Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Rohit Prasad Baral 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 67 77 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53912 Consciousness or Matter: Swami Prabhupada’s Power of Skepticism in Life Comes from Life https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53913 <p>This article examines and interprets the skeptical inquisitions of Swami Prabhupada about the matter as the source of creation in his Life Comes from Life. As a critique of dominant theories and presuppositions of science, the book establishes his belief that consciousness dwells in the creation, and it drives its entirety. Even matter and chemicals, which modern science supposes as the facts, come out of nature, and nature has its vibes in spirit. With the logics from the philosophy of the spiritual, Prabhupada establishes the validity that the materialist scientists are ignoramus because they could not form life and win death even though they are well equipped with the chemicals and labs. Besides, they formulate various but contradictory hypotheses in the different phases of their experiments. As hydrogen and oxygen simply do not formulate water, some human endeavor is required there. In the same way, guiding force is spirit or consciousness that drives the creation and life. In this regard, the dichotomy between spirit and matter, discussed in this work, remains a new revisiting. He puts strong skeptical inquisitions with his stands on the solid ground of philosophy of skepticism postulated by philosophers like, Arcesilaus, Pyrrho, Empiricus, and in some crucial points Descartes and Hume. To unveil these ideations, this paper implements a qualitative research approach and imperative method with the lens of the philosophy of skepticism as the theoretical tool.</p> Sabindra Raj Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Sabindra Raj Bhandari 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 78 91 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53913 Degenerate Representation and Racism in Heart of Darkness https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53914 <p>This paper has analyzed Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness from Orientalist perspective. The term “Orientalism” has been a critical tool after Edward Said described how understanding of Europe about the non-Europeans became a weapon of maintaining power over the latter. This research has applied analytical and interpretivist approaches in discussion. The objective is to pinpoint why and how colonial rulers in the novel stereotypically produce representations of the Orient (here African is included) and create a false illusion that the West is “self” and the East is “other”. The selected text is analyzed in light of Edward Said’ description of the stereotypes of Oriental land and race as strange, inferior and wild. The search shows that Conrad presents Africans as uncivilized people, living in backward condition. He derogatorily describes them in their physical appearance and social behavior. Congo land is presented as wild, uncommon and mysterious. Europeans in the novel express their obsession that they are intelligent, skilled and much superior to the native and try to justify the colonial rule as an effort to civilize the African race and develop the place.</p> Yog Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Yog Raj Paudel 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 92 107 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53914 भानुभक्तको रामायणमा वेदान्तदर्शन https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53918 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा पूर्वीय आस्तिक दर्शनअन्तर्गत पर्ने वेदान्तदर्शन र यसका मूल मान्यताहरूलाई सङ्क्षिप्तमा चिनाई त्यसैका आलोकमा कवि भानुभक्त आचार्यको रामायण महाकाव्यमा पाइने वेदान्तदर्शनको खोजी गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा उक्त काव्यकृतिभित्र रहेका केही काव्यांशलाई प्रतिनिधि रूपमा लिई तिनमा प्रयुक्त वेदान्त दर्शनलाई नियालिएको छ । अध्ययन विश्लेषण गर्ने क्रममा भानुभक्तको रामायण महाकाव्यभित्रका चयनित कवितांशहरूमा वेदान्तदर्शनको मान्यता अनुरुपका मूलभूत पक्षहरूको प्रयोग सहज एवम् स्पष्ट रूपले हुन गएको देखाइएको छ । अन्त्यमा भानुभक्तको रामायण महाकाव्य वेदान्तदर्शनका दृष्टिले महत्त्वपूर्ण एवम् अध्येय रहेको र वेदान्तदर्शनको प्रयोग नै विवेच्य महाकाव्यको रचनात्मक विशिष्टता हो भन्ने निचोड दिने काम भएको छ । यसमा पुस्तकालय स्रोतद्वारा सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको छ भने मूलत ः निगमनात्मक पद्घतिमार्फत व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ ।</p> प्रमोद पंज्ञानी Copyright (c) 2022 प्रमोद पंज्ञानी 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 108 118 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53918 खससाम्राज्यको नेपाली अभिलेखन : सर्वेक्षण, चुनौती र निकास https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53920 <p>‘खससाम्राज्यको नेपाली अभिलेखन : सर्वेक्षण, चुनौती र निकास’ शीर्षकको यो आलेख नेपाली लेख्यपरम्पराको थालनीदेखि खससाम्राज्यको विघटनपूर्वका अभिलेखको अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित छ । पुस्तकालयबाट आवश्यक द्वितीयक सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी निगमनात्मक तथा वर्णनात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गर्दै भाषाविज्ञानका जानकार व्यक्तिहरूसँग छलफल गरेर आलेखलाई पूर्णता दिइएको हो । यहाँ नागराज र खस जातिका मानिस तिब्बतबाट कर्णाली प्रदेशको जुम्लास्थित सिंजा उपत्यकामा आई खससाम्राज्यको स्थापना गरेर जनसाधारणको खस बोलीलाई अभिलेखन गरी राजकीय मान्यता दिएको तथ्य अघि सारिएको छ । अग्रज विद्वान्हरूको पूर्वकार्यको विवरण पेस गर्दै अध्ययन हुन बाँकी रहेको विषयलाई समेटी प्राचीनकालीन नेपाली अभिलेखको भाषिक कोणबाट सर्वेक्षण गरेर वि.सं. ११५१ को वामु खँड्काको स्तम्भलेखबाट नेपाली भाषाले अभिलेखनमा प्रवेश गरेको देखाइएको छ । नेपाली अभिलेखनमा उठाइएका विषयसन्दर्भहरू, नेपाली अभिलेखनका विशेषताहरू, चोपिला शब्दको अर्थबोध, नेपाली उखान र टुक्काको सर्वेक्षण गरिएको छ । खससाम्राज्य विघटनपूर्वका नेपाली अभिलेखहरूको अध्ययनमा देखिएको चुनौतीलाई अभिलेखको समय विवाद, अभिलेखन उतारमा विविधता, स्थानीय भाषिकाको प्रयोग, शब्दका रूप र अर्थ अनेक हुनु, मिश्रित भाषाको प्रयोग, लिपि वा वर्ण पहिचानमा समस्या आदि बुँदामा केन्द्रित भएर प्रस्ट्याइएको छ । अभिलेखन अध्ययनमा देखिएका चुनौतीको निकासमा विज्ञहरूको सामूहिक निर्णयबाट समयको विवाद मिलाउने, अभिलेखन उतारमा देखिएका समस्यामा लिपिविज्ञ, भाषाशास्त्री र इतिहासकारको उपस्थितिमा निकास खोज्नुपर्ने, भाषिकाका कारण उत्पन्न समस्या भाषिकाका जानकार व्यक्तिबाट हटाउने, मिश्रित भाषाबाट उत्पन्न चुनौतीका लागि संस्कृत, तिब्बती र नेपाली भाषाका विज्ञबाट निकास खोज्ने र राष्ट्रले उचित भाषानीति र भाषायोजना बनाई सामूहिक वातावरण तयार गरेर वा संस्थागत निर्णयबाट चुनौतीको निकास खोज्न सुझाव दिइएको छ । अन्त्यमा खससाम्राज्यका नेपाली अभिलेखको सङ्कलन र भाषिक सर्वेक्षण गरी अध्ययनमा उठेका चुनौती र चुनौतीको निकास प्रस्तुत गर्दै अध्ययनको उपलब्धि तथा निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ ।</p> यमनाथ तिमिल्सिना Copyright (c) 2022 यमनाथ तिमिल्सिना 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 119 132 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53920 उलार उपन्यासमा सीमान्तीयता https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53921 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख सीमान्तीय अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । नयनराज पाण्डेद्वारा लिखित उलार उपन्यासमा सीमान्तीयताको खोजी गर्नु यस अनुसन्धानको उद्देश्य हो । यो अनुसन्धान गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको भएकाले पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन कार्यबाट प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका तथ्याङ्क सङ्कलन गरी तिनलाई व्याख्यावादी दर्शन र कृतिपरक अध्ययन विधिका माध्यमबाट व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । अनुसन्धानमा सीमान्तीय सिद्धान्तलाई आधार बनाइएको छ । तथ्याङ्कको विश्लेषणमा पूर्व अध्येतासँग संवाद गर्दै लेखकीय दृष्टिकोणसमेत प्रस्तुत गरी उपन्यासको सीमान्तीय विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । उलार उपन्यास (२०५५) मा विशेष गरी पश्चिम नेपालको नेपालगञ्जलाई कार्यपीठिका बनाएर त्यहाँका सीमान्त वर्गका जनताका सङ्घर्षलाई चित्रण गरिएको छ । उपन्यासमा प्रेमललवा, द्रौपदी, कलुवा, निराकारप्रसाद, द्रौपदीका बुबाआमा, सावित्री, कुन्तीलगायत पात्रहरू सीमान्तीय रूपमा देखिएका छन् भने शान्तिराजा, राजेन्द्र बाबु, ननकउजस्ता पात्रहरू सम्भ्रान्त वर्गका रूपमा आएका छन् । उपन्यासमा प्रभुताको उपयोग सम्भ्रान्त वर्गले मात्र गरेका छन् भने सीमान्त वर्ग सदियौँदेखि प्रभुताबाट वञ्चित छन् । उनीहरू शोषित र उपेक्षित छन् । उपन्यासमा सीमान्त पात्रका सामथ्र्य र सम्भावनाको उपयोग सम्भ्रान्त वर्गका लागि मात्र भएको छ । यस सन्दर्भमा उपन्यासमा सीमान्तीयतालाई वर्गीय, लैङ्गिक, जातीय, शैक्षिक, उमेरगत, सांस्कृतिक तथा स्थानगत आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सीमान्तीयताको अध्ययनमा रुचि राख्ने अध्येताका लागि प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानले सहयोग पु¥याउने अपेक्षा गरिएको छ ।</p> विष्णुप्रसाद शर्मा Copyright (c) 2022 विष्णुप्रसाद शर्मा 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 133 145 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53921 भानुभक्त आचार्यका कवितामा नारीप्रतिको दृष्टिकोण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/53922 <p>यस शोधमूलक लेखमा भानुभक्तका कवितामा नारीप्रतिको दृष्टिकोण निक्र्यौल गर्ने क्रममा उनका लघु र मध्यम आयामका रचनाहरूको नारीवादी सिद्धान्तका आलोकमा अनुशीलन गरिएको छ । यसमा सामग्री सङ्कलन पुस्तकालय र सामग्री विश्लेषण निगमनात्मक विधि (उदार नारीवादी) बाट गरिएको छ । यस क्रममा आचार्यका कवितामा अभिव्यक्त पितृसत्तात्मक र नारीवादी स्वरको अन्वेषण गरी निष्कर्ष कथन गरिएको छ । यसअनुसार आचार्यका कवितामा परम्परित धर्म, संस्कृति र सामाजिक मान्यताका आलोकमा मौलाएको पितृसत्तात्मक सोच नै बढी देखिएको छ । यस्तो दृष्टिकोण प्रश्नोत्तर र वधूशिक्षा कविता कृतिमा बढी छ तापनि नारी जातिप्रति नै भने विद्वेषको भाव आएको छैन । आमा, सासू, घरका अन्य मान्य नारीप्रति सद्भाव नै प्रकट भएको छ । यहाँ आचार्यका कवितागत तथ्यलाई वर्तमानका आँखाले मात्रै नहेरी तत्कालीन समग्र नारी विरोधी परिवेशलाई समेत ख्याल गरी मूल्याङ्कन गर्ने काम भएको छ । यसरी हेर्दा भानुभक्तका सीमित कवितामा नारीप्रति सकारात्मक दृष्टिकोण व्यक्त भए पनि धेरैमा तद्युगीन पितृसत्तात्मक स्वरहरू नै प्रकट भएका छन् । ती आजका दृष्टिले हेर्दा मानवता विरोधी पनि छन् तर त्यसकै आधार भानुभक्तको नारीप्रतिको नियत नै नकारात्मक भने थिएन भन्ने देखिएको छ किनभने उनको उद्देश्य नारीलाई कुशल गृहिणी बनाउनु रहेको छ ।</p> सुलोचना खनाल Copyright (c) 2022 सुलोचना खनाल 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 11 1 146 156 10.3126/jjis.v11i1.53922