Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS <p>Published by the Janapriya Research and Consultancy Centre (JRCC), Tribhuvan University, Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> Janapriya Research and Consultancy Centre en-US Janapriya Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2362-1516 Factors Associated with Farmers’ Perception towards Climate Change in Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23045 <p>Climate change is one of the major concerns among the researchers in twenty first century. This study aims to analyze the factors associated with farmers’ perception towards climate change in Pokhara. For this purpose, two wards of Pokhara i.e. ward no. 30 and ward no. 33 were selected purposively. Out of 3982 households in these wards, 216 households are proportionately distributed in these wards. Information was collected by using structured questionnaire through interview techniques with household head or a household member having age 40 years and over and residing in that locality since last 10 years. A systematic sampling technique was carried out to select the samples. Chi-squared test was applied to find the factors associated with farmers’ perception towards climate change. All the respondents were aware about the climate change and received information about climate change from radio, television, newspaper, peer groups. Majority of the respondents claim that climate change has been occurred in temperature, annual summer hotness, decrease in average annual rainfall, no change in average annual draught incidents, no change in flood incidents, no change in water availability to irrigate and increase in average number of pest and plant disease attack. It is found that there is significant association between farmer’s perception&nbsp;level towards climate change with agriculture skill of the respondents, caste/ethnicity, major occupation and sex. Hence agriculture skill, sex, caste/ethnicity and occupations of the respondents are the major factors associated with farmers’ perception towards climate change.</p> Ananta Raj Dhungana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 1 13 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23045 Awareness on Sexual Abuse among Adolescents in Baglung District of Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23046 <p>Sexual abuse is a pervasive public health problem that affects all directly or indirectly causing many short- and long-term struggles for victims, families, communities and the whole social system. Although sexual abuse is growing as a major problem in community, especially among the adolescents the trend and facts have not been explored adequately. Therefore, a descriptive study entitled "Awareness on Sexual Abuse among Adolescents" was carried out among 114&nbsp;students of grade 9 and 10 in Tribhuvan Secondary School at Baglung Municipality. Census method was adopted and self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 16. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed, almost 51 percent had low level of awareness on sexual abuse, and prevalence rate of sexual abuse was 18.4 percent. Out of 114 respondents, 38.6&nbsp;percent were of age 14 years and 66.7 percent of the respondents were studying in grade 10. The highest proportion 38.6 percent were Brahmin and 71.0 percent got information about sexual abuse from their teachers. More than half (59.6%) respondents define try to rape as a sexual abuse. There was significant association between education of respondents with awareness on sexual abuse. It is concluded that the awareness on sexual abuse is low among adolescents therefore there is need of awareness program and education to adolescents in the school and community for improving their knowledge as well as to make them aware of sexual abuse.</p> Anita Sharma Kamala Rana Magar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 14 25 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23046 Knowledge and Practices towards Avian Influenza among Poultry Workers in Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23047 <p>Avian influenza is currently a threat to global health. Prevention and control of Avian influenza depends on the knowledge and preventive practices of the poultry workers as well as general population. This article aims to assess the knowledge and preventive practices related to Avian influenza among poultry workers in Pokhara. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 108 poultry workers in Pokhara using purposive sampling. Data was collected through face to face interview using structured interview schedule. The obtained data was analyzed by using descriptive (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation). The findings revealed that only 11.1 percent of the respondents had good knowledge. Only 26.9 percent gave correct answer about causative agent and three out of four gave correct definition of Avian influenza. Nearly two-third of the respondents had good practice of preventive measures. There was no significant relationship (r= 0.117, p= 0.226) between knowledge and practice score. The study concludes that the knowledge of Avian&nbsp;Influenza among poultry workers was low and the Practice was found relatively better. The groups should be targeted for appropriate intervention based on knowledge.</p> Arati Timilsina Shilpa Mahat ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 26 34 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23047 Financial Performance of Janapriya Multiple Campus Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23048 <p>Financial performance analysis is based on financial statement. Financial statement is the final product of accounting process. Fundamentally, financial performance analysis refers to financial statement analysis to identify financial strength and weaknesses by establishing appropriate relationship among the figures of income statement and balance sheet. The main objective behind this study was to assess the financial performance of Janapriya Multiple Campus (JMC). Beside this, it also aimed to compare the financial performance and analyze the financial changes over a period of five years along with examining the cost recovery rate of JMC. This research was done with the help of secondary data entirely gathered from the annual report and official documents of the campus. The financial performance measured by using various financial/accounting and statistical tools such as common size financial statement, horizontal trend percent analysis, profitability ratios, mean and standard deviation. Based on the analysis, internal sources of fund&nbsp;including reserve and surplus, long term fund and campus development fund contribute more than 65% of the total liabilities/total assets. The highest percentage of permanent capital and fixed assets denote that the durable assets and fixed deposit amount were covered by the internal sources of fund. Findings have been&nbsp;arrived that the campus has got enough current assets to meet its current liabilities. The income statement shows total revenues increased every year at good rate and profit also increased every year except the years of 2070/71 and 071/72. In average, all profitability ratios are positive. Moreover, the analysis of collected&nbsp;data showed that there is no high fluctuation in the calculated profitability ratios and cost recovery rate. There exist positive relationship between revenue and expenses but the relationship is insignificant. Revenue explains 52.3 percent variation of variation in expenses. However, the institution is financially viable and&nbsp;there is a strong possibility to make money in long run.</p> Hari Bahadur Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 35 45 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23048 Knowledge on Preconception Care Among Reproductive Aged Women in Kaski District, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23049 <p>Preconception care is any intervention provided to women and couples of childbearing age, regardless of pregnancy status or desire, before pregnancy, to improve health outcomes for women, newborns and children. The aim this study was to assess level of knowledge among reproductive aged women and to find out association between selected demographic variables and knowledge. A descriptive&nbsp;cross sectional research design was used to conduct the study. Non probability purposive sampling technique was used to select 220 reproductive aged women in Pokhara, Metropolitan city-32; Janachautra, Malmul. Data was collected through structured interview schedule and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test. The findings revealed that about 20 percent of respondents possessed poor knowledge followed by 64.5 percent of the respondents possessed average level of knowledge and 15.5 percent of respondents possessed good level of knowledge. The mean score for the level of knowledge was 50.6±10.6. There was statistically significant association between level of knowledge on preconception care with education, number of children, heard about&nbsp;preconception care, source of information (p&lt;0.005). It concludes that majority of the respondents had average level of knowledge so, awareness program is required to to prevent the health risks of women and offspring in the near future and to improve the different aspects of knowledge regarding preconception care.&nbsp;</p> Krishma Giri Srijana Gautam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 46 56 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23049 Knowledge on Post Exposure Prophylaxis of HIV among Nurses in a Hospital of Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23050 <p>Health care providers are at risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from occupational exposure, with nurses being the most vulnerable. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) of HIV is the only way to reduce risk of HIV after potential exposure. A study was conducted on Nurses Knowledge on PEP of HIV at Gandaki Medical College (GMC), Pokhara to find out the knowledge on PEP of HIV among nurses. Descriptive cross sectional research design was used for the study. Probability stratified systematic random sampling technique was used for sampling and self administered questionnaires was used for data collection with sample size of 90 nurses working in GMC. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 software programme and presented in terms of frequency distribution, percentage, mean and standard deviation. For inferential statistics, chi square test was used at 5% level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that mean age of the respondents was 24.57 with standard deviation 3.43. Out of 90 respondents majority (83.3%) of the respondents were PCL passed and 47.8% of the respondents had adequate knowledge regarding PEP of HIV. The study found no significant association between demographic variables and knowledge level. It can be concluded that the nurses need to improve their level of knowledge on PEP of HIV by participating in different training programs. Health institution should also conduct continue nursing education programme to improve and update knowledge among the employees.</p> Manu Thapa Bishnu Gurung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 57 66 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23050 Students' Perception towards the Drinking Water Facility at Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23051 <p>The study entitled "Students' perception towards the drinking water facility at JMC Pokhara" is carried out to find out the perception of drinking water and examine the impact of drinking water on student's health in Janapriya Multiple Campus of Kaski district. The descriptive method was applied to meet the objectives and the survey technique was used to collect necessary information. All the students in JMC(4350) were the population of this study. The sample size was 160 through lottery method. The questionnaire and observation schedule were the major tool of data collection. Campus has its own boring system from 2071/ 0/ 17 B.S. The water was lab tested in the beginning by the microbiology department and recommended that it was safe. Most of the respondents felt that it was needed to test the water time to time and notified to concern people. Nearly 80 percent students said that the water was safe and pure but only eleven students complained. Only 6 students bought it and other 5 brought boiled water from their homes. Thirty one students felt water born diseases during their JMC period but they weren't ensure either from their college water or residential water. Students' perception on water availability in JMC was satisfactory.&nbsp;</p> Krishna Prasad Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 67 76 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23051 Finding of principle square root of a real number by using interpolation method https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23053 <p>There are various methods of finding the square roots of positive real number. This paper deals with finding the principle square root of positive real numbers by using Lagrange’s and Newton’s interpolation method. The interpolation method is the process of finding the values of unknown quantity (y) between two known quantities.</p> Rajendra Prasad Regmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 77 83 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23053 Factors Associated with Children Ever Born among Lower Caste Women in Some Selected Wards of Pokhara, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23054 <p>Fertility is the main components of population growth. Children ever born vary in different sub groups of the same population in terms of age at marriage, age of women, literacy, occupation, contraception user and mass media exposure. The objective of this study is to find out association between children ever born and selected socio-demographic characteristics in lower caste women. A descriptive study was conducted in some selected wards of Pokhara, Nepal during April 2018. Five wards were selected randomly out of 33 wards and 187 lower caste women were selected using convenience sampling technique. The data was collected by&nbsp;using semi-structured interview schedule. Chi-square test was applied to find out association between children ever born and selected socio-demographic characteristics.Higher children ever born were concentrated in the age at marriage from 21 to 25 as compared to other groups of age at marriage. Practice of contraceptive use is low among lower caste people although 66.31% lower caste women were exposed to mass media. The result shows that the factors age at marriage, contraceptive use and mass media exposure were highly associated with children ever born among lower caste women under study (P&lt;0.05). Education on fertility is more powerful than urban residence. Concern authorities should play vital role to increase education level among lower caste people for increasing age at marriage, contraceptive use and practice of family planning to reduce children ever born.</p> Sudan Kumar Mulmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 85 94 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23054 Green Marketing and Environment https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23055 <p>Green revolution is protecting our earth, people and many more through a natural phenomenon in everyday life. Green marketing is a tool used by many companies in various industries to follow this trend. There have been a lot of literature review on green marketing over the years, here analysis of the aspects of green marketing on customer value addition, satisfaction, environmental safety, sustainable development, benefits to stakeholders, prospects are presented. This can be used by researchers who need to study green marketing on these issues.</p> Bed Nath Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 95 99 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23055 Employment Status of the Graduates and Postgraduates of Janapriya Multiple Campus https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23059 <p>Employment status of graduates is an important indicator of the effectiveness of academic and training programs. This research study attempts to explore employment status of graduates and postgraduates in terms of types of employment (i.e. full time, part time and self employment), designation (i.e. senior, middle, operation and assistant level), and types of employers' institution (i.e. private, public, NGO/INGO and government) of Janapriya Multiple Campus. This study is a descriptive research based on frequency analysis of quantitative data. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect relevant quantitative data necessary for the research through convenient sampling technique. The sample size for this study is 90. Among the total sample, 87 i.e. 96.7 percent are graduates and remaining are post graduates. This study concludes that more than three quarters of the respondents i.e. 85.40 percent were employed in private institutions as full time employees i.e. 75.90 percent. Moreover, majority of respondent i.e. 60.9 percent&nbsp;were employed at assistant level and very few i.e. 13.0 percent were self employed.</p> Krishna Babu Baral ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 100 104 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23059 You Can't Go Home Again: International Students Adjustment to New Cultural Environments https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23060 <p>Culture shock including its variety of symptoms and outcomes is a completely normal physical and psychological reaction to foreign environments and a part of successful adaptation process--the best and may be even the only means to experience and understand foreign cultures. This article argues that the anxiety and stress related to the adaptation process are shocking but the extent of adjustment does not depend on whether the negative symptoms of culture shock are experienced, but how they are coped with. Adaptation in hosts cultures can be made through different learning processes rather than single learning process&nbsp;that can have positive outcomes in the end, by serving as a hint that something is not right and therefore motivating thinking about how to adjust that can help reduce ethnocentrism and increase acceptance of cultural diversity and appreciation of cultural integrity relating to the challenges of an unfamiliar environment. It is important for spoon- fed theoretically nurtured Nepalese students to grow through this discomfort in order to understand them better and to&nbsp;gain new sensitivities that encourages personal and intercultural competency developments, positive learning experiences leading to increased self-awareness and personal growth in a comparatively developed pragmatic host culture.</p> Prakash Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 105 115 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23060 Culture and Symbolism Nexus in Anthropology https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JJIS/article/view/23061 <p>Study of symbols or the theory of symbolism makes micro study of the culture. Symbols are the gestures, objects and language, which form the basis of human communication. Interpretation of symbol may differ according to the culture. At the same time a symbol may have one meaning in one culture another meaning in another culture. Symbols represent signs which are used to signify objects, real or imaginary. Symbols are arbitrary based on convention of culture. Interpretation of symbol depends on culture. Symbols are means of Communication of language, a form of ritual expression, cultural interpretation, expression of art and belief. Symbols should not be looked at in an abstract way and at meaning as constructed apart from human action but rather at the way meaning is constructed and used in the context of this action. Symbolism studies how a culture functions on the basis of its meanings, how a symbol is interpreted and so on. Symbolism studies the interrelationship between culture, language and people. Culture is constructed&nbsp;on the basis of different symbols. There are different meanings of symbols. The same symbol in different contexts may have different kinds of meanings. Symbols are directed by cultural norms. As cultural norms are diverse symbols too are multicoil, multifocal and multivariate and they can represent many things. Symbols do not necessarily have the same meaning in different context. Thick description by Clifford Geertz takes into account the fact that any aspect of human behavior has more than one meaning.</p> Surya Bhakta Sigdel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 7 1 116 124 10.3126/jjis.v7i1.23061