The Journal of Knowledge and Innovation https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI <p>The Journal of Knowledge and Innovation is published by the Research Management Cell of Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal.</p> en-US <p>This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format, so long as attribution is given to the creator. The license allows for commercial use.</p> deven.bmhs@gmail.com (Prof. Devendra Adhikari) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 विश्व शिक्षणका गुरुको रुपमा नेपाल र भारत https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54733 <p>शिक्षा दिने मन्त्रदिने , जन्मदिने , विवाह गरी छोरी दिने शिक्षक हुन् ।यस्तो मान्यता नेपाल र भारतले राख्तछ । विश्वलाई यस्तै उपदेश दिन्छन् । यी उल्लेख्य व्यक्तित्वबाट जीवनभर शिक्षा पाइन्छ । यिनीहरूले ज्ञान बाँड्छन् । अनुशासित र आचारवान् बन्न र बनाउन सिकाउँ छन् । जे जोबाट सिक्छ ,सिकिन्छ शिक्षा त्यही हो । यसले आफ्नो जरा खोज्छ । सभ्यताको मूलथलो वेदमा लगे र जोड् दछ । वेद ज्ञानको ढिक्को, ढिम्को, ढिस्को, कुइनेटो हो । यो विज्ञान हो । यसका गर्भमा विज्ञानका फाल्साफाल्सा लुकेर रहेका छन् । अविद्याले भौतिक सुख हुन्छ । विद्याबाट अमृतत्व पाइन्छ । शुक्लयजुर्वे द. अ.३९ मन्त्र १४ले भन्छ अविद्ययामृत्युन्तीत्वा विद्ययामृतमश्नुते । मान्छे त्यसैे स्वतः शिक्षित बन्दैन । मानिस पशुसरह व्यवहार गर्दागर्दै विस्तारै आमा बावु र गुरुहरूद्वारा<br />मौखिक या मानसिक खाली कागज जस्तो दिमागमा ज्ञानको भण्डार भरिएको शिक्षा पाउदै गएपछि मात्र मान्छे शिक्षित बन्छ । शिक्षित भएपछि शिक्षक बन्छ । विद्याविहीन पशु भनिन्छ । विद्याको अर्थ ज्ञान हो , अविद्या अज्ञान हो । ज्ञानी हुनेले ज्ञान पाएपछि, शिक्षा दिनेले दिएपछि ,शिक्षा लिनेले लिएपछि मात्र शिक्षण हुन्छ । यो दिने र लिने बीचको सौदा या व्यपार हो । हो यो विक्रेता र क्रेता बीचको बजार व्यवस्था हो । शिक्षणले मानिसलाई नियम, नीति, सीप सिकाएर यो गर्न हुने यो गर्न नहुने को नीतिले बाँध्ने गर्छ । व्यवहारिक, व्यवसायिक, सीपले र कलायुक्त ज्ञानले सामाजिक प्राणी बनाउँछ । आनीबानीमा परिवर्तन गरिदिन्छ । स्वभाव र प्रवृत्तिमा सुध्रिने , सुधार्ने मौका जुटाई दिन्छ । शिक्षणले विशद महान र उत्तम भावना प्रज्वलित गराउँछ ।<br />विद्याव्यसनी र निष्ठावान् बनाउँ छ । अञ्चल, जनपद , भूगोलले , राजनीति, अर्थनीति, धार्मिक जातीय, पारिवारिक कर्तव्यको बोध पनि शिक्षणबाटै हुन्छ । प्राकृतिक, परिस्थितिक, प्रातस्मरणीय चिन्तक, लोकमान्य , लोकविश्वास, वित्तव्यवसायको संरक्षण, सम्बध्र्दनको रक्षागर्ने सीपको जानकारी शिक्षणबाटै पाउँ दछ । धर्म, चाडवाड, मेला मठ, मन्दिर ,मस्जिद,गुम्वा, गिर्जाघरको उत्खनन् परिचय, सूचनाहरूका तालिकाको कार्य र ज्ञान गर्न सक्दछ । ज्ञान–विज्ञान, जल, जमिन, खगोल, मौसम, इत्यादि बारे नयाँ धारण र नयाँ चिन्तन गर्ने पद्धति शिक्षणले सिकाउँंछ । आत्मा परमात्मा, ईश्वरलाई अलगअलग व्याख्या र विश्लेषण गरी जीवलाई आजाद गर्ने सीप शिक्षणबाट हुन्छ । शिक्षित र सभ्य मानिस सुसंस्कृत हुन्छ भन्ने मान्यता थाहाँँ पाउँछ । वेदका ऋचा मन्त्रबाट उदात्त अनुदात्त र स्थरितबाट शिक्षाको प्रार्दुभाव भयो भन्ने थाहा पाउँदछ । । ऋचाको शिक्षण हजारौं हजार वर्षदेखि हुदै आयो । सुनेका भरमा शिक्षण गरिदा वेद श्रुति कहलियो । सम्झे का कुराहरूको टिपोट र नोट स्मृति भए । श्रुति स्मृतिहरूमा तर्क शक्ति, विचार निर्माण गर्ने क्षमताको अभिवृद्धि, भावना र कल्पनाको स्वभावमा लहरिने सीप ज्ञान विज्ञानको छे लोखे लोपन आदि लदबदे रसिलो ज्ञान हुन्छ । यी सवै दर्शनलाई एकबाट अर्कोमा पुर्याउने साधन शिक्षक हुन । पुस्तकालय वाचनालय, अभिलेखिकृत, श्रोतकेन्द्र, श्रव्यदृष्य, आदि विद्युतीय सामग्रीको माध्यमले प्राविधिक विचारहरूको प्रक्षेपण शिक्षकले शिक्षार्थीमा गर्छ । माईक्रोफिल्म, कम्प्युटर, इन्टरनेट, डिजिटल पुस्तकालय, इपुस्तकालय, भच्र्युअललाईब्रेरी,आदिले पनि ज्ञान र विचारको ओसार पसार गर्छन् । एफ.डब्लुलुका अनुसार शिक्षक कक्षामा पस्नु पूर्व नै विद्यार्थीमा ज्ञानप्रतिको प्रेम र मोह जाग्न जगाउन सक्नुपर्दछ । भोलि शिक्षण गर्ने शिक्षक कक्षा नछुटोस भन्ने भाव विद्यार्थीमा जाग्नु पर्दछ । यस्तो सिकाईले ज्ञानलाई सम्वध्र्दन र पथ प्रदर्शन गर्दछ । प्राचीन र आधुनिक परिपेक्ष्यमा ज्ञान र प्रविधिको कुन्जी नेपाल र भारत का शास्त्र् , ग्रन्थ् , पुस्तक, पुस्तिकामा कैद भएका छन ।</p> <div class="flex-1 overflow-hidden"> <div class="react-scroll-to-bottom--css-zubpn-79elbk h-full dark:bg-gray-800"> <div class="react-scroll-to-bottom--css-zubpn-1n7m0yu"> <div class="flex flex-col items-center text-sm dark:bg-gray-800"> <div class="group w-full text-gray-800 dark:text-gray-100 border-b border-black/10 dark:border-gray-900/50 dark:bg-gray-800"> <div class="flex p-4 gap-4 text-base md:gap-6 md:max-w-2xl lg:max-w-xl xl:max-w-3xl md:py-6 lg:px-0 m-auto"> <div class="relative flex flex-col w-[calc(100%-50px)] gap-1 md:gap-3 lg:w-[calc(100%-115px)]"> <div class="text-gray-400 flex self-end lg:self-center justify-center mt-2 gap-2 md:gap-3 lg:gap-1 lg:absolute lg:top-0 lg:translate-x-full lg:right-0 lg:mt-0 lg:pl-2 visible"> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="group w-full text-gray-800 dark:text-gray-100 border-b border-black/10 dark:border-gray-900/50 bg-gray-50 dark:bg-[#444654]"> <div class="flex p-4 gap-4 text-base md:gap-6 md:max-w-2xl lg:max-w-xl xl:max-w-3xl md:py-6 lg:px-0 m-auto"> <div class="relative flex flex-col w-[calc(100%-50px)] gap-1 md:gap-3 lg:w-[calc(100%-115px)]"> <div class="flex flex-grow flex-col gap-3"> <div class="min-h-[20px] flex flex-col items-start gap-4 whitespace-pre-wrap break-words"> <div class="markdown prose w-full break-words dark:prose-invert light"> <p>Education is a mantra in itself, giving birth, getting married, and having children, they all contribute to becoming a teacher. This belief is held by Nepal and India. It imparts such teachings to the world. These notable personalities provide education throughout their lives. They share knowledge. They learn to be disciplined and well-behaved. What one learns from any job is education itself. It searches for its own roots. It is found in the Vedas, which add to its essence. Vedas are the essence, core, and foundation of knowledge. This is science. It encompasses the philosophy of science. Ignorance leads to materialistic pleasure, while knowledge leads to immortality. Shukla Yajur Veda, 3.39.14, says, "From ignorance, one experiences death, and from knowledge, one experiences immortality." A person does not become educated by themselves. Humans are like animals, engaging in behavior, expanding through parents and teachers, filling their minds with knowledge. Only then does a person become educated. After becoming educated, one becomes a teacher. An uneducated person is called an animal. Knowledge means wisdom, and ignorance means lack of knowledge. When one attains knowledge, when one imparts education, and when one receives education, only then does teaching occur. This exchange between giving and receiving is like a business transaction or a trade. It is the market system between the seller and the buyer. Education binds humans with rules, policies, and traditions. It shapes them into practical, business-oriented, disciplined, and artistic individuals, who become social beings. It brings about changes in society. It provides opportunities for improving one's nature and behavior. Education ignites clear and noble sentiments. It makes one addicted to knowledge and loyal. It encompasses the knowledge of regions, provinces, geography, politics, economics, religious and ethnic duties. It also imparts knowledge of natural, environmental, memorable thinkers, popular beliefs, and the preservation of financial transactions and relationships. It can provide an introduction to various aspects such as religion, festivals, temples, mosques, monasteries, churches, memorials, and the organization of information. Education can teach new concepts and new ways of thinking about knowledge and science related to elements like knowledge-science, water, land, astronomy, weather, etc. It enables the understanding and analysis of the soul, the supreme soul, and God, thus freeing individuals. It is believed that an educated and civilized person is well-mannered. The emergence of education from the hymns and mantras of the Vedas has been known for thousands of years. When education is imparted based on what is heard, it is called Vedic instruction. The tips and notes of comprehension became memories. In the hymns and memories, the power of reasoning, the ability to construct ideas, the nature of emotions, and the flow of creative knowledge are revealed. All these philosophies converge into one from another, making the teacher the medium. Through libraries, reading rooms, archives, audiovisual centers, listening and watching, technical ideas are transmitted by teachers to students. Even microfilm, computers, the internet, digital libraries, e-books, virtual libraries, etc., spread knowledge and ideas. According to F. W. Taylor, the teacher must have the desire to instill love and fascination for knowledge in the students even before entering the classroom. Tomorrow, the teacher who teaches will not be separated from the students. Such a feeling needs to be awakened in the students. This teaching inspires knowledge and guides the path. In the context of ancient and modern perspectives, knowledge and technology are the keys to development.</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="flex justify-between lg:block"> <div class="text-gray-400 flex self-end lg:self-center justify-center mt-2 gap-2 md:gap-3 lg:gap-1 lg:absolute lg:top-0 lg:translate-x-full lg:right-0 lg:mt-0 lg:pl-2 visible"> <div class="flex gap-1"> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> बाबुराम तिमल्सिना Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54733 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.9(1) https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54761 Devendra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54761 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 मसान नाटकमा नारीवाद https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53635 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा गोपालप्रसाद रिमालको मसान नाटकमा नारीवादी चेतनाको प्रभाव कसरी र के कस्तो अवस्थामा परे को छ ? भन्ने जिज्ञासा उठाई त्यसलाई नारीवादी सिद्धान्तका स्थापित मान्यताका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । पुरुषभित्र विकसित नारीलार्ई भोगविलासको साधन ठान्ने प्रवृत्तिको चित्रण रहेको छ । नाटकमा कृष्णले युवतीको मातृृत्व नाश गरेबाट नारीप्रतिको अत्याचार विकसित भएको छ । युवती, दुलही, वाग्मती र भोटुकी आमाले आफ्ना पतिको बेवास्ता र कामाशक्त प्रवृत्तिका कारण मानसिक प्रताडना सहेका छन् । यहाँ युवती र दुलहीले पतिको व्यवहारप्रति आक्रोश व्यक्त गरेको देखिन्छ । आफ्नो मातृत्व हत्या भएको बुझेर युवतीले पति गृह त्यागेबाट नारीहरूमा विद्रोहको चेतना जाग्न लागेको पाइन्छ । मसान नाटकमा नारीचेतना शीर्षकभित्र विषयपरिचय, अध्ययनको विधि, नारीवादी सिद्धान्त, मसान नाटकको विश्लेषणजस्ता उपशीर्षकका आधारमा नाटकको विश्लेषण गरी नारीहरूमा विद्रोहको चेतना सशक्त बन्दै गएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p> </p> <p><span class="HwtZe" lang="en"><span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In the presented article, how and what is the influence of feminist consciousness in Gopal Prasad Rimal's play Masan?</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Having raised the question, it has been analyzed based on the established principles of feminist theory.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">There is a depiction of the tendency developed in men to regard women as instruments of pleasure.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In the drama, the tyranny of women has developed since Krishna destroyed the motherhood of the young woman.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Young women, brides, eloquent and mothers of Bhoti have endured mental torture due to their husband's neglect and impotence.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Here, the girl and the bride seem to express their anger towards the husband's behavior.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Realizing that her motherhood has been murdered, young women abandon their husbands and start to awaken a sense of rebellion in women.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Analyzing the play on the basis of subtitles such as introduction, method of study, feminist theory, analysis of Masan drama under the heading of women's consciousness in Masan drama.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">It has been concluded that the awareness of rebellion among women is becoming stronger.</span></span></span></p> <p> </p> ठाकुरप्रसाद पोख्रेल Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53635 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 शाहजहाँको इच्छा कवितामा संसक्ति व्यवस्था https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53508 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको शाहजहाँको इच्छा कवितामा संसक्ति तथा संसक्तिअन्तर्गतको व्याकरणिक संसक्तिको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । नेपाली साहित्यमा बहुआयामिक व्यक्तित्व, नेपाली साहित्यको उन्नयन र विकासका लागि समग्र जीवन खर्चने लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको प्रस्तुत शाहजहाँको इच्छा सिर्जनागत प्रप्तिका दृष्टिले नेपाली कविता परम्पराको उच्चतम प्राप्ति हो । परिष्कृत, परिमार्जित र उच्च काव्यिक शिल्प प्रस्तुत भएको प्रस्तुत कविता देवकोटाको सुसम्बद्ध लेखनशैली अवलम्बन भएको संसक्तिपूर्ण भाषिक सङ्कथन हो । सङ्कथन वाक्यभन्दा माथिको सम्पूर्ण भाषिक संरचना हो भने सङ्कथन विश्लेषण संरचनाको भाषापरक अध्ययन गर्ने नवीन विश्लेषण पद्धति हो । सङ्कथन विश्लेषणका विभिन्न पद्धतिमध्ये संसक्ति व्यवस्था एउटा अधार हो । संसक्ति भन्नाले कुनै पनि पाठभित्र हुने अन्तर्सम्बन्ध तथा अनुच्छेदभित्रका वाक्यहरूमा भावप्रवाह सिर्जना गर्ने विशिष्ट ढाँचा हो जसले पाठभित्रका एकाइलाई सुसम्बद्धता प्रदान गर्दछ । संसक्ति व्यवस्थाअन्तर्गत व्याकरणिक संसक्तिले संंरचनामा रहेका व्याकरणिक प्रकार्यमा माध्यमबाट पाठलाई एकान्वितपूर्ण र सुसम्बद्ध तुल्याउन अहम् भूमिका खेल्दछ । प्रस्तुत कवितामा सन्दर्भन एकाइका रूपमा आएका व्याकरणिक संसक्तिले पाठमा रहेको सूचनालाई प्रवाहमय तुल्याई काव्यिक संरचनालाई कविको स्वच्छन्द भावप्रवाह गर्ने शैलीलाई सुसम्बद्ध तुल्याउन अहम् भूमिका खेलेको छ । कवितामा अन्यन्त न्यून निदर्शनको प्रयोग भए पनि तिनको भूमिका सुसम्बद्ध पाठ निर्माणका लागि सबल छ भने सार्वनामिक एकाइका रूपमा रहेका सन्दर्भनले पाठमा रहेका सन्दर्भ र अर्थलाई परस्परमा संसक्ति गरेका छन् । कवितामा प्रतिस्थापित एकाइ शब्द र वाक्यलाई परस्परमा जोड्ने एकाइका रूपमा नभई बृहत्तर आर्थीसम्बन्धसँग सन्दर्भलाई परस्परमा सम्पृक्त गराउने यस कृतिमा लोपले निरन्तर सूचनाप्रवाहलाई परस्परमा संसक्ति गर्न महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका खेलेका छन् । शब्द, पदावली, वाक्य र अनुच्छेदमा प्रवाह भएको सूचनालाई अनुच्छेदका तहमा निर्माण हुने सन्दर्भ र अर्थसँग जोड्ने महत्त्वपूर्ण भाषिक प्रकार्यका रूपमा संयोजनको स्थान रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p> </p> <p><span class="HwtZe" lang="en"><span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">The presented article focuses on the analysis of Sansakti and grammatical Sansakti in Shah Jahan's Ichha poem by Lakshmi Prasad Devkota.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">A multifaceted personality in Nepali literature, Lakshmi Prasad Devkota, who spent his whole life for the promotion and development of Nepali literature, Shah Jahan's Will is the highest achievement of Nepali poetry tradition in terms of creative achievement.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">The presented poem with sophisticated, modified and high poetic craft is a coherent linguistic collection that adopts Devkota's coherent writing style.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Sankthan is the entire linguistic structure above the sentence, while Sankthan analysis is a new analysis method for the linguistic study of the structure.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Among the various methods of cluster analysis, the clustering system is one of the bases.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Cohesion is a specific structure that creates a flow of meaning in the interrelationships within any text and the sentences within the paragraphs that provide coherence to the unit within the text.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Grammatical structure under the syntactic system plays an important role in making the text coherent and coherent through the grammatical functions in the structure.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In the presented poem, the grammatical structure that comes as a reference unit has played an important role in making the information in the text flow and making the poetic structure compatible with the poet's style of expressing his emotions.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Even though there is very little use of reference in the poem, its role is strong for creating a coherent text, while the reference as a universal unit has linked the context and meaning in the text.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">Instead of uniting the words and sentences in the poem as a unit that connects the context with a larger meaning, the omission has played an important role in connecting the continuous flow of information in this work.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">It has been concluded that combination is an important linguistic function that connects the information flowing in words, vocabulary, sentences and paragraphs with the context and meaning created at the level of paragraphs.</span></span></span></p> अनिल अधिकारी Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53508 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 शब्दातीत शान्तनु उपन्यासमा पात्रविधान https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53513 <p>प्रस्तुुत लेख शब्दातीत शान्तनुु उपन्यासमा पात्रविधान विषय सम्बध्द छ भने यही विषयलाई मुुख्य समस्या चयन गरिएको छ । पुुस्तकालयबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरिएको यस लेखको मुुख्य समस्या समाधानका लागि शब्दातीत शान्तनुु उपन्यासमा पात्रगत उपस्थितिको अवस्था,प्रमुख पात्र र सहायक पात्रको भूूमिका विश्लेषणसम्बध्द शोध्यप्रश्न निर्धारण गरिएका छन् । गुुणात्मक अनुुसन्धान विधि पाठविश्लेषणकेन्द्री विवेचनात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक विधि अवलम्बन भएको यस लेखमा विधा सिध्दान्त अन्तर्गतको आख्यानमा पात्रविधानलाई सैध्दान्तिक अवधारणा चयन गरिएको छ । आख्यानात्मक विधामा कथ्य विषयलाई गतिशील तुुल्याई आरम्भदेखि निष्कर्षसम्म डोहोर्याउने तत्त्वका रूपमा पात्रको भूूमिका अहं रहने गर्दछ। आख्यानमा पात्र समाख्याता,सम्बोधक,सम्बोधित तथा पाठकका रूपमा समेत रहने आख्यानशास्त्रीय मान्यतासँगै कृतिमा कुन पात्रको भूूमिका कसरी ? र किन ?प्रयोग भएको छ भन्ने विषयको अध्ययन पात्रविधानअन्तर्गत गरिन्छ । यस लेखमा शब्दातीत शान्तनुु सामन्तवादी समाजव्यवस्थाको विचारधारालाई अङ्गीकार गरी जीवनयापन गर्ने शान्तनबाबूू र उसैको मुुख्य भूूमिकाभित्र सहायक चरित्रको भूूमिकामा रहेका मालिक्नीसाहेब र शकुुन्तलादेवी लगायत शान्तनुुबाबूूकै विचारधारात्मक पदचापमा हिँड्न बाध्य तुुल्याइएका सहयोगी र गौण चरित्रको पात्रविन्यास भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p> </p> <p><span class="HwtZe" lang="en"><span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">The presented article is related to the theme of characterization in the wordless Shantanu novel, and this topic has been selected as the main problem.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In order to solve the main problem of this article, which was collected from the library, research questions related to the situation of character presence, the role of the main character and supporting characters in the wordless Shantanu novel have been determined.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In this article, which adopts the qualitative research method text analysis, critical and analytical framework, the theoretical concept of characterization has been selected in the narrative under the theory.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In the narrative genre, the role of the character is as an element that moves the story from the beginning to the conclusion.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">How is the role of the character in the work with the narrative recognition that the character in the story is the narrator, the addressee, the addressed and also the reader?</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">And why? The study of the subject that has been used is done under the character law.</span></span> <span class="jCAhz ChMk0b"><span class="ryNqvb">In this article, it has been concluded that Shantanubabu, who lives by accepting the ideology of Shantanu feudalistic social system, and Malikni Saheb and Kuntladevi, who are supporting characters in his main role, and who are forced to walk in the ideological footsteps of Shantanubabu, are the supporting and secondary characters.</span></span></span></p> <p> </p> खगेश्वर भट्टराई Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53513 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नियोग प्रथाको सांस्कृतिक रूपान्तरण https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53951 <p>प्रस्तुत नियोगप्रथाको सांस्कृतिक रूपान्तरणसँग सम्बन्धित रहेको छ । गुणात्मक अध्ययनविधि अवलम्बन गरी पूर्णता प्रदान गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा नेपालमा नेपाली नारी जो सनातन हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बी छन्, उनीहरूको विधवा जीवन हालसम्म पनि नारकीय नै रहिरहेको पाइएको छ । फाट्टफुट्ट रूपमा विधवा विवाहलाई सकारात्मक रूपमा सोच्ने प्रवृत्तिको विकास हुँदै गइरहेको भए पनि अझै पनि पूर्ण स्वीकारयोग्य बनाउनु पर्ने दिशामा सवै अग्रसर हुनुपर्दछ भन्ने मान्यता स्थापित गर्न यो लेख प्रस्तुत गरिएको हो । यसक्रममा वैदिक कालमै विधिविधानपूर्वक विवाह समारोह सम्पन्न हुने कुराको उल्लेख विभिन्न स्रोतहरूलेगरेका छन् । “विवाह” शब्दको उल्लेख सर्वप्रथम उत्तरवैदिक समयका तैत्तरिया संहिता र ऐतेरेय ब्राम्हणमा परेको बताइएको छ । समाजमा स्वीकृत र आदर्शमय विवाह संस्कारका अतिरिक्त स्त्रीलाई स्वीकृत पुरूष वा विवाहित पुरूष बिना पनि वा कोही कसैको पनि सन्तान उत्पादन नगरिकन नै म¥यो भने त्यस्ती विधवा वा पतिविहिन महिला निसन्तान हुने अवस्थामा उसले सन्तान प्राप्ति हेतु मात्र कुनै पनि अन्य पुरूषसँग सहवास गरी बच्चा जन्माउन पाउने व्यवस्थालाई “नियोग” प्रथा भनिएको वा मानिएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> सुशीलकुमार अधिकारी Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53951 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Landlockedness on Receiving Tourism Income in SAARC Countries https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53603 <p>This study looks into the economic-driven tourism growth hypothesis in the context of SAARC countries. It also investigates the effect of landlockedness on tourism income receipt. It is based on secondary data gathered from several World Bank Reports and economic surveys of respective countries. It made use of 169 data points from SAARC's eight member countries. The data from an unbalanced panel was used. It makes use of an exploratory and analytical research design. For the impact study of independent variables on dependent variables, descriptive statistics, panel unit root testing, panel quantile regression analysis, quantile process estimates, quantile slope equality test, and symmetric quantile test are used. The GDP has a positive impact on tourism income in SAARC countries. It is found that one percent increase in the median value of GDP, the tourism income is increased by 0.219 percent. The evidence has proved the economic-driven tourism growth hypothesis, particularly regarding SAARC countries. This highlights the need for tailored tourism initiatives aimed specifically at landlocked nations.</p> Arjun Kumar Dahal, Prem Bahadur Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53603 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploration of Invasive Alien Plant Species on Habitat of Rhino in Icharni, Chitwan National Park, Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53838 <p>The study was conducted with main purpose to assess the floral diversity and explore invasive species on rhinoceros habitat in two different research sites with in Chitwan National Park. The rhino is placed in the list of endangered species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and highly threatened due to loss their habitat by rapidly increasing invasive species. The study was done for a period of one month in (September to October) 2020. The 10 m, 5 m, and 1 m radius circular quadrates were utilized to gather data on trees, shrubs, and herbs, respectively. A total of 25 plant species were recorded from 15 plots. The importance values of each species of trees were analyzed. Seven species of invasive types were recoded from 15 plots (10 plots from riverine forest and 5 plots from grassland).&nbsp; <em>Mikania micrantha</em> was most dominant species with IVI 103.02 followed by <em>Pogostemon benghalensis</em> with IVI 78.93 and <em>Chromolaena odorata</em> with IVI 34.57 as the second and third most dominant invasive species respectively. The conclusion is that invasive species have an impact on the grassland and riverine forest, which are needed by the mega herbivore. The management of rhino habitat and the preservation of the rhino population are seriously threatened.</p> Birendra Bahadur Bist, Ram Chandra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53838 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Individual performance and mobile banking: Role of task technology fit model https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53761 <p>The study examines how task technology fit factors determine the individual performance of mobile banking application users. There isn’t any study about individual performance in the context of mobile banking using the task technology fit model in Nepal, thus it will be a novel study from a Nepalese perspective. The study investigates the factors of the task technology fit model and collects 181 data using a google survey questionnaire. Data were then analyzed using structural equation modeling by AMOS. The findings indicate that task characteristics have a positive and significant effect on task technology fit and the use of mobile banking has a positive and most promising effect on individual performance. However, a positive but insignificant impact can be seen of technology characteristics on task technology fit and task technology fit on the use of mobile banking. This study provides insight into the financial institutions in Nepal regarding the perception of their users toward mobile banking application services.</p> Udgam Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53761 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge and Practice of Iodized Salt Consumption among Household of Morang https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53566 <p>Iodine is a necessary micronutrient, required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are necessary for the normal growth and development of the body. Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is major public health issues that affect people of all ages. IDD affects around 2 billion individuals worldwide with approximately 50 million experiencing clinical symptoms. Iodine deficiency illness was once common in Nepal. The Government of Nepal has made several attempts to address IDD by fortifying salt with iodine, but the problem persists, particularly in Nepal's hilly and mountainous regions. Thus the objective of the study was to assess the level of knowledge and practice of iodized salt consumption among household of Sundarharaincha-12, Morang. A cross-sectional research study was used where respondents were selected by using non probability purposive sampling technique. Total 106 household was included in research study. A semi-structured questionnaire for data collection was used by interview method. Finding was analyzed by using SPSS version 16. The findings of the study showed that all of the respondents (100.0 %) had knowledge that iodine is an essential element needed for life. About three fourth of the respondents (74.5 %) regular used two child logo salt. Almost all respondents (95.3 %) added salt during cooking. Education and type of family of the respondents had association with the level of knowledge and ethnicity, education and income of the respondents had association with the level of practice of iodized salt consumption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study was concluded as majority of the respondents had good knowledge while few of the respondents had poor knowledge on iodized salt consumption. However, their knowledge levels were not reflected in their practices as only more than two third of households had good practice while one third had poor practice of iodized salt consumption.</p> <p><strong><em>Key Words: </em></strong><em>Household, Iodine Deficiency Disorders, Iodized Salt, Knowledge, Practice.</em></p> Elina Rijal, Saraswati Basnet Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53566 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modernization Efforts Undertaken by the Nepali Army https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53930 <p>One of the nation's oldest organizations is the Army of Nepal. The development of Nepal's modern nation has been greatly aided by the armed forces. The ultimate responsibility for protecting, maintaining, and safeguarding the nation's independence has fallen on the Nepali Army. Science and technology are used for the development of the armed forces in China and India. Against this backdrop, Nepal experiences cyber-attacks, environmental degradation, pandemics, and ethnic, racial, or religious conflicts, among other things. The people of Nepal have faith in the Nepal Army since they are involved in various service-related activities. However, Nepal has a poor economy, it lags far behind in the modernization of the national army. Based on the study, the current strength and technical resources available to the Nepali Army to handle different types of challenges have been investigated. In this article, the Nepali Army's struggles to adapt to a new political system and the initiatives it has made to modernize itself are mostly discussed. With the changing nature of modern warfare, tactics, and situations, some changes have been necessary for Nepal's Army on the front of training, habitats, equipment, and technology.</p> <p>This article also discusses the achievements of Gehendra Shamsher (1871–1906), a firearms designer, inventor, and high-ranking officer of the Nepalese Army, as a role model for Nepal's modernization efforts. After Gehendra Shamsher, the Nepali Army has undertaken several modernization initiatives. The main objective of this paper is to discuss some modernization efforts done by the Nepal Army using science and technology. The material is taken from various sources, such as Tribhuvan University's Central Library in Kirtipur, the Army Central Library, the Military Museum in Kathmandu, and national and international literature."</p> <p> </p> <p> </p> Ajaya Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53930 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Democratic Transition of Nepal-2006: A Theoretical Sociological Analysis https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53938 <p>Democracy approximates a politically equal situation to all human subjects. People’s voice for democracy and increasing number of countries adopting a democratic regime indicate democracy’s endorsement of the notion ‘people as sovereign’. Often said, each People’s Movement is inclined to one’s right to freedom, equality and justice. Thus, democracy is deliberately inserted into any of the contemporary debates ranging from a peaceful deal to any social movement and war, be it the external type of Independence Movement, or the internal type of social, cultural, economic and political riots, protest movements or great revolutions including the French Revolution and others. The late-twentieth and early twenty-first century witnessed communist regimes’ gradual greet to democracy, and a situation occurred as if democracy was an undisputed form of regime. In 2006, a collective campaign of people throughout the country came to the street making alliance with the civil society organizations, previously underground Maoist party and other mainstream political parties to protest the royal takeover and bring democracy back into practice. The movement was culminated with bringing a huge transition – Nepal’s Democratic Transition-2006 – which this paper attempts to theorize. By giving special reference to the Game Theory of Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, this paper verifies the role of micro and macro components as equally and strategically active for enabling the democratic transition of a nation.</p> Tek Nath Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53938 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Reintegration of victims of human trafficking: Approaches and Practices in Nepal https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53942 <p>This research paper tries to analyze the shelter services and care supports to reintegrating the victims of human trafficking at the family and community level. Primarily, the study applied the qualitative approach by adopting both primary and secondary sources of information. For substantiating secondary information, 40 qualitative in-depth and key informant interviews were conducted. It was found that priorities of shelters are crucial for providing composite and comprehensive services for sustainable and dignified reintegration of victims of trafficking. The shelter care and services mainly orient to victim-centric approach to provide composite service package to victims. Immediate, short-term and long-term services play crucial role for successful reintegration in family and community. The multiple packages in shelter's lone effort was observed to be the best for delivering the best care and services. The widely applied approach of shelters was found victim centered approach, shelter based approach and the community approach. Among these approach, shelter based comprehensive service oriented approach found suitable for sustainable and dignified reintegration of victims of trafficking.</p> Mahendra Kumar Rai Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53942 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Thermodynamic and Structural Properties of Al–Er liquid Alloy at Different Temperatures https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54633 <p>Theoretical expressions of quasi–lattice model were used to assess the thermodynamic and structural properties of Al–Er liquid alloy at different temperatures. The model fit parameters were optimised using the available literature data of the thermodynamic properties for the system at 1873 K. The computed values of thermodynamic properties such as excess Gibbs free energy of mixing, enthalpy of mixing, entropy of mixing and activities of Er and Al using the model fit parameters were found to be consistent with the reference data–set. Therefore, the same parameters were used to compute the structural properties such as concentration fluctuation in long wavelength limit, Warren–Cowley short range–order parameter and ratio of mutual to intrinsic diffusion coefficients. Assuming the model fit parameters to be linear temperature–dependent, the above mentioned properties were also assessed in the temperature range 1873–2173 K. The compound forming tendency of the system was found to decrease gradually with increase in temperature.</p> Shashit Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/54633 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors associated with Childhood Anthropometric Measurements in Nepal: A Provincial-Level Analysis Based on NDHS Data 2016 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53074 <p>The study assesses the prevalence of and factors affecting the anthropometric measurements i.e. stunting-WAZ, wasting-WHZ and underweight-WAZ each below -2 SD from the median of the reference population, among children below 5 years of age group in newly structured seven Provinces of Nepal by different background characteristics using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) Data, 2016. Anthropometric indicators are far worse in Madhesh and Karnali provinces than the national average. The highest share of stunted children is in Karnali Province whose size at birth is very small (70.0%) against the national average of 36 percent. Children in the poorest quintile and born from illiterate mothers of Madhesh Province and Karnali Province have highly suffered from stunting. Data shows that children born to illiterate mothers are highly wasted in Madhesh Province (23.8%). Underweight increased with an increase in the age of the children; increases with birth order in all Provinces. Except for Gandaki Province, underweight is more common in rural areas than in urban areas. The prevalence of underweight children is the highest in the poorest quintile of Madhesh Province i. e. 50 percent as compared to the national average of 27 percent. High birth order has significantly contributed to worsening childhood nutrition. The statistical test infers that childhood stunting and underweight are in aggregate strongly related to all variables except sex while wasting is strongly associated with only children’s age and their mother’s education. The author suggests applying provincial policies and programs based on the findings to tackle their poor anthropometric indicators.</p> Ram Prasad Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 Research Management Cell (RMC), Mahendra Morang Adarsh Multiple Campus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 https://www.nepjol.info/index.php/JKI/article/view/53074 Wed, 10 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000