Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences <p>Official peer-reviewed journal of <a title="MMIHS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences</a>, under&nbsp;<a title="NEHCO-Nepal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">NEHCO-Nepal</a><span style="text-decoration: underline;">.</span></p> <p>Submit your&nbsp;manuscripts&nbsp;at <a href=""></a></p> <p>Free full text articles are available</p> en-US <p>© Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences (JMMIHS)</p> <p>All rights reserved to JMMIHS. Any part of this journal cannot be reproduced, or transmitted in any form including electronic mail, photocopying or recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the publisher.</p> (Dr Sujan Babu Marahatta) (Rajeev Mishra) Mon, 07 Aug 2023 14:55:01 +0000 OJS 60 Staff-Student Exchange between MMIHS and Bournemouth University (UK) <p>The world is rapidly becoming a smaller place with globalisation occurring everywhere.&nbsp; The process of internationalising higher education institutions through partnerships like ours, brings benefits to both MMIHS and BU and to both staff and students. For the latter, it offers new ideas, alternative ways of thinking, insights in the other people’s value systems and cultures, etc.&nbsp; It equips students and staff with knowledge, skills and dispositions to work in culturally diverse and international contexts, providing them with a wider diversity of knowledge and greater understanding of global issues and challenges.&nbsp; In short, the partnership offers many opportunities to gain new experiences, explore new sources and perspectives, and improve their cross-cultural capabilities and, ultimately, their employability</p> S. Marahatta, P. Regmi, A. Knight, J. Kuncova, E. Asbridge, D.P. Khanal, E. van Teijlingen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 History of Pharmacy Education in Nepal <p><strong>Background: </strong>Tribhuvan University, institute of Medicine started a two and half years’ proficiency certificate level (PCL) course in the year of 1972. This was the initiation of pharmacy education in Nepal where student could enroll after completing the school level education. Four federal Government Universities, two state Government Universities and two health science academics are conducting Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) program in 27 pharmacy colleges with the enrollment of 815 students in academic year 2023/24. More than 55 institutions are conducting the 3 years Diploma of Pharmacy course under the affiliation of Council of Technical and Vocational Education (CTEVT) enrolling 2200 students yearly. </p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The objective of this paper is to document the history of pharmacy education in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>We searched using the following terms: Pharmacy education in Nepal or Pharmacy education. Journal Article English (language) in NepJOL (Nepal Journal Online), PubMed. We also searched Google Scholar, HINARI. Reports were obtained from the references of the articles used for analysis. Inclusion criteria for published studies were those subjects who were assessed for the pharmacy education. Articles were reviewed if they were original research and the review articles. The review was limited to English language articles published in scientific literature from any part of the world. We used articles published up to May 2023. Exclusion criteria were studies that reported the pharmacy education only, the articles identified were reviewed. Data obtained were described in text and table.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The first pharmacy course was PCL pharmacy in TU, Institute of medicine started 51 years ago. The first B Pharm course was started in 1994 in Kathmandu University. Now, there are 27 colleges conducting B Pharm course and 55 colleges are conducting Diploma Pharmacy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The history of pharmacy education in Nepal is just 50 years old. Yet its achievements are remarkable.</p> D.P. Khanal, S. Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Health Related Quality of Life of Hypertensive Patients attending a Tertiary Level Hospital in Kathmandu <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypertension among cardiovascular disease is one of the major components of non-communicable disease emerging as a global public health problem leading the risk for disability and death globally impairing health related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of study was to find out the health related quality of life of hypertensive clients attending a tertiary level hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted at Manmohan Cardiothoracic Vascular and Transplant Center among 153 hypertensive clients attending outpatient department. Simple random sampling technique was used to collect data. Face to face interview was done for data collection, using structured questionnaire that included socio-demographic variables, health related variables, lifestyle related variables and RAND Short Form (SF)-36 questionnaire. Data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>More than half of respondents (61.4%) had good level of health related quality of life in physical component score while 86.3% had good level of health related quality of life in mental component score. The level of HRQoL was significantly associated with health related variables such as comorbidities, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and lifestyle related variables such as sleeping pattern, type of exercise in physical component and sleeping pattern in the mental component.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The level of HRQoL of hypertensive clients is found to be good. Hypertensive clients could improve HRQoL through prevention and treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.</p> R. Chhetri, B. Bista, P. Pandeya, S.P. Khanal, A. Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Patient and Public Engagement in Health Research: Learning from UK Ideas <p>One of the new ideas in health and social care research in the UK is around involving patients and the general public in all aspects of research.&nbsp; This paper led by seven MSc students from Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences in Nepal.&nbsp; They attended Bournemouth University modules as part of the Erasmus+ exchange programme in 2022 and worked with two UK-based academics.&nbsp; The authors outline the thinking behind this process, and offer an example.&nbsp; They address its importance in improving the quality of the research as well as adding value to its societal relevance.</p> S. Khatiwada, P. Gautam, A. Koju, B. Niraula, G. Khanal, A. Sitaula, J. Lamichhane, P. Regmi, E. van Teijlingen Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Behavioral Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) amoung Secondary and Undergraduate Level Students of Kathmandu Metropolitan City <p><strong>Background</strong>: Most NCDs are strongly associated and causally linked with four particular behavioral risk factors: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, and the harmful use of alcohol. The prevalence of NCDs is related to unhealthy behaviors and practices typically initiated in adolescence.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of the study was to assess the occurrence of behavioral risk factors associated with NCDs among secondary and undergraduate level students of Kathmandu Metropolitan City through identification of risk of smoking and alcohol, consumption of fruits and vegetables and level of physical activities.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: A quantitative cross sectional descriptive study was done from September to December, 2015 among 249 youths of age 14-28 years studying at various school and colleges in Kathmandu Metropolitan city.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study findings were that 15.6% were smoker, 32.53% alcohol users, 38.96% consumed fruits at least once a day with mean 1.74 serving, 83.53% consumed vegetables at least once a day with mean 2.69 serving, 22.49% and 36.95% doing vigorous and moderate intensity physical activity at least 3 or more times in a week, 30 minutes at a time. The Chi-square test showed the association of sex of participants, age group of participants, permanent residence, living with family, studying in public and private school/college and family income with different behavioral risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The study showed high proportions of participants were at risk of developing NCDs. Male were found to be harmful use of alcohol and smoking, and consuming less fruits and vegetables, and female were found to be doing less physical activity. Both male and female were at higher risk, but their behavioral risk seemed to be different according to the sex difference.</p> A. Acharya, S. Khanal, K.B. Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacotherapeutic Management of Pressure Wound in Sushma Koirala Memorial Hospital <p><strong>Background: </strong>Pressure ulcers are the serious kinds of wounds that get developed within the skin tissues. They affect larger surface areas of the body resulting severe pain in the infected body parts of the patients. Pressure wound, thus has been presented as one of the major health problem worldwide. This study was aimed to find out different aspects of pressure ulcer cases and outcomes in Sushma Koirala Memorial Hospital (SKMH). Along with this, the study was targeted to study major affected body part, role of diet in healing wounds, grades of pressure ulcers and medicines used during the management and treatment of such chronic wounds.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive, unicentric, retrospective study was conducted in 2018 at Sushma Koirala Memorial Hospital. A total of 163 patient records from October 2016 to October 2018 were reviewed. The data was entered in SPSS 16 version for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Pressure ulcers were common among people from the age group 21-40 years. The males were more vulnerable than female.&nbsp; Most people stayed for 41-60 days while the most affected body part in many patients was the sacral region. Third grade sacral region pressure wound was mostly found in the admitted patients. Wounds and injuries were common cause for development of pressure ulcers. The usage of third generation cephalosporin- ceftriaxone was predominantly found during surgery as well as post-surgery. During surgery, most commonly used medications include fentanyl, paracetamol, midazolam and propofol. After surgery, analgesics like ketorolac, combination of ibuprofen and paracetamol were frequently used. For post-surgical condition, ceftriaxone, ascorbic acid, ranitidine and pantoprazole were mostly used. Patients with pressure ulcers were advised to take high protein diet.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study showed sacral region was most affected body part and grade 3 pressure wound were predominant in most of the admitted patients. Ceftriaxone was mostly prescribed antibiotics and combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen was mostly prescribed for analgesic effects.</p> M. Bajracharya, R. Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness on Mental Illness among Adults of a Community in Ilam <p><strong>Background</strong>: Mental illness is an increasing public health problem globally, especially in developing countries which affects overall quality of life. It is a neglected area of health which is highly stigmatized. The objective of the study was to find out awareness on mental illness among community people of Ilam District.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 80 respondents of Ilam District using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Face to face interview technique was used to collect data by using self- developed structured questionnaire. Data management, analysis and interpretation as done using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS and represented in tabulated form.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The findings of the study showed that (61.2 %) of the respondents had adequate level of awareness. Adequate level of awareness was present on meaning (71.2%), common type of mental illness in adults (77.50%), treatment (76.2%) and continue medicine and timely follow up are relapse prevention (96.2%). However inadequate awareness was present on brain injury as a biological risk factors (20.0%), Seeing/hearing things that no one else can see or hear (7.5%) and violent behavior (10%) as sign symptoms and impairment of family relation as complications (31.3.%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed that more than 3/5 of the respondents had adequate level of awareness on mental illness.</p> S. Giri, P.K. Chhetri, P.G. Sherpa Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Mon, 07 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000