Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences <p>Official peer-reviewed journal of <a title="MMIHS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences</a>, under&nbsp;<a title="NEHCO-Nepal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">NEHCO-Nepal</a><span style="text-decoration: underline;">.</span></p> <p>Submit your&nbsp;manuscripts&nbsp;at <a href=""></a></p> <p>Free full text articles are available</p> en-US <p>© Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences (JMMIHS)</p> <p>All rights reserved to JMMIHS. Any part of this journal cannot be reproduced, or transmitted in any form including electronic mail, photocopying or recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the publisher.</p> (Dr Sujan Babu Marahatta) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 07 Aug 2020 09:31:24 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of Patients’ Knowledge, Perception and Safety Regarding MRI Scan <p><strong>Correction: </strong>The page numbers on this article were changed <strong>from</strong> 4-20 <strong>to</strong> 3-19 on 31/08/2020.</p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: We presume that the knowledge of patients about Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) scan is of utmost importance for smooth workflow, patient comfort, patients’ safety and to mitigate patients’ compliance and save valuable scan time. Therefore, the purpose ofthis study was to determine the awareness of patients undergoing MRI scan regarding Knowledge, Perception and Safety.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital from April to September, 2018. Total of 310 patients referred to undergo MRI scan were assessed by a questionnaire form covering 4 parts: Part 1- aimed to gather the socio demographic data such as age, sex, occupation and educational status of patients, Part 2- included the knowledge regarding MRI and its safety, Part 3- comprised the patient perception before MRI scan and Part 4 constituted the patient perception after MRI scan.The form was filled by an investigator oneself in a face to face interview with the patients.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 310 patients, 35.2% were illiterate and 19.4% graduated from high school. Majority of 85.5% patients answered that MRI uses harmful ionizing radiation like CT scan and radiography. Almost 43 patients who answered MRI functions in disease treatment also answered decreased in pain after MRI scan (Male = 15 and Female = 28) were in age group between 25 years and 50 years. This study also revealed that majority of 26.8% (i.e. n = 83) patients faced problem as claustrophobia along with anxiety during the scan, out of which 13 patients have history of previous MRI scan.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In our study decrease in pain was higher in diagnosis and treatment answer. Majority of the patients faced anxiety along with claustrophobia during the MRI scan. Assessment of patient knowledge, perception and safety regarding MRI scan can be the key to increase patient compliance and save valuable scan time.</p> Susmita Shrestha, Bibek Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Traditional Healing Practices Using Herbal Dosage Forms and Other Agents by Magar Community of Gulmi District, Nepal <p><strong>Correction:</strong> The page numbers were changed <strong>from</strong> 24-41 <strong>to</strong> 20-38 on 31/08/2020.</p> <p><strong>Background:</strong> The distinctive climatic and ecological conditions make Gulmi a unique existence for a large Biodiversity. For thousands of years, Magars are living in this area and they are mostly dependent on agriculture. They follow their own ancient traditional healing practices. But socio-cultural activities of the Magars community are directly and indirectly related to the plants resources. Therefore, this study mainly focuses on the survey of traditional healing practice including plant used and dhami-jhakri of Magars community of Gulmi district Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The main objective of the study was to explore the traditional healing practices and identify the plants used by Magar Community of Gulmi District, Nepal for their healing practices.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>It was descriptive cross sectional study. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires and face to face interview with the healers of Magar community of Gulmi, district Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: Various belief of causes of diseases on traditional healers were found. They were vayu-batas,masan, bhut-pret, Grahadasha, Boksi, Pitri risako, kul deuta risako etc . Moreover the diseases were diagnosed by Observation of eye, Observation of nadi, Phukphak, Jantarmantar, Bali, Puja, Akcheta herne etc.</p> <p>Spiritual based four healing techniques and/or approaches, Phukphak, Bali, Jantar-mantar and kul bigreko, used by traditional healers. Healers were using 31 plant species belonged to 23 families for preparing different poly-herbal formulations to cure various ailments like arthritis, wound and injury, dysentery, fever, snake bite, jaundice, diabetes, hypertension , asthma, stone remover, eye infection, menstrual disorder, burn, allergy, toothache, fever, headache, pneumonia etc.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All together 31 species of plants of 25 families were found to be used as traditional medicines formulation during the study. 24 different types of formulations have been observed throughout the research. Five different types of dosage forms were used. <em>Nelumbo nucifera </em>was widely used for the treatment of Jaundice than other allopathic medicine.</p> D P Khanal, Bechan Raut, Yamuna T Magar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Associated for Caesarean Section among Mothers Attending in Teaching Hospital, Chitwan <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Correction: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The page numbers were changed <strong>from</strong> 57-67 <strong>to</strong> 39-49 on 31/08/2020.<br></span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Background</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: Cesarean section (CS) rate has increased rapidly over the past two decades in world. It is serious concern for public health experts globally. Various medical and non-medical factors, such as maternal socio-demographics, are found to be responsible for this upsurge. Like in other countries, the rate of caesarean sections has increased in Nepal as well. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the factors behind this increase. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Objectives</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: To identify the factors associate for caesarean section among mothers attending at teaching hospital, Chitwan </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Methods: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">A cross sectional analytical study was conducted using total enumerative sampling technique in the maternity ward of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital. Interview was done with closed ended Questionnaire for data collection, a total number of 139 mothers after 24 hours cesarean section (CS). </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Results</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: The study shows that, nearly three- quarters (71.2%) of CS were performed as an emergency. There are mainly fetal, maternal and placental indication for cesarean section. The most frequent indications were: previous cesarean section (22.3%), thick Meconium stained liquor (12.2%), fetal distress (10.6%) and oligohydramnios (7.2%).</span></p> Indira Adhikari Poudel, B Bhattarai, P Dhakal Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge on Uterine Prolapse and its Risk Factors among Married Women in Suklagandaki Municipality, Tanahun Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study <p><strong>Correction:</strong> The page numbers were changed <strong>from</strong> 68-84 <strong>to</strong> 50-66 on 31/08/2020.</p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong> Not available.</p> Durga Khadka Mishra, Saru Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Azithromycin and Cefixime against Salmonella Typhi Infection <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Correction:</span></strong> <span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The page numbers were changed</span><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;"> from </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">84-97</span><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;"> to</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;"> 67-80 on 31/08/2020.</span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Introduction: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Enteric fever is systemic infection caused by the <em>Salmonella enteric serovars typhi </em>and <em>para typhi </em>A B and C. It is the significant cause of morbidity and mortality. It occurs in all parts of the world where water supplied and sanitation is substandard. Annually, it is estimated that more than 10 million cases and 100000 deaths are caused by typhoid fever. Regarding to the strains, a high prevalence of <em>S. typhi </em>and <em>S. paratyphi. </em>A strains in Nepal that showed resistance against the quinolone nalidixic acid (MIC&gt; 256 mcg/ml with a corresponding decreased susceptibility against fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin (MIC&gt;0.125 mcg/ml. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Objectives: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The main objective of study was to compare the efficacy of Azithromycin and Cefixime in treatment of typhoid fever. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Methodology: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The in vitro antibacterial activity of azithromycin and Cefixime against 4 isolated colonies of <em>Salmonella typhi </em>from reference of <em>salmonella typhi </em>ATCC no. 14028 and blood culture isolates from three different hospitals was evaluated by disc diffusion (well) method. 0.25 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 4 ppm, 8 ppm, 32 ppm, 128 ppm concentration of both Azithromycin and Cefixime was used. The zone of inhibition was measured and data was analyzed using Excel. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Results: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">In all isolates of <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, the zone of inhibition shown by both Azithromycin and Cefixime is same at low concentration (0.25ppm, 0.5ppm) but with increasing in concentration there is increase in difference in zone of inhibition shown by them. The zone of inhibition shown by Cefixime is greater in high concentration as compared to zone of inhibition shown by Azithromyci. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Conclusion: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Our result indicate Cefixime is better than Azithromycin in therapeutic option for enteric fever.</span></p> Raj Kumar Thapa, Sagar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Drug Prescription Pattern of Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Type-II Diabetes with or without Hypertension <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Correction: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">The page numbers were changed<strong> from</strong> 98-100 <strong>to</strong> 81-93 on 31/08/2020.</span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Background: </span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Obesity is regarded as worldwide health problems which may put a person at a higher risk of serious health conditions leading to morbidity and mortality. Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases of which hypertension and type-2 diabetes mellitus are the most important. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity together form 24% of the global risk for mortality.</span> <span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Cardiovascular diseases related to these life-style disorders has major effect on life expectancy and impaired quality of life.</span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Objectives</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: The study was done to evaluate the drug prescribing pattern of type - 2 diabetes and hypertension in both obese and non-obese patients. Along with it, this study also attempt to find the contributing factors associated with it and different types of drugs selected in those conditions respectively. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Method</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2074 at Manmohan memorial teaching hospital. A total of 101 out-patient were interviewed, measurements were done to calculate BMI and waist to hip ratio and their prescriptions were reviewed. For Treatment Guideline of HTN, JNC 8[20] was followed and Updated Treatment Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) [21] was followed in case of diabetes. </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Resul</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">t: Among 101 patients studied, 58 were males and 43 were females. Regarding physical activity, only 26.7% of total patients were involved in morning walk and 3% in yoga, remaining 71% of study patients did not involve in any kind of physical exercise. Regarding food habits, 22.8% were smokers, 49.5% were alcoholics and 96% were non-vegetarians. Waist to hip ratio was also observed higher in both males (35.6%) and females (39.6%). Among the101 total participants, the age group of 41-55 years were found to be more obese than other age group (34 in numbers) followed by age group 56-70 which were 16 in numbers. Male patients were more obese (41) than female patients (31). Highest number (31) of the obese patients were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, followed by second highest number (26) of patients diagnosed with hypertension and 15 patients with both the conditions. The commonly prescribed oral hypoglycemic drugs were metformin (35.60%) followed by glimepiride (24.80%). Among anti-hypertensive drugs, amlodipine (22.80%) was most common in prescriptions followed by losartan (18.80%) and Telmisartan (17.80%). </span></p> <p class="Default"><strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">Conclusion</span></strong><span style="font-size: 11.5pt;">: The results of the present study show that higher number of male patients (41) were obese than female patients (31). About 30% of patients were found obese-diabetic, 26% were obese-hypertensive and 15% were with both obese diabetic and hypertensive condition. Among oral hypoglycemic drugs, metformin (35.60%) was mostly prescribed followed by glimepiride (24.80%). Among antihypertensives, amlodipine (22.8%) was mostly prescribed followed by losartan (18.80%). Atorvastatin (11.9%) was mostly prescribed oral hypolipidemic agent.</span></p> Mijala Bajracharya, S Nakarmi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Public Health is Truly Interdisciplinary <p>No abstract available.</p> Sharada Prasad Wasti, Edwin van Teijlingen, Padam Simkhada Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences Fri, 07 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000