Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences <p>Official peer-reviewed journal of <a title="MMIHS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences</a>, under&nbsp;<a title="NEHCO-Nepal" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">NEHCO-Nepal</a><span style="text-decoration: underline;">.</span></p> <p>Submit your&nbsp;manuscripts&nbsp;at <a href=""></a></p> <p>Free full text articles are available</p> en-US <p>© Journal of Manmohan Memorial Institute of Health Sciences (JMMIHS)</p> <p>All rights reserved to JMMIHS. Any part of this journal cannot be reproduced, or transmitted in any form including electronic mail, photocopying or recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the publisher.</p> (Dr Sujan Babu Marahatta) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 14 May 2019 12:36:49 +0000 OJS 60 Nepal’s Bumpy Transition to Federalism: Implications for the Health System <p>Not available.</p> Simon Rushton, Sudha Ghimire, Sujan Babu Marahatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 06:58:07 +0000 Knowledge, Attitude and Preventive Practices Regarding Hypertension among 40 Years and above Population Residing in Mahadevsthan, Kathmandu <p><strong>Background: </strong>Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases in both developed and developing countries. In recent time the epidemiological transition of countries from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases had increased its importance. Hypertension had been ranked as a top five cause of mortality in Nepal. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is a crucial element ofhypertension control, but little information is available from developing countries where hypertension has lately been recognized as a major health problem.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess knowledge level, attitude and preventive practices regarding hypertension among 40 years and above population residing in Mahadevsthan, Kathmandu.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A cross sectional analytical study was conducted using Probability Proportionate Sampling (PPS) in 9 wards of Mahadevsthan, Kathmandu. Interview was done with closed ended Questionnaire for data collection among 165 respondents aged 40 years and above.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The study shows that the distribution of hypertension among respondents to be 22.4%. The mean age of respondents was 55 years with maximum of 97 years. The average knowledge score was 12.9 out of total 41 score. More than half of respondents i.e. 52.1% had a good knowledge on hypertension.</p> Elina Khatri, SB Mahabharata, RK Yadav, N Devkota ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Study of Menstrual Hygiene Issues between Public and Private School Going Adolescent Girls in Kathmandu Valley <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Menstruation is part a of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature at the time of puberty. During menstrual period, woman bleeds from her uterus via the vagina. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in our Nepali society. So, good hygienic practices such as the use of sanitary pads and adequate cleaning of the genital areas are essential during menstrual period.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>The comparative study was carried out with adolescent girls studying in public and private schools in Kathmandu valley. A total of 100 adolescent girls, 50 from public school and another 50 from private schools were selected for the study and 25 from each group were taken for quantitative study as well. Two focus group discussions and five key-in-depth interviews were also done to identify the qualitative findings. Ethical approval was taken from NHRC. Quantitative data from the survey was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The age of the respondents ranges from 11 to 18 years. The mean age at menarche was 12.37 years in both public and private school adolescent girls. There is a statistically significant difference on the overall score of practice during menstruation between public and private school going adolescent girls.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Private school adolescent girls were more knowledgeable and maintain menstrual hygiene better as compared to public school adolescent girls.</p> Ashok Pandey, Narayan Bahadur Mahotra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 09:00:01 +0000 Post Partum Depression among Women Attending Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Selected Hospitals of Nepal <p><strong>Background:</strong> The postpartum non-psychotic depression is one of the most common complications of childbearing affecting about 10-15 % of women and is representative prevalence to consider as a public health problem affecting women and their families. The major objectives of this study were to assess magnitude of postpartum depression and to identify possible reasons.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>Mixed method was adopted for the study. Individual interview questionnaire andNepali version Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used as quantitative tool among 260 women attending MCH clinic for vaccinating their children under the age of one from &nbsp;purposively selected three Tarai hospitals in Nepal. 248 respondents were included in the analysis. For the qualitative part, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), In-depth interview (IDI) and Key Informants Interview (KII) were used. Data analysis was done usingSPSS (20). Chi-square test was done to show strength of association. Theme building was done for qualitative analysis. Findings from both studies have been triangulated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 248 respondents 177 (71.4%) of them showed no signs of depression however, &nbsp;in the 71 (28.6%) respondents&nbsp; the postpartum depressionwas found through EPDS. The prevalence of postpartum depression was seen in all kinds of socio- economic and demographic characteristics but varied &nbsp;in the magnitude.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Women from anywhere can be sufferers of the post partum depression and the findings of this study would be an important evidence for an individual, family, community and policy makers and programme designers/implementers in managing this &nbsp;problem properly.</p> Durga Mishra, Dhanedra Veer Shakya, Ram Sharan Pathak, Smriti Mishra ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 10:29:25 +0000 Experiences of Women Affected with Uterine Prolapse: A Qualitative Study from Baitadi District <p><strong>Background: </strong>Women with uterine prolapse often suffer in silence as it negatively influences their physical, psychological as well as social well-being. This study aimed to explore the social and reproductive health problems associated with uterine prolapse.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Using a purposive sampling, we conducted 16 in-depth interviews with uterine prolapse affected women in October 2016. Semi-structuredinterviews took place in women’s familiar environment i.e. the participant’s house in Baitadi district.Interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed according to semantic and latent thematic analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The theme describing the women’s experiencesregarding uterine prolapse was labeled as ‘experience of living with uterine prolapse’. The theme constitutes three categories: physical, psychological and social health. The category physical health constitutes five subcategories that represent how physical health of women was affected by uterine prolapse and their consequences: pain, discharge and itching, bleeding and dizziness, difficulty in walking, lifting and sitting, reduction in food intake. The category psychological health comprises three subcategories that define women’s feeling, thought and behaviour towards their prolapsed uterus: anxiety, stress and depressive feeling, fear of death, cancer and surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All physical, psychological and social aspects of women’s health are affected by uterine prolapse. Due to prolapse walking, sitting, working and lifting activities are become challenging for women. Women can become victims of violence due to their disability and less productivity. Uterine prolapse seriously compromises the sexual life of women affected.&nbsp;</p> RK Thagunna, DK Yadav, RK Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 10:42:42 +0000 Knowledge on Children’s Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among School Teachers in Chitwan <p><strong>Background:</strong> Attention deficit hyperactivity&nbsp;disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Children with ADHD are at risk for psychological, social and academic problems so that teacher’s knowledge on ADHD affects the child’s academic and psychological difficulties. Objective of this study was to identify the knowledge about ADHD in children among school teachers and identify association between knowledge and selected variables.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We used descriptive and cross sectional research design. Structured self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Total 9public and private schools wererandomly selected for study. Calculated sample size was 380. However, 328 teachers returned the questionnaire (response rate was 86%). Collected data were entered in SPSS for analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analysis of data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among 328 teachers, 68.3% had inadequate knowledge while 31.7% had adequate knowledge on ADHD. &nbsp;Age and years of teaching were significantly associated with knowledge of ADHD, however, sex of the teachers and type of school were not associated with knowledge of ADHD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Knowledge of ADHD among school teachers is still inadequate which suggests the need for effective health education programme on ADHD for understanding and managing the behavioural and psychological problems caused by ADHD among school children.</p> S Lamichhane, P Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 10:52:45 +0000 Contributing Factors of Non-Adherence to Treatment among the Patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Background:</strong> The Multiple therapeutic component and need for life long treatment makes diabetic adherence a difficult task. We took this study to identify the Non adherence Patient to the&nbsp; Diabetic treatment, and to assess the contributing factors for non adherence.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A four questions preformed questionnaire -the Morisky medication adherence scale (MMAS) and Structured questionnaire were used to assess the contributing factors of Non adherence to diabetic treatment in 214 patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus which was carried out on Kathmandu Diabetic and Thyroid Center, Alka Hospital and Endocrine Care Center, Kupandol following Probability simple random sampling technique.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 55.14% of diabetic client were non adherent. Major contributing factor of non-adherence to diabetic treatment were ignorance for life style modification i.e.&nbsp; 83.78%. Among them, 59.48% didn't take the prescribed medicine in time ,most of them 85.71% didn't follow diabetic diet and less than half (46.61%) didn’t monitored blood glucose level regularly due to poor self discipline. Gender, occupation and educational status were the significant contributors to Non adherence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings showed high percentage of&nbsp; non adherent&nbsp; diabetic&nbsp; client and enlighten the various factors causing non adherence. It focuses the need for one to one counselling and constant motivation frequently to ensure better adherence.</p> B Bhattarai, B Bista, S Shrestha, B Budhathoki, B Dhamala ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 11:04:01 +0000 Phytochemical Screening, Biological Studiesand GC-MS Analysis of Extract of Biden pilosa L <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the research work was to carry out the extraction of areal parts of <em>Biden pilosa L</em> by hydroalcholic and Hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone mixture followed by qualitative phytochemical analysis, acute oral toxicity test, anti-inflammatory test and GC-MS analysis of the extracts.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The hydro-alcoholic and HEA(n-hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone) extraction was done from aerial parts using ethanol and water in the ratio 70:30 and n-hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone in the ratio of 1:1:1 (HEA extract) &nbsp;respectively. Acute oral toxicity testwas performed OECD guidelines. The single spot in TLC was obtained using n-hexane as solvent for HEA fraction and finally phytocomponents were identified by GC-MS present in that spot.In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was performed by human RBC membrane stabilization method.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The phytochemical test results obtained indicate that hydro-alcoholic extract of aerial part of <em>Bidens pilosa</em> L. possess alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins whereas HEA extract possess alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins. Both hydro-alcoholic and HEA extracts were found to be safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg BW of the mice. Both extracts showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in a concentration dependent manner. The GC-MS analysis of HEA extract of aerial parts showed the presence of the sixteen different compounds from partially separated extract from TLC plates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Hydro-alcoholic extract of aerial part of <em>Bidens pilosa L</em>. possess alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins whereas HEA extract possess alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins. Both hydro-alcoholic and HEA extracts were found to be safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg BW of the mice. The GC-MS analysis of HEA extract of aerial parts showed the presence of the sixteen different compounds.</p> Dharma Prasad Khanal, Rupa Rana, Bechan Raut, Rabindra Prasad Dhakal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 14 May 2019 11:14:06 +0000