Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council <p>The official journal of the Nepal Agricultural Research Council. Also available on its own <a title="JNARC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> <p>Authors can now submit articles online - <a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal prior to submitting, or if already registered can simply <a href="/index.php/index/login">log in</a> and begin the 5 step process. Reviewers can also&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal.</p> Nepal Agricultural Research Council en-US Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2392-4535 A Dwarfing Gene sd1-d (Dee-geo-woo-gen dwarf) on Lodging Resistance and Related Traits in Rice <p>A dwarfing allele at the <em>sd1</em> locus on chromosome 1 in rice, <em>sd1-d,</em> has been playing important role for developing lodging-resistant and high-yielding<em> indica</em> varieties IR8 and IR36. The dominant allele <em>SD1</em> for long culm at the locus is differentiated into <em>SD1-in</em> and <em>SD1-ja</em> that are harbored in <em>indica</em> and <em>japonica</em> subspecies, respectively. The <em>sd1-d</em> of IR36 was substituted with <em>SD1-in</em> or <em>SD1-ja</em> by 17 backcrosses with IR36, and two isogenic tall lines were developed by using an<em> indica</em> variety IR5867 and a <em>japonica</em> one ‘Koshihikari’ as donors, which were denoted by “5867-36” and “Koshi-36’’, respectively. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of dwarfing gene <em>sd1-d </em>on lodging resistance and related traits, compared with <em>SD1-in</em> and <em>SD1-ja</em>. Two isogenic lines and IR36 were cultivated in the field of the Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, Japan during 2017. Regarding index of lodging (g·cm/g × 100), genotypes were in the order: 5867-36 (97.4) &gt; Koshi-36 (74.1) &gt; IR36 (46.0) on the 21st-day after 80%-heading, and they were in the same order on 10th-day after 80%-heading. The 4th-panicle length (cm) was in the order: 5867-36 (118.7) &gt; Koshi-36 (97.6) &gt; IR36 (78.6). Similarly, the 4th-top weight (g) was in the order: 5867-36 (12.2) &gt; Koshi-36 (10.2) &gt; IR36 (9.6). The highest breaking strength (g) was recorded in IR36 (1649) followed by 5867-36 (1493) whereas the lowest breaking strength (g) was recorded in Koshi-36 (1360). Consequently, it is inferred that <em>sd1-d</em> enhances lodging resistance due to the decreases in the length and weight above the 4th-internode as well as the increase of breaking strength. The effect of <em>SD1-in</em> on lodging resistance is lower than that of <em>SD1-ja</em>.</p> Mukunda Bhattarai Misa Kamimukai Birendra Bahadur Rana Hiroki Oue Shinji Matsumura Masayuki Murai Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 1 9 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36913 Morphological and Yield Traits of Pole-Type French Bean Genotypes <p>Understanding the phenotypic variation and association between the grain yield, and other agronomic traits in French bean genotypes is important for its varietal improvement program. Field experiments were conducted during 2018 and 2019 cropping season at Horticulture Research Station, Dailekh, Karnali Province of Nepal to evaluate pole-type French bean genotypes for plant morphological characters, yield and the association between the agronomic traits. Twelve (Bhatte, Chaumase, Dhankute Chhirke, WP Con Bean, White OP, Dhundi Raj, LB-31, LB-37, LB-39, Madhav, Chinese Long, and Trishuli) pole-type French bean genotypes were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Pole-type French bean genotypes showed the significant variation for plant morphological traits and grain yield. Genotype LB-31 exhibited significantly the highest pod number (78.0/plant), green pod weight (675.0 g/plant), green pod yield (36.1 t/ha), and dry grain yield (2.4 t/ha). Following LB-31 genotype, genotype Chaumase and LB-39 produced the highest green pod yield (31.3 t/ha and 31.2 t/ha, respectively). The number of clusters per plant, pod number per plant and green pod weight per plant exhibited the significant positive correlation with green pod and dry grain yield. Hence, these traits can be selected to improve the yield potential of pole-type French bean genotypes. Pole type French bean genotypes used in the experiment were well adapted to the study area. Therefore, the high yielding genotypes viz LB-31, Chaumase and LB-39 could be recommended to use as seed source for on-farm production in Mid-Western Nepal.</p> Binod Prasad Luitel Santosh Kalauni Bishnu Bahadur Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 10 21 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36914 Characterization of Gladiolus Genotypes under Khumaltar Condition of Nepal <p>Seven promising genotypes of Gladiolus were experimented during the two consecutive years of 2014/15 and 2015/16 in the field of Horticulture Research Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (1332 masl) to evaluate the performances of their vegetative, floral and corm characteristics. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. The treatments consisted of seven genotypes (ARSDG-01, ARSDG-02, ARSDG-03, ARSDG-04, ARSDG-05, ARSDG-06 and ARSDG-07). Fifty-four corms of each genotype were planted in the crop geometry of 25 x 25 cm. A total of sixteen characters were observed. The pooled results of two years data indicated significantly different except plant height, spike length, rachis length, number of cormels per mother corm and individual corm weight due to the effects of seven evaluated genotypes. Genotype ARSDG-04 was proven as the earliest one for days to the first spike emergence (73.00 days), the full spike emergence (76.50 days) and the first unfurling of florets (83 days). In contrast, ARSDG-01 and ARSDG-06 were late genotypes for the same three characters. The number of florets/spikes was considerably high in two genotypes viz., ARSDG-06 (21.00) and ARSDG-03 (20.50). The number of daughter corms/mother corm was significantly high in ARSDG-05 (3.10) and ARSDG-04 (2.92) whereas it was minimally low in ARSDG-02 (1.66) and ARSDG-07 (1.69). Summing up all sixteen characters of evaluated genotypes, ARSDG-04 as the first, ARSDG-05 as the second and ARSDG-03 as the third have respectively emerged as superior ones as opposed by those of the rest of evaluated genotypes of Gladiolus.</p> Mira Dhakal Tul Bahadur Poon Pratistha Adhikari Suprabha Pandey Shandesh Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 22 29 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36915 Rapeseed Yield in a Maize – Rapeseed Cropping Pattern over a Long-Term Nutrient Management Experiment <p>A long-term soil fertility experiment in maize (<em>Zea mays</em>) – rapeseed (<em>Brassica campestris</em> var. toria) cropping system was initiated in Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Directorate of Agricultural Research (DoAR), Lumbini Province, Banke, Khajura (the then Regional Agricultural Research Station) since 1994. The field experiment was designed in the randomized complete block including nutrient as treatment at nine rates (0–0–0 nitrogen – phosphorus – potash (N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O) kg/ha, 60–0–0 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 60–40–0 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 60–40–20 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha, 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + 30 cm stover from previous maize, 60–40–20 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + 30 cm stover from previous maize, farmyard manure 10 t/ha and 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + farmyard manure 6 t/ha) and was replicated three times. Rapeseed crop yield attributes including days to flowering, plant height, siliqua per plant, 1000 grains weight, seed yield and straw yield and soil fertility parameters including soil pH, soil organic matter content, soil total nitrogen content, soil available phosphorus content and soil available potash content were monitored from 1994 to 2018 growing seasons. There was a significant effect (p &lt; 0.01) of nutrient treatments in the days to flowering, plant height, siliqua per plant, 1000 grains weight, seed yield and straw yield. The highest mean seed yield (445 kg/ha) was obtained from the nutrient application at the rate of 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + farmyard manure 6 t/ha during 1994 – 2018. Yield trend analysis revealed nutrient treatment with farmyard manure both FYM 10 t/ha and 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + FYM 6 t/ha had significant positive (p &lt; 0.001, R<sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.30) trend of rapeseed seed yield with the maximum 1000 kg/ha rapeseed yield in 2018. Soil analysis results after rapeseed harvest in 2018 showed two nutrient treatments including farmyard manure had significant high soil organic matter (SOM &gt; 1%), soil available phosphorus content (P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> &gt; 55 kg/ha) and soil available potash content (K<sub>2</sub>O &gt; 550 kg/ha). In the long-term, integrated nutrient management applying 30–20–10 N–P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>–K<sub>2</sub>O kg/ha + FYM 6 t/ha was the optimal nutrient management option for rapeseed production in maize – rapeseed cropping system at Khajura and similar agro-ecological conditions.</p> Gautam Shrestha Bandhu Raj Baral Ram Das Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 30 43 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36917 The Major Chemical Constituents of Teosinte Grown as Mono and Mixed Cropping with Legumes in different Sowing Date <p>Teosinte (<em>Euchlaena mexicana</em>) is one of the most popular summer growing cereal fodder, yet with comparatively low level of chemical constituents. The quality of this fodder can be improved through better by cultivation management including sowing dates and mixed cropping with legume. The main objective of this study was to determine the forage quality as reflected by major chemical constituents of pure stands of teosinte and binary mixtures of teosinte with commonly available legumes under different dates of sowing. Four fodder combinations; teosinte mono crop, teosinte+ cowpea, tesosinte+ rice bean, and teosinte+ lablab bean was arranged to cultivate in three different date of sowing in the field in a Split Plot Design with 5 replications. Main plot treatments were different sowing dates and sub-plot treatments were combinations of fodder species. Dry herbage mass production, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL) and Ash were determined. The results showed that the significantly the highest Dry herbage and CP were obtained from fodder combination teosinte+ cowpea if sown at 18<sup>th</sup> April, whereas the significantly highest mean values of ADF and NDF were obtained for teosinte mono fodder crop. However, the lowest average value of ADF and NDF was obtained for fodder combination teosinte with cowpea. The average value of Ash and ADL of both harvest for fodder combination and date of sowing was statistically similar (p&gt;0.05). The effect of treatments interaction/combination on cumulative dry herbage was statistically high (p&lt;0.05) when teosinte+ cowpea was sown at 18<sup>th</sup> April. However, effect of treatments interaction/combination on average value of CP, NDF, ADF, ADL and Ash of both harvests (g/kg DM) was statistically similar (p&gt;0.05). The results showed that mixture of teosinte with cowpea sown at 18<sup>th</sup> April could be the best combination in terms of quantity as well as for major chemical constituents that could reflect better quality of fodder harvest.</p> Birendra Khanal Naba Raj Devkota Megh Raj Tiwari Neena Amatya Gorkhali Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 44 53 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36918 Biocontrol of Soil Borne Pathogen of Potato Tuber Caused by Rhizoctonia solani through Biosurfactant based Bacillus strain <p>Black scurf disease is a major problem for cultivation of potato worldwide that is managed by synthetic agrochemicals, that are increasing environmental pollution as well as residue in farm produce also.&nbsp; Therefore, now a day use of bio-agents for managing black scurf is attractive feature and need of the hour. A promising bio surfactant OD02 isolate, was isolated from oil contaminated soil, utilizing its secondary metabolite after preliminary biosurfactant screening tests. Furthermore, this strain exhibited positive test with haemolytic activity, emulsification index, oil spreading test, molecular characterization with 16S rRNA universal primers revealed that the strain belongs to<em> Bacillus </em>group, that was further chemically characterized using TLC, exhibiting reddish pink colour as lipopeptide and demonstrated antagonistic activity against<em> Rhizoctonia solani </em>under <em>in vitro </em>using dual culture (45±0.30%) and at 3% concentration under food poisoning method. <em>Bacillus subtilis HussainT-AMU</em> strain is very effective against phytopathogen <em>R. solani</em> and can be more explored in future diseases management strategies.</p> Touseef Hussain Abrar Ahmad Khan M.A. Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 54 66 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36921 Advancement, Simplification and Piloting of Electrical Proso Millet De-Husker (Chino Kutak) <p>Proso millet is a minor cereal crop commonly cultivated in rain fed marginal uplands particularly in the mid and far western mountain region of Nepal. It is potential crop for ensuring food and nutrition security and conservation of local crop biodiversity in high mountain region. Traditionally Proso millet (locally as <em>chino</em>) is processed manually on Mortar and Pestle (<em>Okhal)</em> by using muscular power. However, de-husking (pearling) of Proso millet is very tedious job. The traditional method of processing takes 1 hour to dehusk 2 kg – 3 kg of Proso millet for two women and cause lots of physical exertion to them. Therefore, GEF UNEP Local Crop Project in collaboration with Agricultural Engineering Divisionof NARC initiated program in 2017to design, fabricate and test electric Proso Millet de-husking machine (called <em>chino kutak</em>) that is safe and economical in operation for the use of the local farmers of remote Himalayan region. The model-1 designed, fabricated and piloted at Humla (Chhipra, Kharpunath Rural Municipality) in 2018 was improvised version of Finger millet processing machine. The Model-2 was based on the Centrifugal type working on impact principle was developed in January 2020.&nbsp; The Model-2 was very much successful in all variety of Proso millet and higher capacity up to 52.5 kg/ is equally applicable to other millets.</p> Ganga Ram Bhandari Devendra Gauchan Bharat Bhandari Bal Krishna Joshi Saroj Panta Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 67 74 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36922 Determinants of Small-Scale Mechanization for Potato Farming: A Case from Bangladesh <p>Identifying the determinants of farm mechanization can play a crucial role in the agriculture sector’s development. The present study identifies the determinants of potato farm mechanization employing the ordered probit model. A total of 150 potato farmers were interviewed to achieve the objectives. The findings indicate that only around 13% of the respondents were high adopters. The adoption of potato farm mechanization was influenced by education, spouse education, farm size, and training. Marginal effect analysis suggested that farm size and training decrease the likelihood of being in the low adopter’s category, respectively, by 13.2% and 10%, while increases the likelihood of being in the high adopter’s category by 7.5% and 5.7%. Policy implications included more investment in extension facilities such as training from public agencies to sustain and increase adoption. Modifying the existing extension strategy by targeting not only primary farmers but also members of their families would help with the widespread adoption of farm mechanization.</p> - Moniruzzaman Md. Sadique Rahman Md. Hayder Khan Sujan Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 75 82 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36923 Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Productive and Reproductive Performance of Indigenous Buffalo <p>Indigenous buffalo is the black gold of Nepal because of its important contribution to the livelihood of the rural farmers and agricultural economy of the country. A study was done to investigate the performance of indigenous buffalo found in high-hill of the western districts of Nepal. Further, effect of genetic and non-genetic factors on productive and reproductive performance of indigenous buffalo was accessed. This study was done in four districts: Myagdi, Baglung, Parbat and Kaski for 2 consecutive years from 2016 to 2017. A semi-structured and questionnaire survey format was prepared and was filled with verbal answers from 142 farmers on a different aspect of buffalo farming. Further, recording formats were distributed to enumerators for the recording of different information that cannot be collected from the survey. Total of 201 indigenous buffaloes (132 Lime and 69 Parkote) and minimum of 25 buffaloes in each site were measured for determining productive and reproductive performance. Further, 65 collected milk samples were subjected to Animal Nutrition Laboratory of DoAR, Lumle for determination of milk composition. Results of the findings revealed that there was a high variation in productive and reproductive performance of indigenous buffalo. Lactation milk yield of Lime buffalo was observed slightly higher (1180.90 ± 27.94 L) than Parkote buffalo (1170.56 ± 42.29 L) but was non-significant (p&gt;0.05). Lactation yield of indigenous buffalo in Ramja, Parbat (1254.73±38.43 L) was observed significantly higher (P&lt;0.002) than other research locations. Genetic evaluation of indigenous buffaloes and selection of better performers help in increasing productivity and lead to conservation by competitive advantage of indigenous buffaloes. Non-genetic factors play an important role in the productive and reproductive performance of indigenous buffalo and need to account for these effects to select buffalo for its genetic merit.</p> Uddhav Paneru Keshav Prasad Dhungana Surendra Kanu Parbati Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 83 91 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36925 Intermixing of Commercial Pure Breed Chickens with Indigenous (Sakini) Breed of Nepal <p>The intermixing of pure breeds of commercial chickens with Nepalese indigenous flock of chickens has not been explored yet genetically. The study aims to investigate the status of interbreeding of Nepalese indigenous chickens with exotic breeds. Thirty three samples of indigenous chicken, <em>Sakini</em>, from three different ecological regions, Terai, mid-hill and high hill, were taken for the study. The 522 bp hyper-variable region of D loop mtDNA of each sampled population was PCR amplified and sequenced. The Neighbor joining tree revealed that most of Nepalese <em>Sakini</em> and commercial chickens such as New Hampshire, Rhode Island Red, White Leghorn, White Plymouth Rock and Barred Plymouth Rock lied in same clade. Our study provides first direct evidence that the <em>Sakini</em> was already bred with commercial breeds for the sake of enhancing production performance and also alarms the government to introduce proper strategies and policies to avoid such genetic erosion.</p> Neena Amatya Gorkhali Chhiring Sherpa Mana Raj Kolachhapati Bhoj Raj Pokharel Nirajan Bhattarai Saroj Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 92 96 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36927 Temporal Dynamics of Rice Production and Import in Nepal <p>Rice is a principal food crop for ensuring national food security and improving the livelihoods of the people in Nepal. To understand and analyse temporal dynamics of rice production and import, a study was carried out by using secondary data during the period from 2009 to 2018. The objectives of the study were to analyses temporal changes and dynamics of rice production and import in Nepal. The study used&nbsp; Compound growth rate and Markov chain analysis to assess the pattern of temporal changes in &nbsp;production and import of rice in Nepal for the last one decade. The synthesis of the analysis is presented in both tabular and graphic forms. The results revealed that Nepal is importing rice in increasing trend and not being able to meet national demands despite some increase in rice production and productivity in the last decade. Imports of rice were found in four harmonized system codes from 18 countries and the value of rice import is mounting in recent years. In addition, Compound growth rate analysis showed that the rice import quantity and value were increasing at the rate of 24.48 and 38.11 percent per annum respectively, while production growth was hovering below less than 2% per annum. The higher growth rate of value than quantity showed that mainly import is concentrated on fine and aromatic rice. Further, the study also reveals the direction of trade using Markov chain analysis, which shows that among selected countries, two countries India and the USA were more stable rice exporters to Nepal while China, Thailand, and Italy were less stable. The study implies that import substitution can be done by increasing productivity with &nbsp;increase use of high yielding hybrids and fine and aromatic rice.</p> Samaya Gairhe Devendra Gauchan Krishna Prasad Timsina Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 97 108 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36932 Economics of Organic vs Inorganic Rice Production: A Case of Chitwan District of Nepal <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>xiii</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Rice (<em>Oryza sativa </em>L.) is the major staple food crop of Nepal. A research was conducted in December, 2019 to examine the economic viability of organic rice farming and factors affecting its adoption. Fulbari area of Chitwan district of Nepal was purposively selected for this study on consultation with Agriculture Knowledge Centre, Chitwan and review of past works which showed good practice of organic rice farming. A total of 100 farm households, 50 organic and 50 inorganic were selected using simple random sampling. Primary data were collected through a pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule, while secondary data were collected from related publications. The probit regression analysis showed that the six variables were statistically significant for the decision to adopt organic rice farming, they are: number of schooling years of the household head (p= 0.014), annual household income from agriculture (p= 0.012), membership of any agricultural organization (p= 0.000), subsidy in other inputs in addition to seed and fertilizers (p= 0.000), area of rice cultivated land (p= 0.007) and awareness on climate change (0.086). The benefit cost ratio of organic rice production (2.2) was higher as compared to inorganic (1.9) which showed that the profitability in organic rice production was higher than in inorganic. Furthermore, indexing identified- lengthy certification process (0.85) as the first major hindrance in adoption of organic rice farming followed by lack of proper organic market (0.68), high cost of organic seed and fertilizer (0.56), lack of knowledge and trainings on organic farming (0.48) and lack of government support such as grants and premium price (0.44) as the second, third, fourth and fifth hindrances respectively. The government should promote organic rice farming, prioritizing the small scale and marginal farmers by giving subsidies and premium, facilitating in certification and marketing, and providing knowledge about climate change.</p> Bidya Kiran Sapkota Ananta Prakash Subedi Kalyani Mishra Tripathi Shiva Chandra Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 109 121 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36933 Conservation Agriculture Mitigates the Effects of Climate Change <p>Intensive tillage based conventional agriculture have high global warming potential. Alternative to this, conservation agriculture (CA) systems utilize soils for the production of crops by reducing excessive tillage, maintaining crop residue on the soil surface, and adoption of crop rotations. The paper attempts to review the findings of CA based experiments under different cropping systems within and outside of the country. It has been found that CA increases and sustains the crop productivities, mitigates green house gas emissions from agriculture by enhancing soil carbon sequestration, improving soil nutrient status and water use efficiencies, and reducing fuel consumption. Mainstreaming of CA systems in Nepal is hindered by its knowledge gap, inadequate farm machineries and tools, small holdings, poor infrastructures, and lack of CA friendly policy support. Therefore, there is an urgent need to test, verify and scale-out the CA based technologies by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC) across the different agro-ecologies through farmer-centered partnership among the international institutions, public and private sector of Nepal.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Tika Bahadur Karki Pankaj Gyawaly Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 122 132 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36934 Sustainable Intensification in Agriculture: An Approach for Making Agriculture Greener and Productive <p>Sustainable intensification of agriculture is a good approach for reducing the yield gap without exacerbating the current condition of the environmental components, which is a big challenge for agriculture in the modern world. This review provides a summary of the role and approaches of sustainable intensification in agriculture which offer ways to increase crop production and create long-term sustainability in agriculture production. The current demand for food has continued to rise as a result of the world's rapidly increasing population. In order to increase crop/food production, agricultural systems should be intensified by more sustainable practices, as well as by reforming existing production systems/techniques and diversifying them into newer and more profitable enterprises. Despite the heavy use of inputs, farmers have recently been unable to achieve optimal crop yields. The judicious use of agricultural inputs, combined with improved management techniques, is important for advancing sustainable intensification. New scientific techniques in agronomic practices, as well as improved farm mechanization, are helping to boost resource use efficiency in sustainable crop production. The sustainable agricultural intensification is necessary to increase the agricultural productivity under the changing and adverse climatic conditions while maintaining healthy production practices.</p> Jiban Shrestha Subash Subedi Krishna Prasad Timsina Sudeep Subedi Meena Pandey Aakriti Shrestha Sajina Shrestha Mohammad Anwar Hossain Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 133 150 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36937 Evaluation of Broad Leaf Mustard Genotypes in Central Mid-hill of Nepal <p>Seven genotypes of broad leaf mustard were evaluated for their performance at research field of Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal in winter season of consecutive three years; 2016, 2017 and 2018. The main objective of these studies was to find out the most promising genotypes of broad leaf mustard. The experiments were conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Three weeks old seedlings were transplanted on first week of October at the spacing of 45 cm x 30 cm. Fertilizer was applied at the rate of 200:150:100 NPK kg/ha and 15ton compost per hectare and other cultural practices was carried out as per recommendation of National Horticulture Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. Fresh consumable fully developed green leaves were harvested frequently; seven to ten days interval. In the present study, wide genetic variability was observed on plant vigor, insect, disease, leaf length (cm), leaf width (cm), leaf harvest yield in number and weight, and consumer’s response recorded. On the basis of overall characteristics, among the evaluated genotypes; HRDBLM010 showed superior performance with good uniformity, vigorous growth, moderately resistant with insects pest and disease (2.1), bigger leaf size (44.2 x 27.5 cm), least petiole length (0.93 cm), significantly higher leaf yield in number (25) and weight (748 g/plant and 51.24 t/ha), medium late bolting, good taste has been selected for cultivation at central mid-hills (Kathmandu valley) condition of Nepal. The next promising genotype is HRDBLM004 which had also good uniformity, vigorous, less damage by insect (2.4) and disease (2.5), higher yield in number (41) and weight (848 g/plant and 60.10 t/ha) and softness. These two genotypes have been found promising genotypes for cultivation in central mid-hills of Nepal.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Surendra Lal Shrestha Suprabha Pandey Yadav Kumar Shrestha Iswori Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 7 151 160 10.3126/jnarc.v7i1.36941