Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council <p>The official journal of the Nepal Agricultural Research Council. Also available on its own <a title="JNARC" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">website</a>.</p> <p>Authors can now submit articles online - <a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal prior to submitting, or if already registered can simply <a href="/index.php/index/login">log in</a> and begin the 5 step process. Reviewers can also&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal.</p> Nepal Agricultural Research Council en-US Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2392-4535 Genetic Analysis of Yield and Related Characters of Lablab Bean <p>An experiment was conducted with a view to determine the nature and extent of gene action of yield and yield related characters of lablab bean. Five parents and their 10 F<sub>1</sub>s synthesized from 5 x 5 half diallel cross were evaluated in a Randomized Complete Block Design &nbsp;with three replications. The analysis of variance showed that the difference among the genotypes (parents and F<sub>1</sub>s) were highly significant for all the characters which revealed the presence of wide variability among the genotypes under this study. Hayman’s ANOVA (modified by Jones) suggested that the presence of additive and dominance gene actions for all the characters. The ‘Vr-Wr’ graph indicated partial dominance for the characters viz. days to first inflorescence appearance, days to first flowering, days to pod maturity, days to seed maturity, number of nodes per inflorescence, edible pod length, edible pod breadth, edible pod weight and pod yield per plant. Over dominance was observed for number of inflorescences per plant, number of pods per inflorescence and hundred seed weight. Complete dominance was observed only for number of pods per plant in lablab bean. As the development of hybrid variety is not possible in lablab bean, diallel selective mating system may be adopted for improvement of yield traits by using knowledge of gene actions. The hybrids with predominant additive gene action for yield related traits may be advanced to obtain transgressive segregants and pure lines for higher pod yield per plant.</p> Md. Borhan Uddin Rony AKM Aminul Islam Md. Golam Rasul Mohammad Zakaria ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 1 21 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23800 Twenty Four Approaches for Conservation of Non-Orthodox Agricultural Plant Genetic Resources in Nepal <p>The conservation of plant genetic diversity underpins the future of agriculture, food and nutrition security and is critical to ensure the ability of future generations to cope with global environmental changes. The conservation efforts were more focused on orthodox crop species in Nepal before 2010. About 40% of agricultural plant genetic resources are non-orthodox, either recalcitrant/ intermediate type or vegetatively propagated plant species. Approaches for conservation of non-orthodox plant species differ from that of orthodox crops. Different conservation approaches have been established by National Agriculture Genetic Resources Center, Nepal for conserving non-orthodox agricultural plant species. We applied household survey, literatures survey, field survey, key informant survey and organized focus group discussion for assessing the different conservation approaches. A total of 24 approaches are being considered for conservation of non-orthodox plant species. Approaches under the ex-situ strategy are field genebank, botanical garden, city park, government farm, religious place, in-vitro culture and evolutionary plant breeding; under on-farm strategy are community field genebank, school field genebank, household field genebank, community/ public orchard, village level field genebank, geographical indication and participatory landrace enhancement, and under in-situ strategy are protected area, Ramsar site, world heritage site, community forest and legal protection for conserving non-orthodox plant species in Nepal. Field genebank is the very good approach, and it has been established in about 20 research stations. It should be extended to government farms and agriculture offices to conserve the local APGRs available in their respective command areas. Databases (passport and characterization) have been generated and will be available online to enhance the utilization in breeding, research and production.&nbsp;</p> Bal Krishna Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 22 33 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23801 Adaptability of Naked Barley Landraces in Mountain Agro-ecosystem of Nepal <p>Naked barley (<em>Hordeum vulgare </em>var. <em>nudum </em>L<em>.</em>) is an important food crop in mountain regions of Nepal, however, its production area and genetic diversity is known to be shrinking fast. One of the reasons could be the poor productivity. To improve the productivity of crops, it is essential that new site-specific, high-yielding and widely adopted varietal options for farmers should be developed for sustainability. To identify the varietal responses to environment, multi-location testing is one of the main tools. Following this, we evaluated agronomic performance of eight naked barley landraces collected from five different locations of Nepal with altitude ranging from 1370 to 2500 meter elevations from the sea level during the winter season of 2014/15 in order to assess the landraces adaptability across different locations. Combined analysis of variances revealed that NGRC02306, NGRC04902 and NGRC04894 were the high yielding landraces. The landrace namely NGRC04894 was found the most stable genotype with better adaptability to all tested environments whereas NGRC02306 and NGRC04902 were high yielding landraces adapted to high yielding environment namely Khumaltar. However, the lower yielding landrace NGRC02327 was the earliest and could be preferred by farmers as its maturity allows it to fit better in the rice based cropping system. Our study showed that these landraces need to be verified further in farmers’ fields and the release of one or more of them would help to diversify the genetic base of naked barley varieties in the seed supply system.</p> Krishna Hari Ghimire Bal Krishna Joshi Rita Gurung Epsha Palikhey Niranjan Pudasaini Aruna Parajuli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 34 42 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.22064 Agro-morphological Variability of Barley under Normal and Late Sown Conditions in Chitwan, Nepal <p>Agro-morphological traits serve as an indirect selection criteria for developing new cultivars with superior performance ability. In order to study variability of agro-morphological traits of exotic barley genotypes under normal and late sown conditions, a field experiment was conducted at the research field of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Chitwan, Nepal in 2015. Altogether, 13 genotypes of barley were sown under two factor factorial RCBD with three replications in two dates. Normal sowing was done on 29 Nov 2014 while late sowing was done on 1 Jan 2015. Agro-morphological traits were found to be varying significantly in late sowing condition as compared to normal one. The mean number of days to booting and heading reduced by 15.19% and 9.64%, respectively in late sown condition. Similarly, plant height reduced by 19.53%, peduncle length by 16.62%, flag leaf width by 42.87%, flag leaf area by 36.44% and FL-1 leaf area by 36.51% in late sown condition. Biomass, grain yield and harvest index were also found to be reduced by 39.66%, 69.77% and 46.48%, respectively for late sowing condition. Nepalese landrace Soluwa performed better in normal sown condition while exotic genotype SBYT 14-1 performed better in late sown condition. SBYT 14-27 and SBYT 14-38 genotypes exhibited stable yield in both sowing conditions. Stability attribute provides an avenue for further study of such promising genotypes from agronomic and breeding perspectives under varying edaphic and agronomic conditions, and also open up the possibility of developing best performing cultivar of barley for lower plain region of the country.&nbsp;</p> Chiranjibi Poudyal Santosh Pathak Bishnu Raj Ojha Santosh Marahatta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 43 52 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23803 Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Growth and Bulb Yield in Mid Hill of Nepal <p>Experiments were conducted at Horticulture Research Division (HRD), Khumaltar, Lalitpur; and Horticulture Research Station (HRS), Kimugaun, Dailekh in 2017/18 to evaluate the high yielding open pollinated genotypes of onion in mid hills of both locations. &nbsp;Five onion genotypes namely AVON-1016, AVON-1027, AVON-1028, AVON-1052, AVON-1074 and AVON-1103 received from Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre were evaluated with local check variety and recommended variety Red Creole in both locations in randomized complete block design with 4 replications. The main objective of the experiment is to findout the high yielding open pollinated onion genotypes for mid hill condition.The pooled analysis of data over locations showed significant differences on plant height, neck diameter, bulb diameter, weight of bulbs and adjusted bulb yield per hectare. &nbsp;&nbsp;Introduced genotypes AVON 1027 (38.83 t/ha), AVON 1052 (31.97 t/ha) and AVON 1028 (31.48 t/ha) produced significantly higher yield than recommended and commercially cultivated check variety Red Creole (27.04 t/ha). Therefore the genotype AVON 1027 can be selected as the best genotype for growing in mid hills of Nepal</p> Ishwori Prasad Gautam Navin Gopal Pradhan Binod Prasad Luitel Sujan Subedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 53 61 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23805 Trifoliate Orange Seed Germination Enhancing Method in Mid Hill of Nepal <p>Trifoliate orange seedlings are used as rootstock for citrus crops due to cold hardiness and phytopthora disease tolerance. Nursery owners usually prepare raised bed in open field to sow seeds of trifoliate. The trifoliate seed production in government farms are very low compared to its demand due to limited number of fruiting trees. Further the germination percent in open nurseries are very low. Hence, production of grafted sapling is very much affected by unavailability of rootstock. Therefore, a study was carried out in National Citrus Research Program, Dhankuta to increase germination rate of trifoliate orange in the year 2016 and 2017. Trifoliate seeds were extracted from three stages of fruits (green mature, half yellow and full yellow) and sown at three dates (September 1<sup>st</sup> week, September 3<sup>rd</sup> week and October 1<sup>st</sup> week) at three raised bed (open field, 50-cm low plastic tunnel with or without sides open). The data on percentage seed germination was taken at 35, 50, 65, 90 and 210 days after seed sowing. The fruit maturity had no effect on germination percentage irrespective of sowing date and method of beds used. The date of sowing resulted significantly higher germination at earlier days but there was non-significant effect during final germination count. Plastic tunnel with open sides resulted 80% germination compared to 46% in tunnel side closed nursery. Hence, low plastic tunnel raised bed having open sides is the best option to raise trifoliate seed sown during 1<sup>st</sup> week of September to 1<sup>st</sup> week of October in agro-climatic conditions like Dhankuta.</p> Umesh K. Acharya Roshan Pakka ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 62 67 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23807 In-vitro Evaluation of Bio-control agents against Soil Borne Plant Pathogens <p>Biocontrol is an important aspect of disease management for plant pathogens, especially for the soil borne fungi. Trichoderma species is the most exploited biocontrol agent in recent years. The soil specific nature of Trichoderma species is a well-known fact and hence native Trichoderma isolates should be more emphasized for control of plant pathogens. Fifty soil samples from rhizosphere of various agricultural crops were collected for isolation of Trichoderma sp. Ten isolates of Trichoderma were tested in dual culture with soil borne pathogens <em>Fusarium solani</em>, <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> and <em>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</em> in an in vitro assay. All of the test isolates were found to be significant in terms of mycelial inhibition growth as compared to control. However, varying degrees of antagonism by different Trichoderma isolates were observed for above mentioned soil borne pathogens. The isolate (T363) was found to exhibit more than 80% inhibition of S. sclerotiorum while the isolate T357 was found to control F. solani by more than 80%. &nbsp;For the control of <em>R. solani</em>, six of the tested Trichoderma isolates showed more than 80% inhibition of its radial colony growth. The Trichoderma isolates seen effective in this study need to be tested in pot and field experiments for exploiting the use and benefits of biocontrol.</p> Shrinkhala Manandhar Bimala Pant Chetana Manandhar Suraj Baidya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 68 72 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23810 In-vitro Evaluation of Botanicals, Fungi-toxic Chemicals and Bio-control Agent for Efficacy against Turcicum Leaf Blight of Maize <p>Maize is the second most important cereal crop of Nepal. Its growth and production is severely affected by Turcicum leaf blight caused by <em>Exserohilum turcicum</em> at pre-harvest stage. A total of 6 botanicals, 4 chemical fungicides and 1 bio-control agent were evaluated for efficacy against <em>Exserohilum turcicum </em>under <em>in vitro </em>conditions following poisoned food technique at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Nepal. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with 5 replications. All the tested botanicals, fungicides and bio-control agent exhibited fungicidal action and significantly inhibited mycelial growth of the test pathogen over untreated control. Among botanicals, extract of <em>Acorus calamus</em> L. at 1% W/V checked the pathogen growth completely <em>in-vitro</em>. The mycelial growth inhibition percent of <em>Artimisia indica </em>Willd, <em>Lantana camera</em> L., <em>Allium sativum</em> L<em>., Xanthoxylum armatum </em>DC., and <em>Azadirachta indica</em> A. Juss. at the concentration of 2.5% W/V on PDA was 75.18%, 74.00%, 44.68%, 44.21% and 37.59% respectively. Among fungicides, the mycelial growth inhibition percent of <em>E. turcicum</em> due to ACME-COP (Copper oxychloride 50% WP), SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP), Dithane M-45 (Mancozeb 75% WP) and Bavistin (Carbendazim 50% WP) at the concentration of 1000 ppm on PDA was 70.69%, 68.44%, 61.23%, and 60.52% respectively. Antagonist <em>Trichoderma viride</em> developed more rapidly than <em>E. turcium </em>in single as well as in dual cultures. <em>T. viride </em>caused significantly inhibition of 35% of the pathogen <em>E. turcicum </em>on the 5<sup>th</sup> day of incubation. These results have important implications for the management of turcicum leaf blight disease in maize.</p> Subash Subedi Saraswati Neupane Surendra BK Lokendra Oli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 73 80 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23811 Evaluation for Released and Promising Genotypes of Potato against Red Ant <p>Red ant is the most destructive insect pest of potato tubers in the field. Utilization of varietal resistance is the best option to control the pest. The resistance of five released and nine promising genotypes of potato were evaluated against red ant (<em>Dorylus orientalis </em>Westwood) under natural infestation in red ant prone field. Potato resistance was evaluated based on tuber damage index value (0.00 to 1) which was calculated on the bases of the percentage of damaged tubers and number of injuries on per kilogram of tubers made by the pest. Based on the results of combined data, the levels of varietal damage were categorized to be less damaged (TDI value ranging from 0.35 to 0.49), moderately damaged (TDI value ranging from 0.50to 0.64) and highly damaged (TDI value ranging from 0.65 to 0.79) types. Among the 14 genotypes compared for levels of tuber damage, the fivegenotypes: IPY-8 (TDI value: 0.35), Khumal Seto (TDI value: 0.39), PRP-056267.1 (TDI value: 0.40), Janak Dev (TDI value: 0.44) and PRP-25861.1 (TDI value: 0.49) were determined to be the less damaged types. The less damaged potato genotypes can be used by farmers as the relatively resistant genotypes against red ant.</p> Prem Nidhi Sharma Ram Chandra Adhikari Bhim Bahadur Khatri Kalika Prasad Upadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 81 87 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23812 Assessing Migration and Remittance Status and its Effect on Maize Production in Nepal <p>Outmigration has been considered a major issue in agricultural production of Nepal. The study aimed to assess migration and remittance status and its effect on maize production. Altogether 682, both migrated and non-migrated households were selected using proportionate random sampling from six representative districts covering four provinces and all ecological domains of Nepal. Primary data were collected through households' survey and focus group discussion using structured and pretested interview schedule. The results showed that 26 percent of households have at least one member living abroad for a job opportunity. Most of the migration was male-centric and Chitwan district ranked first among study districts on migration status. About 43 percent of households received more than two hundred thousand annually as remittance and mostly they used that money in household consumption followed by education and loan repayment. Around 54 percent of households agreed that they were using remittances in maize farming mainly for purchasing chemical fertilizer and improved seed. The use of remittance income in mechanization such as buying/using of corn sheller and power tiller was comparatively very less. The results showed insignificant maize productivity but the fallow land holdings of the migrated household were significantly higher than non-migrating households. The issue of migration and fallow land holdings in maize has become an emerging concern to development worker and policy makers. Therefore, the introduction of efficient maize production system along with value addition program that linked with market targeting youth manpower is an urgent need for effective utilization of fallow land. Moreover, such opportunity also provides an avenue to the productive investment of remittance.</p> Yogendra Acharya Yuganath Ghimire Nemdev Upadhayay Bikas Poudel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 88 95 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.23814 Effect of Soil Conditioner on Carrot Growth and Soil Fertility Status <p>A field experiment was conducted in popular carrot cultivar Nepa Dream using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications for evaluating the effects of ten different treatments of soil conditioner in combination with organic and inorganic fertilizers on root growth and soil productivity. Soil samples from each microplot were also analyzed for soil texture, pH, organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium before sowing and after harvest. Effects on soil was not significant in the single season experiment but effects of the treatments on the carrot root growth and production was significant. For higher root yield and biological yield, treatments Soil Conditioner +Micronutrient (Double Dose)+1/2 Recommended Dose of Fertilizer +1/2 Farm Yard Manure (T10) followed by Soil Conditioner +Micronutrient (Normal)+1/2Recommended Dose of Fertilizer +1/2 Farm Yard Manure (T7), and Recommended Dose of Fertilizer Full (T2) were found better whereas treatment T10 was found closer to T2 and Soil Conditioner +Micronutrient&nbsp; (Double Dose)+Farm Yard Manure Full (T9) which showed higher mean performances for root diameter, cortex diameter and root length of carrot. In contrast, total soluble sugar as % brix was found less in the treatments involving one or more combinations of conditioner whereas highest for Farm Yard Manure and Recommended Dose of Fertilizer treatments either alone or in combination.&nbsp; Thus, use of normal dose of GMT™ soil conditioner along with ½ Recommended Dose of Fertilizer and ½ Farm Yard Manure (T7) can be used as an alternative to T2 for higher carrot production which also can reduce the use of commercial inorganic fertilizers for improving soil fertility status. For organic carrot production at low cost, T9 can also be used as an alternative to other combinations of chemical fertilizers.</p> Dipendra Kumar Ayer Sheetal Aryal Keshav Raj Adhikari Krishna Dhakal Anupama Sharma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-04-28 2019-04-28 5 96 100 10.3126/jnarc.v5i1.18674