Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council <p>The official journal of the Nepal Agricultural Research Council. Also available on its own <a title="JNARC" href="" target="_blank">website</a>.</p><p>Authors can now submit articles online - <a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal prior to submitting, or if already registered can simply <a href="/index.php/index/login">log in</a> and begin the 5 step process. Reviewers can also <a href="/index.php/JNARC/user/register">register</a> with the journal.</p> Nepal Agricultural Research Council en-US Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council 2392-4535 <p>Copyright of articles is transferred to the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC).</p><p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />This journal is licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>. 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There is no any plagiarism in this manuscript and no part of this manuscript (referenced or otherwise) has been copied verbatim. No one who has contributed significantly to the work has been denied authorship and those who helped have been duly acknowledged. All authors reviewed and approved the content and parts of this manuscript as submitted.</span></p><p><strong>Grant of pubishing rights</strong><br /><span style="color: #000000;">The authors should grant the publisher a license to publish their article, in all forms and all media (whether known at this time or developed at any time in the future) throughout the world, in all languages, where their rights include but are not limited to the right to translate, create adaptations, extracts, or derivative works and to sublicense such rights, for the full term of copyright (including all renewals and extensions of that term), to take effect if and when the article is accepted for publication. They confirm that they have read and accept the full Terms and Conditions below including  author warranties, and have read and agree to comply with the Journal’s policies on peer review and publishing ethics.</span></p><p><span style="color: #000000;">Click to download <a title="Copyright form" href="" target="_blank">Copyright Form</a>.</span></p><p><span style="color: #000000;">Please read this agreement carefully, complete it, and return a copy to us by email, fax, or hard copy immediately, to avoid any delay in the publication of your article.</span></p> Performance of Tomato with Organic Manures in Plastic Tunnel <p>Tomato is one of the most demanded vegetable with increasing trend of commercial cultivation in Nepal. As it is the heavy feeder crop thus soil nutrient management has been always challenging. Since, in modern world organic production has been favored by consumers for many reasons thus we aimed to compare the efficacy of various compost, mineral fertilizers and their combinations in tomato production and soil productivity. For the purpose a field experiment in plastic tunnel was carried out in Horticulture Research Division, Khumaltar in two consecutive years (2014 and 2015). Srijana, a popular tomato hybrid among commercial producers, was purposively selected. Eight treatments (control, recommended doses of chemical fertilizers, compost 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + cattle urine, compost 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + cattle urine, compost 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + cattle urine, compost 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 1/4 recommended dose of chemical fertilizers, compost 10 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + ¾ recommended dose of chemical fertilizer and compost 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> + 1/2 recommended dose of chemical fertilizer) were laid out in randomized complete block design and replicated thrice. The result showed significant (p &lt; 0.05) positive correlation between the plant height and yield of tomato. The treatment with compost dose of 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with half dose of recommended dose of chemical fertilizers produced the highest incremental yield (85% increment) over other treatments followed by compost 15 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with cattle urine. Addition of soil organic carbon, soil nitrogen, soil potassium by the increasing level of compost though not significant, but increment in carbon content, nitrogen content and potassium content of soil observed in successive years. For commercial producer at plastic tunnel, compost at the rate 12.5 t ha<sup>-1</sup> with half dose of recommended level of chemical fertilizer (100:90:40 kg N:P:K ha<sup>-1</sup>) is recommended to apply in field, while for organic producer, application of 15 tha-1 compost with fermented cattle urine is recommended.</p> Shova Shrestha Roshan Babu Ojha Navin Gopal Pradhan Bishnu Dash Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 1 6 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19681 Degree of Milling Effect on Cold Water Rice Quality <p>The aim of this study was to examine the effects of degree of milling on various rice parameters such as proximate composition, and cooking properties using mathematical model. The experiments were performed in the laboratory of Food Research Division, Nepal Agricultural Research Council. The three different medium type rice varieties of Nepal (Lumle-2, Chhomrong and Machhapuchre-3) were exposed to five different degrees of milling (0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%). The degree of milling (DM) level significantly (P≤0.05) affected the milling recovery; head rice yield, nutrient content as well as cooking properties of the rice. Increase in DM resulted in further reduction of protein content, fat content, minerals, milled rice and head rice yield after bran layer was further removed. A positive correlation between DM used in present model, amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss was observed, however, with an increase in DM; amylose content, kernel elongation and gruel solid loss were found to be increased. Adopting 6 to 8% DM for commercial milling of rice might help to prevent quantitative, qualitative and nutritional loss along with retention of good cooking characteristics.</p> Ujjwol Subedi Roman Karki Pravin Ojha Achyut Mishra Man Bahadur Shrestha Durga Man Singh Dongol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 7 17 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19685 Milling, Nutritional, Physical and Cooking Properties of Four Basmati Rice Varieties <p class="Default">Rice is one of the most popular staple foods produced contributing higher most in agriculture gross domestic production in Nepal. Thus, nutritional, physicochemical, and cooking properties of rice might interplay important roles in their production and farming practice, therefore, it is inevitable to understand these characteristic features. However, there has been only limited information available on such properties, therefore we aimed to examine nutritional, physicochemical and cooking properties of four <em>Basmati </em>varieties of rice namely Red <em>Basmati</em>, White <em>Basmati</em>, Black <em>Basmati </em>and <em>Pokhareli Basmati</em>. These rice varieties were purchased from different places in Nepal in paddy form. In this study various parameters associated with milling, nutritional, physical and cooking properties were evaluated. To measure protein contents in rice, Kjeldal method was implied. Among the varieties, the protein content was maximum in <em>Red Basmati </em>(7.74%) and minimum in <em>Black Basmati </em>(6.51%). The milled rice percentage and head rice recovery were maximum in <em>Pokhareli Basmati </em>represented by 72.02±0.10 and 67.46±0.42, respectively, while and minimum in <em>White Basmati </em>represented by 68.17±0.50 and 65.11±0.28, respectively. The kernel elongation ratio and volume expansion ratio was maximum in <em>Red Basmati </em>represented by 1.62 and 2.85 respectively. Water uptake ratio was maximum 3.11 in <em>Black Basmati </em>and minimum of 2.18 in <em>Red Basmati. </em>Gruel loss was found lowest 1.05% in <em>Red Basmati </em>and highest represented by 2.40% in <em>Black Basmati. </em>The highest starch iodine blue value of 0.21 was observed in <em>Red Basmati </em>and lowest of 0.12 in <em>Black Basmati</em>. The <em>Red Basmati </em>was found to have the better cooking quality among all varieties.</p> Pravin Ojha Omkar Chaudhary Ujjwol Subedi Roman Karki Durga Man Singh Dongol ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 18 24 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19686 Soil Baiting, Rapid PCR Assay and Quantitative Real Time PCR to Diagnose Late Blight of Potato in Quarantine Programs <p class="Default"><em>Phytophthora infestans </em>(mont) de Bary is a pathogen of great concern across the globe, and accurate detection is an important component in responding to the outbreaks of potential disease. Although the molecular diagnostic protocol used in regulatory programs has been evaluated but till date methods implying direct comparison has rarely used. In this study, a known area soil samples from potato fields where light blight appear every year (both A1 and A2 mating type) was assayed by soil bait method, PCR assay detection and quantification of the inoculums. Suspected disease symptoms appeared on bait tubers were further confirmed by rapid PCR, inoculums were quantified through Real Time PCR, which confirms presence of <em>P. infestans</em>. These diagnostic methods can be highly correlated with one another. Potato tuber baiting increased the sensitivity of the assay compared with direct extraction of DNA from tuber and soil samples. Our study determines diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assays to determine the performance of each method. Overall, molecular techniques based on different types of PCR amplification and Real-time PCR can lead to high throughput, faster and more accurate detection method which can be used in quarantine programmes in potato industry and diagnostic laboratory.</p> Touseef Hussain Bir Pal Singh Firoz Anwar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 25 32 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19687 Soil Fertility Assessment and Mapping of Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal <p class="Default">Soil fertility assessment is a key for sustainable planning of a particular area. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the soil fertility status of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal. The study area is situated at the latitude 27°4’40.9’’N and longitude 84°56’9.85”E at 75masl altitude. Altogether 76 soil samples were collected based on the variability of land at 0-20 cm depth. The texture, pH, OM, total N, available P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>, K<sub>2</sub>O, Ca, Mg, S, B, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn content in the samples were determined following standard analytical methods. Arc-GIS 10.1 was used for soil fertility mapping. The soil structure was angular blocky, and varied between grayish brown (10YR 5/2) and dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) in color. The sand, silt and clay content were 24.41±0.59%, 54.57±0.44% and 21.03±0.32%, respectively and categorized as silt loam and loam in texture. The soil was moderately acidic in pH (5.67±0.09), low in organic matter (0.74±0.04%) and available Sulphur (0.8± 0.1 ppm). The total nitrogen (0.06±0.001%), available boron (0.59±0.08ppm) and available zinc (0.51±0.05ppm) were low. Furthermore, available potassium (50.26±2.95ppm), available calcium (1674.6±46.3ppm) and available magnesium (175.43± 8.93ppm) were medium. Moreover, available copper (1.36±0.06 ppm) and available manganese (16.52±1.12 ppm) were high, while, available phosphorus (77.55±6.65 ppm) and available iron (85.88±7.05 ppm) were found high. It is expected that the present study would help to guide practices required for sustainable soil fertility management and developing future agricultural research strategy in the farm.</p> Dinesh Khadka Sushil Lamichhane Kailash Prasad Bhurer Jeet Narayan Chaudhary Md Farhat Ali Laxman Lakhe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 33 47 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19688 Seasonal and Altitudinal Prevalence of Fascioliasis in Buffalo in Eastern Nepal <p class="Default">Buffalo is the most important livestock commodities for milk, meat production and several other multipurpose uses distributed densely from southern tarai to northern mid-hills in Nepal. Among several internal parasitic diseases fascioliasis is highly economic one caused by <em>Fasciola </em>in buffaloes. However, there are only few studies carried on prevalence of fascioliasis emphasizing buffaloes in relation to seasonal (summer and rainy, and winter) and altitudinal variations. Therefore, we examined prevalence of fascioliasis seasonally and vertically. For the purpose, we selected two districts of eastern Nepal and sampled from low altitude area known as Madhesha ranging from 175-200, Dhankuta from 800-1200 m, and Murtidhunga from 1800-2200 m elevation from the sea level, representing tarai, mid hills and high hills, respectively. Altogether from February 2013 to January 2014 at every two months interval we collected 798 fecal samples from buffaloes; 282 from Murtidhunga, 239 from Dhankuta and 277 from Madhesha. The samples were examined microscopically for the presence of <em>Fasciola </em>eggs using sedimentation technique. Results showed that overall prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was 39.9% (319/798), ranging highest 42.6%in Madhesha followed by 39.7% in Murtidhunga and 37.2% in Dhankuta, respectively. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be significantly (p &lt;0.05) high in winter (44.9%) comparing to rainy season (34.4%). The prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes was relatively higher in low altitude than high altitude, although it was not statistically significant (p &lt;0.05). In our findings the female buffaloes showed higher prevalence for fascioliasis than in male. Since the fascioliasis in buffaloes is highly endemic, thus strategic deworming in high risk period is recommended along with measure to prevent pasture contamination with buffalo feces.</p> Ramesh Prasad Sah Hari Kumar Prasai Jiban Shrestha Md Hasanuzzaman Talukder AKM Anisur Rahman Ram Bali Sah ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 48 53 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19689 Resource Use Efficiency Analysis for Potato Production in Nepal <p class="Default">Potato is one of the most important staple foods supporting food security and livelihood to millions of marginalized and poor farmers in Nepal. Generally the smallholders’ farmers, especially those located in remote villages are inadequately informed about technical knowledge, inputs and efficient use of resources causing poor production and low productivity. Thus, the present survey aimed to examine the efficiency of resources used in potato production in Baglung District, one of the remote hilly place located in Central Himalaya. The total of 120 potato growing households was selected using simple random sampling technique from the two potato pocket in 2016. The regression coefficients of each inputs using Cobb-Douglas production function were estimated using Stata software. Our results showed that major inputs such as labor, bullock, Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and intercultural operations were overused and need to decrease in terms of cost by 109, 177, 51 and 185%, respectively for its optimum allocation. Similarly, seed was found underused and need to increase its cost by 70% for optimum allocation. We concluded that inadequate training, exposure, knowledge gap and extension service to farmers in study sites were the reasons that farmers were using their resources inefficiently. It is recommended that the farmers involved in potato farming in the surveyed sites should be provided with additional proper technical knowledge for optimizing the use of resources which would help to increase the production and return from potato production.</p> Mahesh Sapkota Mahima Bajracharya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 54 59 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19690 Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal <p>Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP) in research and development.</p> Samaya Gairhe Hari Krishna Shrestha Krishna Timsina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 60 71 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19691 Coffee Production in Kavre and Lalitpur Districts, Nepal <p>Coffee (<em>Coffea </em>spp) is an important and emerging cash crop having potential to provide farmers employment and income generation opportunities. This crop is well adapted to the climatic conditions of mid-hills of Nepal. Thus, majority of the farmers are attracted towards cultivation of coffee because of demands in national and international market. Coffee is now becoming integral part of farming system in rural areas. However, information on performance of coffee and farmers response has not been well documented. Therefore, we undertook the present work to analyze demography, ethnicity, household occupation, literacy status, average land holding, coffee cultivation area, livelihood and sources of income of coffee growers, production and productivity, pricing, cropping pattern of the coffee and problesm faced by them in mid hill district of Kavrepalanchowk (hereafter ‘Kavre’) and Lalitpur Districts. All the samples were taken randomly and selected from coffee producing cooperative of Kavre and Lalitpur. Our analysis showed that the male farmer dominant over female on adopting coffee cultivation in both districts with higher value in Kavre. Brahmin and Chetri ethnic communities were in majority over others in adopting the coffee cultivation. Literate farmers were more dominant over illiterates on adopting the coffee cultivation, The mean land holding was less, ranging from 0.15 to 2.30 ha for coffee cultivation, the history of coffee cultivation in Kavre showed that highest number of farmers were engaged in coffee farming from last 16 years. The mean yield of fresh cherry was 1027.20 kg/ha in Kavre, while it was 1849.36 kg/ha in Lalitpur. The study revealed that majority of the coffee plantations were between 6-10 years old. The major problems facing by coffee farmers were diseases spread, lack of irrigation facility and drying of plants. Despite of that the coffee farming was one of the rapidly emerging occupations among the farmers in both district of Nepal.</p> Yogendra Kumar Karki Punya Prasad Regmi Resham Bahadur Thapa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 72 78 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19692 Marketing and Socioeconomics Aspects of Large Cardamom Production in Tehrathum, Nepal A survey was conducted in November 2015 in one of the pocket area of large cardamom production in Teharthum District, eastern Nepal with aim to investigate the status of cardamom enterprises. The parameters used were cardamom production area, type of manure used, drying facilities, technical skills of farmers, market channels and variable cost etc. We purposively selected 30 cardamom producers and stakeholders for interview pre-designed questionnaires. The result showed that average area, production and productivity of large cardamom per household were 0.86 ha, 200 kg and 232 kg.ha<sub>-1</sub>, respectively, with the average farming experience of 22 years. It was revealed that 13% farmers used farmyard organic manure, the use of 1.5 kg/plant farmyard manure might produce 28.5% higher yield cardamom compared to without using any manure or fertilizers. It was also revealed among the responded only 7% had received improved drying machine from District Agriculture Development Office (DADO) at 50% subsidy, while only 23% of farmers received training and technical services from DADO. The study showed that per hectare average total cost of large cardamom production, selling price and gross revenue were NRs. 2,36,705 ($2255), NRs. 5,50,305 ($5240) and NRs. 3,13,600 ($2985), respectively, with benefit/cost (B/C) ratio of 2 after the completion of gestation period of 4 years. Our survey showed that predominant marketing approach was by direct sell to the traders located at district headquarter. The productivity of large cardamom was influenced by various factors, such as nearly 75.2% of the variation in productivity was explained by the number of active family members, farming period, area, intercultural operations, variable cost and depreciated fixed cost. Nirajan Bhandari Thaneshwar Bhandari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 79 85 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19693 Molecular Confirmation of Salmonella typhimuriumin Poultry from Kathmandu Valley A prevalence study was carried to isolate Salmonella typhimurium from blood (n= 50) and gut samples (n=100) of poultry in Kathmandu valley during early 2016. Salmonella typhimurium bacteria isolated in the selective media were biochemically confirmed based on Bergey’s Manual. Two sets of oligonucleotide primers-the genus specific 16S rRNA and the organism specific invA were employed for molecular level confirmation by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay. The amplified fragments in 1% agarose gel observed at 406bp and 285bp, respectively confirmed the isolates to be Salmonella typhimurium. Of 150 samples tested, Salmonella typhimurium were isolated from 49 samples, among which nine were from blood (18%) and forty from the gut (40%). The present result indicated an alarmingly high level of Salmonella typhimurium, which can result inzoonotic infection in humans owing to increased contact with poultry and consumption of poultry products in the Kathmandu valley. Sanjeev Kumar Adhikari Arrogya Gyawali Sajan Shrestha Swoyam Prakash Shrestha Meera Prajapati Doj Raj Khanal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 86 89 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19694 Writing a Research Paper for Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council Agricultural research findings are required to reach soon to the farmers, extensionists, media, researchers, policy makers, businessperson, students, teachers and so many other stakeholders. Among different types of publications, research paper is generally published in journal considered as standard type of publication in term of quality and recognition. Most of the journals follow similar pattern and framework; however, the style, format and process may be different with each other. A research (scientific) paper is a written describing original research result using standard methods and materials. The major sections in a journal paper are abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusion, and references. Accordingly Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council has its own style and format. Author needs to follow guidelines strictly on the use of punctuation marks such as comma (,), period (.), space, justification etc; otherwise submitted manuscripts could be immediately return to author without considering in review process. In general, we received manuscripts with many errors on citation and references, poor elaboration of results of experiments, weak discussion, missing to acknowledge funding agencies, submitting non-editable figures, very few numbers of citations of Nepalese researchers, statements not in logical order, etc. In general, the scientific papers should be written in simple way with new but sufficient justification backed up by data in the form of tables, graphs, flow diagrams etc so that readers can understand easily with high readability. The submitted manuscript in the journal office are sent to two to three reviewers for specific recommendation on the originality of the work, appropriateness of the approach and experimental design, adequacy of experimental techniques, soundness of conclusions and interpretations, relevance of discussion and importance of the research. The language clarity and organization of the article are also asked with the reviewers. In response to reviewer's comments all authors are expected to reply each and every comments and suggestions of reviewers, if such comments and suggestion are not acceptable, the author/s can argue for their points, if genuine. Here in this paper we described detail contents of each section along with style and format for a research paper writing targeted to Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council. Bal Krishna Joshi Tek Bahadur Gurung Jiban Shrestha Hari Krishna Upreti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-06 2018-05-06 4 90 99 10.3126/jnarc.v4i1.19695