Journal of Nepal Chemical Society 2014-01-08T12:55:28+00:00 Dr. Amar P. Yadav Open Journal Systems <p>As far as we are aware, this journal is no longer being published.</p><p>A journal of original research and review articles in chemistry. Articles available in full text</p> Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Study on Electrodeposition of Pt on Au-QCM 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Amar Prasad Yadav <p>Platinum was electrodeposited on an Au-QCM in 40 mM H2PtCl6 solution using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance. At 0.2 V vs. SHE, a 4-electron reduction of Pt-ion took place. On the other hand, at 0.6 V a mixture of 2-electron and 4-electron reduction took place.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 1-4</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T21:37:46+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphology of Ethylene/1-Octene Copolymers and Their Blends with High Density Polythylene: A Microscopic Evaluation 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Rameshwar Adhikari <p>The investigation into morphology formation in ethylene/1-octene copolymers (EOCs) comprising variable 1-octene content and their blends with high density polyethylene (HDPE) and hence their tensile mechanical properties have been reported. The morphological analysis by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the macrophase separation of the components in the blends. In contrast to well defined spherulitic morphology and lamellar structure of the HDPE, the EOCs exhibited progressively distorted lamellar morphology with increasing 1-octene content. At high 1-octene content, the EOC samples possessed the &lsquo;worm-like&rsquo; crystals, which resemble the &lsquo;fringed micelles&rsquo; discussed in the literature. The blends allow a balance of mechanical properties (stiffness and toughness) over a wide range as shown by tensile stress strain behavior of the blends.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 5-12</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T21:43:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Adsorption of Fluoride Ion onto Zirconyl-Impregnated Activated Carbon Prepared from Lapsi Seed Stone 2014-01-08T12:53:49+00:00 Sahira Joshi Mandira Adhikari Raja Ram Pradhananga <p>The potentials of activated carbon derived from Lapsi (Choerospondias axillaries) seed stone after impregnation with zirconium for adsorptive removal of fluoride is presented. Activated carbons from Lapsi seed stone were prepared by three different techniques. Firstly by directly burning in limited supply of air, secondly by treating with a mixture of conc. H2SO4 and HNO3 (in the ratio of 1:1 by weight) and thirdly by activation with zinc chloride (in the ratio of 1:1 by weight) followed by carbonization at 400&deg;C and 500&deg;C under nitrogen atmosphere. Thus prepared carbons were impregnated with zirconyl oxychloride and effects of pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time and adsorbate concentration for the removal of fluoride were evaluated by batch mode. The optimum pH for adsorption of fluoride was observed at pH 3-4, and a minimum contact time for the maximum defluoridation was found to be 180 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to describe adsorption equilibrium. Zirconium impregnation increased the fluoride adsorption capacity of carbon to considerable extent. Among carbon prepared by three different techniques, the carbon prepared from zinc chloride activation followed by carbonization showed relatively higher fluoride adsorption capacity. From the experiment it is concluded that activated carbon prepared from Lapsi seed is an efficient, low-cost alternative to commercial activated carbon for defluoridation of water.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;13-23</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T21:58:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of Geopolymer from Coal Fly Ash 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Vinay Kumar Jha Gautam Prasad Budhamagar <p>In the present work, geopolymers have been synthesized from coal fly ash (CFA) using NaOH and Na2SiO3 as activators. Some parameters like alkali concentration, amount of Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub> and curing time have been varied in order to improve the quality of geopolymeric product. The geopolymerization process has been performed using 3-8M NaOH solutions, Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub> to CFA mass ratios of 0.25-1.25 and curing time variation from 5-15 days. The curing temperature was fixed at 40&ordm;C in all cases. In the variation of NaOH concentration, the maximum compressive strength of 2.3 MPa was obtained with CFA treated with 6M NaOH solution. Similarly during the variation of amount of Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub>, the maximum compressive strength of 17.6 MPa was obtained with Na2SiO3 to CFA mass ratio of 1.25. Furthermore, the compressive strength was found increasing up to 20.3 MPa with increasing curing time.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;24-28</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T22:07:07+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Removal of As(III) from Aqueous Solution Using Fe(III) Loaded Pomegranate Waste 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Sheela Thapa Megh Raj Pokhrel <p>A study on As(III) removal using Fe(III) loaded pomegranate waste as an adsorbent is presented. The effects of initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and pH of the solution on the removal of arsenic were investigated in a batch system. The optimum pH for As(III) adsorption using Fe(III)-loaded charred pomegranate waste [Fe-CPW] was found to be 9. The equilibrium has beenachieved in 2 hours. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for the adsorption of As (III) was found tobe 50 mg/g. The experimental data fitted well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;29-36</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T22:15:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Ecofriendly Alternative for the Removal of Cd (II) and Cu (II) from Aqueous Medium 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Jagjit Kour M. Cagnin P. L. Homagai M. R. Pokhrel K. N. Ghimire A. Masi <p>Different types of agricultural waste materials have been explored for their efficiency in removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. A biomass of Desmostachya bipinnata (DB) was investigated as the potential bio-adsorbent for the removal of Cd (II)) and Cu (II) from wastewater. The surface of DB was chemically grafted with ethylenediamine. It was characterized by elemental, FTIR and SEM analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of MDB in the removal of Cd (II) and Cu (II) were 30.4mg/g and 41.6 mg/g at their optimum pH 6 and 5, respectively. The experimental data followed the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model The research results indicated that D. bipinnata can be an alternative, efficient and ecofriendly material for the removal of Cd (II) and Cu (II) from wastewater.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;37-44</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T23:08:51+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of Geopolymer from Inorganic Construction Waste 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Arbind Pathak Vinay Kumar Jha <p>Recently, the demolition of old houses and the construction of new buildings in Kathmandu valley are in the peak which in turn generates a huge amount of construction waste. There are two major types of construction wastes which are burden for disposal namely cement-sand-waste (CSW) and the coal fly ash (CFA). These construction wastes are rich source of alumino-silicate and thus used as raw material for the synthesis of geopolymer in this study. Geopolymers have been synthesized from CSW and CFA using NaOH-KOH and Na2SiO3 as activators. Some parameters like alkali concentration, amount of Na2SiO3 and curing time have been varied in order to improve the quality of geopolymeric product. The geopolymerization process has been carried out using 3-8M KOH/NaOH solutions, Na2SiO3 to CFA and CSW mass ratio of 0.25-2.00 and curing time variation from 5-28 days. The curing temperature was fixed at 40&ordm;C in all the cases. 6M NaOH and 7M KOH solutions were found appropriate alkali concentrations while the ratio of sodium silicate to CSW and CFA of 0.5 and 1.75 respectively were found suitable mass ratio for the process of geopolymer synthesis. The maximum compressive strength of only 7.3 MPa after 15 days curing time with CSW raw material was achieved while with CFA, the compressive strength was found to be 41.9 MPa with increasing the curing time up to 28 days.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;45-51</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/16/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T23:19:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Calculation of Deexcitation Probability of Ne(3P2) by Ar for the Case E>>D 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Deba Bahadur Khadka <p>The deexcitaion probability calculation of the total Penning ionization cross section for Ne(<sup>3</sup>P<sub>2</sub>) by Ar has been made at collisional energy 38.1 meV. The comparison of deexcitationcross sections, polarizability, &alpha;/&beta; , deexcitation probability, {IP(M)/IP(Ne*)}<sup>1/2</sup> and the welldepth of interaction potentials for Ne(<sup>3</sup>P<sub>2</sub>) by Ar for the case E &gt;&gt; D has been made.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;52-55</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T23:35:32+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Photovoltaic Characterization of Dye-sensitized Solar Cells with Natural Dyes using Synthesized ZnO nanostructures 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 I. B. Karki S. Chatterjee J. J. Nakarmi D. Sinha D. Goswami P. K. Mandal <p>Considerable attention was created over the past decade on Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as a viable alternate technology for renewable energy. Much attention was attracted due to their high efficiencies and potentially low production costs. In this paper, DSSCs with natural dyes were successfully synthesized using ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanorods were grown on an ITO coated glass using sol-gel method and used to fabricate DSSCs using natural dyes and liquid potassium iodide (KI<sub>3</sub>) electrolyte. Different natural dye were analyzed for its suitability to be used in DSSC and subsequently used to fabricate the cell. Finally the photovoltaic properties of the ZnO based DSSC samples were systematically analyzed. Roles of new sensitizer dye were investigated and the results were compared. The ZnO nanorods grown by the sol-gel method have more uniform thickness. The DSSC structure with Carbon counter electrode yields an open circuit voltage markedly higher from DSSC on an ITO glass and has energy conversion efficiency less than 2%.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 56-62</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T23:54:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A New Process for the recovery of bio-accumulated cadmium from Scallops 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Kedar Nath Ghimire <p>A novel process for cadmium recovery from mid gut of scallops is investigated based on the systematic information of the process system. Adsorption of cadmium was accompanied according to the cation exchange mechanism and the equilibrium pH increased to around 7 due to the isomorphous substitution of cadmium with that calcium of SAJR. A complete recovery of cadmium has been achieved from the process that we have developed from this study.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;62-65</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-15T23:59:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of 4-aryl furo Pyridazines 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Ashok Kumar Singh Narendra Kumar Srivastav <p>Benzoyl hydrazides (1a-b) was condensed with furan-2-aldehyde (2) in the presence of sodium hydroxide and dry ethanol, furan-2-yl-benzoyl hydrazone (3a-b) was achieved. Intramolecular cyclization of compound 3a-b with PPE afforded 4-aryl furo pyridazines (4a-b)</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;66-70</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-16T00:04:54+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Zanthoxylum Armatum of Nepal 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Sushika Joshi Anuradha Gyawali <p>Phytochemical and biological screening of stem extracts of Zanthoxylum armatum of Nepal were carried out. Presence of sterols, triterpenes, volatile oils, coumarins, alkaloids, flavonoids, flavonic glycosides, saponins and tannins were detected in phytochemical screening. &beta;-sitosterol and lupeol were isolated from the hexane fraction and &beta;-sitosterol glucoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Lupeol was identified by comparison of melting point, Co-TLC and <sup>1</sup>H-NMR spectrum with authentic sample. &beta;-sitosterol and &beta;-sitosterol glucoside were characterized by their melting points and Co-TLC with authentic samples. In brine-shrimp bioassay, hexane and methanol fractions exhibited bioactivity, whereas ethyl acetate and methanol fractions showed proper bioactivity in antimicrobial bioassay.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;71-77</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/16/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-16T00:15:49+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Ageratina adenophora from Bhaktapur District of Nepal 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Bimala Subba Ram Chandra Kandel <p>The essential oil of Ageratina adenophora locally call Banmara was analyzed by GC&ndash;MS. A total of 45 volatile compounds was identified and torreyol (16.8%) was the major component in oil. The sesquiterpene fraction was higher than the monoterpene one. The essential oil showed significant antibacterial activity against both gram positive (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 78-86</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/18/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-17T23:07:05+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Highly concentrated emulsion with a cubic liquid crystal as the external phase: characterization and obtaining of meso/macroporous material 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 E. Santamaría M. Cortés A. Maestro M. Porras J. M. Gutiérrez C. González <p>High internal phase ratio emulsions (HIPRE) or highly concentrated emulsions are characterized by their large internal phase volume.The nature and concentration of surfactant affects several features of the final emulsion, such as stability, droplet size and structure of the external phase. Therefore, an ordered external mesophase (structure of liquid crystal) can be obtained. The present work studies the influence of composition and preparation variables on the final properties of HIPRE with an external phase formed by a bicontinuous cubic liquid crystal. The studied outputs variables were droplet size, stability and rheological parameters as yield stress, viscosity at a fixed shear rate and the plateau value of the storage modulus. O/W HIPREs were prepared with a decane/brij 35/water system. Once the emulsions were characterized the meso/macroporous material was obtained. In order to prepare the materials, the emulsions were formed by incorporating the catalyst of the reaction (HCl) in the continuous phase. When the emulsions were formed, tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was added as a silica source In order to optimize the production process a study of reutilization and recovery of some of the raw materials (i.e: the surfactant and the EtOH used) was done.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;87-96</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/19/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-18T19:38:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The chemical compositions of Rhododendron arboreum, “Laligunras” 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Roshani M. Shrestha Narendra pratapsingh Budhathoki <p>Rhododendron arboreum, family Ericaceae, is a medium size tree 7-14m height or shrub, Widely distributed in Nepal all along sub-tropical and temperate regions from 1200-3300m, the Rhododendron arboreum is known as &lsquo;Gunras&rsquo; in Nepali. R. arboreum was declared of Nepal&rsquo;s national flower in 1962 by government of Nepal. The chemical compositions of the wood (stem) Of Rhododendron arboreum has been investigated on the basis of useful methods of Tappi &amp; ASTM. The main chemical compositions were:-Ash content (0.75%), Extractives (4.39%), Hollocelluloses (69.82%), Hemicelluloses (22%), alpha-celluloses (47.98%), Pentosans (16.84%), &amp; Lignins (24.88%). The Lignins were analyzed by UV &amp;IR. Similarly, the fatty acid compositions of extractives were analyzed by GC/MS. The main fatty acid compositions were: Butanoic acid, Pentanoic acid, 4-Heptenoic acid, &amp; 8-Nonynoic acid in extractives. The solubility of wood in various solvents is a measure of extraneous components content. The solubility of different solvents were: - in cold water (7.02%), Hot water (8.47%), &amp; 1% NaOH (19%). The high percentage of alpha celluloses in chemical compositions shows prospective use as a raw material for paper production along with Danphebholua (Lokta) in cottage industries of Nepal.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><strong><em>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</em></strong></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;97-106</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/19/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-18T20:19:26+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relaxations in relation to Liquid Crystalline Formation and Glass Transition for Comb-like Polymer: Structural Relaxation as expressed by Entropy Model and Activation Energy Spectrum 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Yutaka Tanaka <p>This study demonstrates that the modelling approach for the kinetic phenomenon of glass transition is effective to examine the relaxation. In the enthalpy relaxation of poly(cyanobiphenyl-yloxy) alkyl acrylate, the decrease in enthalpy was measured as a function of ageing time and ageing temperature. Obtained data was analysed at first with the activation energy spectrum (AES) model, and next, with the framework of the entropy model which follows the evolution of the configurational entropy of the sample during the whole thermal history in the experiment. The prediction of DSC curve based on the result of analysis for the glass transition will be presented. AES model gives information about thermally activated processes which are available to contribute to observed enthalpy changes against the thermal history. The activated processes are relevant to the rearrangement of molecules. The rearrangement corresponds to the structural changes of polymer chain which can be observed in our study as the change in optical texture, known as the coarsening dynamics of nematic domain for the liquid crystalline materials. The analysis for the coarsening is also shown to elucidate the specific feature of physical parameter.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;107-110</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/19/2013</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-18T20:26:37+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of Antimony Sulphoiodide by CVD and its Characterization 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Harish K. Dubey L. P. Deshmukh D. E. Kshirsagar Vijay S. Jadhav Madhuri Sharon Maheshwar Sharon <p>Antimony Sulphoiodide is most widely studied compound in group V-VI-VII family due to its largenumber of properties. Varoius methods of synthesis have been reported. We are the first to reportsynthesis of shiny SbSI crystals by the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique using powder ofAntimony, Sulphur and Iodine as the starting material. Needle shaped thin crystals of SbSI were foundgrown vertically on the walls of the quartz tube. Characterizations of the sample were done usingdifferent techniques such as powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The charcteristcs peaks in Raman scattering plots (0-500 cm<sup>-1</sup>) match with the reported results. The compound exibits high resitivity at room temperaturein the order of 10<sup>-7</sup> &Omega;-cm and dielectric constant in the order of 10<sup>-3</sup> measured at 1 KHz.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;111-117</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong><em>:</em> 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T19:10:36+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phytochemical and Biological Studies on Usnea Orientalis and Rhododendron Campanulatum of Nepal 2014-01-08T12:55:28+00:00 Sushika Joshi Pradip Bastola <p>Phytochemical and biological screening of Usnea orientalis and Rhododendron campanulatum were carried out. The brine shrimp bioassay showed that the ethereal and methanolic extract of Usnea orientalis and the methanolic extract of Rhododendron campanulatum were biologically active. Antibacterial susceptibility studies of various extracts showed that the ethereal extract of Usnea orientalis and methanolic extract of Rhododendron campanulatum have antibacterial properties towards both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Two major constituents usnic acid and diffractaic acid from the ethereal extract of Usnea orientalis have been isolated and identified by their melting points, Co-TLC| and 1H-NMR spectra comparison with authentic samples. The other two compounds viz. atranorin and eumitrin have been identified by Co-TLC and melting points comparison with the authentic samples. Diffractaic acid was isolated from Usnea orientalis. Usnic acid showed inhibition towards gram positive bacteria i.e. S. aureus. The brine shrimp bioassay of pure isolated compounds showed that usnic acid, diffractaic acid and atranorin were biologically and pharmacologically active.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 118-122</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T19:19:56+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exhausted Tea Leaves – a low cost bioadsorbent for the removal of Lead (II) and Zinc (II) ions from their aqueous solution 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Bindra Shrestha P. L. Homagai M. R. Pokhrel K. N. Ghimire <p>An efficient and cost effective bioadsorbent has been prepared from exhausted tea leaves using hydrazine monohydrate. The aminated tea leaves (ATL) was characterised by elemental and spectral analysis. The batch adsorption study was performed using ATL for the removal of Pb<sup>++</sup> and Zn<sup>++</sup> from their aqueous solution. Adsorption experiment was conducted as the function of solution pH, initial metal concentration and contact time. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was found to be 120.8 mg/g for Pb<sup>++</sup> and 79.76 mg/g for Zn<sup>++</sup>. These results indicated that the aminated tea leaves hold great potential to remove Pb<sup>++</sup> and Zn<sup>++</sup> from aqueous solution.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 123-129</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T19:30:31+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Liquid Phase Chemical Deposition of High Tech ZnSe Thin Flims 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 P. C. Pingale S. T. Mane S. A. Lendave S. S. Kamble R. V. Suryawanshi Arvind Singh D. C. Kothari L. P. Deshmukh M. Sharon <p>Being a promising and potential candidate for optoelectronic device applications, zinc selenide thin films were obtained for the first time on the glass microslides using a liquid phase chemical bath deposition. The deposition conditions, such as bath temperature (70 0C), deposition time (210 mins.), reaction pH (10.5&plusmn; 0.2) and quantity of hydrazine hydrate (reducing agent) were finalized and the possible growth mechanism and reaction kinetics have been suggested. As the ZnSe films grow well in strong reducing atmosphere, the quantity of hydrazine hydrate was varied from 2 ml to 15 ml and ZnSe samples were obtained. The final product ZnSe thin films are physically hard, tightly adherent, relatively uniform and diffusely reflecting with light brown colored tinge in smoky appearance. An EDS analysis showed that the film stoichiometry depends on quantity of the added reducing agent in the bath. Structural studies were carried out on these films by an X-ray diffraction technique using Cuk&alpha; radiation. It appeared that the ZnSe films are hexagonal wurtzite in structure with preferred orientation along &lt;101&gt;. The calculated d-values, intensities of reflections and lattice parameters matched with that of the JCPD data. The calculated particle size decreased with quantity of hydrazine hydrate added in the bath (decrease in Zn/Se ratio). The optical absorption measurements in the range of wavelength from 300-1100 nm showed direct type of transitions with an optical gap decreased from 2.71 eV to 2.60 eV for the change of Zn/Se ratio from 0.993 to 0.571. The surface features revealed by SEM showed that the crystallites are nonuniformly distributed and spherical in shape. From micrographs it is seen that crystallite size decreased with increasing amount of hydrazine hydrate. Some overgrowth like structures (of the same size and shapes) has also been observed at high concentration of hydrazine hydrate.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: 130-137</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date:</strong> 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T19:47:12+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Microwave-Induced Synthesis of Some Novel Fungicidal Pyrazole Derivatives 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 A. D. Mishra <p>A series of novel pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized from propanoyl hydrazine and aromatic aldehydes under microwave irradiations. The reaction leads to condensation in ethanolic solution to give corresponding hydrazones which undergo subsequent cyclisation to furnish pyrazole derivatives in presence of formic acid. The reaction rate is enhanced considerably by using microwaves with excellent yield as compared to conventional heating method. The reactions took 4-7 minutes for completion with 78-92% yield. All the synthesized pyrazole derivatives showed promising antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus Flavus. Microwave-induced organic synthesis has been proved quite beneficial and eco-friendly method in terms of limited use of chemicals, short reaction time and good yield with higher degree of purity.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;138-142</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T19:57:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Photovoltaic Studies of Cd1-xCoxS Based Electrochemical Cells 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 L. P. Deshmukh S. T. Mane S. A. Lendave P. C. Pingale R. V. Suryawanshi B. R. Pirgonde <p>The Cd<sub>1-x</sub>Co<sub>x</sub>S (0 &le; x &le; 0.5) thin films were deposited on chemomechanically and ultrasonically cleaned stainless steel substrates by a liquid phase chemical bath deposition technique. The preparative parameters, (viz. growth temperature (56&deg;C), deposition time (80 minutes), reaction pH (11&plusmn;0.2) and the rate of mechanical churning (70&plusmn;2)) and deposition conditions were used as optimized previously. The electrode/electrolyte interfaces were then set up between the n-type Cd<sub>1-x</sub>Co<sub>x</sub>S (0 &le; x &lt; 0.5) photosensing electrodes and a sulphide/polysulphide (0.25 M ) redox electrolyte in H-shaped corning glass cells. A graphite rod treated in a cobalt sulphate solution for 24 hours was employed as a counter electrode. The as- fabricated cells were then characterized through the voltage-current and voltage-capacitance characteristics in dark, photovoltaic power output characteristics under constant illumination, and different responses of the cells to incident light. The PV performance parameters such open-circuit photopotential (V<sub>ph</sub>), short circuit photocurrent (I<sub>ph</sub>), series and shunt resistances (Rs &amp; R<sub>sh</sub>), efficiency (&eta;), form factor (ff), dark ideality factor (nd), ideality factor under illumination(nL), built-in potential (&Phi;<sub>B</sub>), dark current (I<sub>D</sub>), the flat band potential(V<sub>fb</sub>), junction capacitance under flat band condition (cj), cut off wavelength(&lambda;c) and photogenerated carrier life time(&tau;) were evaluated for various cells with a special emphasis given to the electrode composition (x). In general, photovoltaic output performance of the Cd<sub>1-X</sub>Co<sub>X</sub>S based electrochemical cell is improved after Co implantation (x=0.1) in CdS.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Societ<em>y</em></strong></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;151-158</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T22:45:17+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhanced Production of Ethanol from Cheese whey by Agarose and Alginate immobilization of Yeast Cells 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Smita Shrestha Fedip Shrestha Prajwal Rajbhandari Ramesh Baral Shyam Krishna Suwal Jarina Joshi <p>Yeasts cells isolated from dry yeast were immobilized in alginate and agarose to form beads. The fermentation of ethanol from cheese whey was optimized with respect to temperature, pH, and rpm. A comparative study was performed between immobilized and free cells to get the maximum ethanol production Results revealed that 35&deg;C temperature, 4.5 pH and 60 rpm is the optimized condition for yeast immobilized in agarose bead. Similarly, 35&deg;C temperature, 5.0 pH, 60 rpm is the optimized condition for yeast immobilized in alginate bead and 35&deg;C temperature, 5.0 pH, 80 rpm is the optimized condition for the free yeast cell respectively. Immobilised cell resulted 4.25% ethanol with alginate bead whereas 4.35% with agarose bead and 4.30% with free cell after three days of incubation under optimized conditions. When the same cell immobilized beads were reused, obtained 1.8% ethanol with agarose and 1.7% ethanol with alginate bead.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;159-164</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T22:58:42+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Isolation and Characterisation of Seco-phthalide Isoquinoline Alkaloid from Corydalis species 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Ram Narayan Jha <p>Chromatographic resolution of crude base fraction of the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Corydalis longipes on Silca-gel column yielded one Seco-phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid, N-methylhydrasteine hydroxyl lactam. Its structure was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis and comparison with spectroscopic data reported.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;165-167</p> <p><em><strong>Uploaded date</strong></em>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T23:04:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparation of halide sensors by means of co-precipitation of silver sulphide and silver halide 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Armila Rajbhandari Krishna Manandhar Raja Ram Pradhananga <p>Halide sensors have been prepared in the laboratory by means of co-precipitation of silver sulphide and silver halide and is used for the determination of iodide, bromide and chlorides ions. The iodide sensors show a Nernstian response in the concentration range of 10<sup>-1</sup> to 10<sup>-6</sup>M iodide ions, bromide sensors show a linear response in the concentration range of 10<sup>-1</sup> to 10<sup>-5</sup>M bromide ions while chloride sensors show linear response upto the concentration range of 10<sup>-4</sup>M chloride ions. The response time of all the electrodes, is &lt; 1minute. The iodide sensors were found to be selective towards iodide ions in the presence of Cl<sup>-</sup> and Br<sup>-</sup> ions while bromide and chloride sensors interferred by iodide ions as indicated by selectivity coefficient values of 3.98 and 48.9 respectively. These sensors have been successfully applied for potentiometric titrations.</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;168-173</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T23:15:44+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of Triazole derivative: [4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl -4H-1,2,4 – triazole-3-thiol] 2013-12-29T06:46:53+00:00 Ashok Kumar Singh Khem Raj Kandel <p>The basic nucleus 4-(amino)-5-phenyl-l-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol has been synthesized by cyclisation of potassium dithiocarbazinate with hydrazine hydrate using water as solvent under reflux condition for 3-4 h. The compound which has been synthesized successfully was subjected to condensation with benzaldehyde to synthesize 4-(benzylideneamino)-5-phenyl -4H-1,2,4 &ndash; triazole-3-thiol (Schiff base). The compounds were confirmed by physical parameters (melting point), chromatographic methods (TLC) and spectroscopic methods (IR and NMR).</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p><em><strong>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</strong></em></p> <p>Vol. 30, 2012</p> <p>Page: &nbsp;174-177</p> <p><strong>Uploaded date</strong>: 12/20/2013</p> <p>&nbsp;</p><p>&nbsp;</p> 2013-12-19T23:22:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##