Journal of Nepal Chemical Society 2021-03-11T17:09:05+00:00 Mahesh Kumar Joshi Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Nepal Chemical Society (JNCS) is a peer-reviewed chemistry journal published by Nepal Chemical Society (NCS), Kathmandu, NEPAL. JNCS publishes original research papers, review articles, short communications and research reports on topics related to different chemistry disciplines such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, nanochemistry and nanomaterials, polymer chemistry and polymer composites, biochemistry and bio molecules, environmental chemistry, geo-chemistry, and allied fields.</p> Effect of pH on Homogeneous Photodegradation of Eosin Y Dye 2021-03-11T16:14:31+00:00 Subrata Chandra Roy Abu Jafar Mahmood <p>Eosin Y (EY), an anionic dye, also known as Eosin Yellow or Bromoeosin, or Acid red 27 is an industrial dye. The residual dye, discharged as one of the components of the untreated effluent, into the adjacent surface and causes water pollution. Photodegradation of EY was investigated at 29 <sup>o</sup>C in homogeneous aqueous media using UV<sub>A</sub> light (≈400 – 320 nm) in acetate buffer solution as a function of pH (3.08-7.08). At higher pH, there was no effect of this light on the dye in the solution. Results show that the initial rate of photocolorization increased with decreasing the pH of the dye solution.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Mannich Bases of 4-(Furan-2-yl-methyleneamino)-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thione 2021-03-11T16:14:34+00:00 Prem Shankar Deo Rhambus Rawat Bhushan Shakya <p>Triazole nucleus has drawn much attention since the last decade because of its various potent biological activities. The pharmacological application of triazoles has been widely recognized and well documented. Schiff and Mannich bases are both considered as bioactive compounds, however, there are not much of documentation about the Mannich bases as their study has begun lately. The main aim of this study was to synthesize new Mannich bases from Schiff base bearing 1,2,4-triazole nucleus to access their antimicrobial activities. The newly synthesized compounds 1,2,4-triazole-5-thione, Schiff base (<strong>4</strong>) and Mannich bases (<strong>5a</strong> &amp; <strong>5b</strong>) were characterized by spectral techniques like UV, FT-IR, and NMR. Mannich bases were tested against various bacterial (gm +ve and gm –ve) as well as fungal strains. The synthesized Mannich bases showed good to moderate activities against the tested bacterial and fungal strains.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Exposure to Indoor Dust in Kathmandu, Nepal 2021-03-11T16:14:35+00:00 Sulakshya Bhandari Sudarshana Shakya Bijaya Adhikari Mahesh Shrestha Bindra Devi Shakya Achut Ram Pradhananga Prem Kumar Shrestha Ramesh Kaji Shakya Dipesh Raj Pant Pawan Raj Shakya <p>The present study was carried out to assess the contamination of heavy metals in indoor household dust of Kathmandu, Nepal, and its adverse effect on the indoor environment and human health. The concentrations of four heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) in a total of ninety-three (<em>N </em>= 93) indoor dust samples collected from four different types of land use zones <em>viz.</em>, commercial, heavy traffic, residential, and control (undisturbed) of Kathmandu were determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). The mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb in indoor dust samples over the study zones were 0.89, 158.1, 113.3, and 65.3 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The land use zones showed the various degree of metal contamination in indoor dust ranging from moderate to considerable level. PLI showed a high pollution load in the monitored locations, indicating an alarming condition and the urgent need for immediate remedial actions. Hazard quotient (HQ) values indicated ingestion as the major pathway of indoor dust heavy metal exposure to children while the inhalation pathway remained dominant in adults. Hazard index (HI) values showed no probable non-carcinogenic risk of the heavy metals present in the indoor dust of Kathmandu. For carcinogenic health risk, TLCR values were found within the acceptable safe limit indicating no cancer risk for both the receptor groups.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Synthesis and Characterization of High Molecular Weight Chitosan, and Antioxidant Activity of Its Chitosan Oligosaccharide Encapsulation 2021-03-11T16:14:37+00:00 Hari Sharan Adhikari Aditya Garai Bishnu Prasad Marasini Rameshwar Adhikari Paras Nath Yadav <p>High molecular weight nanocrystalline chitosan (HMWNC)with M<sub>w </sub>of 350 kDa and 66.92% DDA was prepared by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin that was abundantly obtained after demineralization and deproteinization of pulverized crab shells, and commercially available chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) with average M<sub>w</sub>&lt; 3000 Da and 87% DDA was encapsulated with HMWNC. The encapsulation of COS as a pharmaceutical ingredient into HMWC was hypothesized to enhance the bioavailability of COS in target cells. The HMWNC encapsulated chitosan oligosaccharide (COS-HMWNC) showed <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals (IC<sub>50</sub> = 512.6±14.4 μg/mL) while others showed less than 50% inhibition at 1000 μg/mL. The lower the molecular weight of chitosan, the higher was the antioxidant activity. The study showed that the encapsulation of COS molecules in HMWNCcould be used as a simple and effective way of enhancing the antioxidant activity of COS.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Facile Synthesis of Nanosized Magnesium-Aluminium Layered Double Hydroxides 2021-03-11T16:14:38+00:00 Kedar Nath Dhakal Girja Mani Aryal Hari Sharan Adhikari Rameshwar Adhikari <p>We report facile methods of preparing nanosized hydrotalcite-like compounds, the layered double hydroxides (LDH), with ordinary chemistry laboratory settings to educate the young scientists from high schools to undergraduate university level fostering their research interest in preparing these nanomaterials of practical importance. Coprecipitation and urea hydrolysis methods have been recommended as facile routes of preparing the magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxides (Mg-Al LDHs). The LDH thus prepared were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The observed weakening of some FTIR peaks and XRD planes shifting concerning standard JCPDS 89-5434 data implied the slight structural variation of the compounds and the presence of impurities. The average grain diameter of LDH particles was found in the range of 20 to 60 nm.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Green Synthesis of Zirconia (ZrO2) Nanoparticles using Curcuma Longa Extract and Investigation of Compressive Strength of Epoxy resin (EP)/ZrO2 Nanocomposites 2021-03-11T16:14:40+00:00 Manish Bishwokarma Arun Bhujel Manish Baskota Rajesh Pandit <p>Zirconia (ZrO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles are polymorphic materials having a wide range of applications. It can be synthesized <em>via</em> green as well as chemical synthesis methods. In this work, ZrO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were synthesized by the green method using <em>Curcuma longa</em> extract. <em>Curcuma longa</em> extract was prepared using the standard method. The synthesized ZrO<sub>2</sub> was characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy for their structural and size analysis. The analysis of the XRD pattern of ZrO<sub>2</sub> showed the tetragonal phase structure and the size was calculated using the Debye Scherrer equation which was about 34.55 nm. The FTIR spectra analysis showed a broad absorption peak particularly at about 774 cm<sup>-1</sup> and about 499 cm<sup>-1</sup> correspondings to Zr-O<sub>2</sub>-Zr asymmetric and Zr-O stretching modes, respectively. The characterized ZrO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were used for the preparation of epoxy resin/ZrO<sub>2 </sub>nanocomposites. The compressive strength of pure epoxy resin and epoxy resin/ZrO<sub>2 </sub>nanocomposites were measured by a compressive strength tester and the result indicates the high amount of zirconia was not suitable for the nanocomposites.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Spectrophotometric Quantification of Iron in Different Pharmaceuticals 2021-03-11T16:59:27+00:00 Kshama Parajuli Kamala Sharma Narayan Bhattarai Ganga G.C <p>Quantification of iron in different pharmaceuticals can be performed by different analytical methods. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of iron (II) in different iron tablets. A spectrophotometric method is based on the reaction of iron (II) with 1,10-phenanthroline to form an orange-red chelating complex in an acidic medium. The maximum absorbance of the chelating complex was measured at 510 nm. The Beer Lambert’s law was found to be obeyed in the range of 0.4-4.0 mg/L of iron (II). Out of ten samples analyzed, the observed amount of iron (II) in nine samples were range from 105 to 96 mg whereas in one sample it was observed only 81 mg per 100 mg of the labeled amount of iron(II) by the manufacturer. Thus the results obtained by the spectrophotometric method using 1,10-phenanthroline as a color developing agent were nearly equal to the claimed values of iron (II) in different iron tablets from manufacturing companies.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Oxovanadium(IV) Complexes with Triazole Based Schiff Base Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Study 2021-03-11T16:14:43+00:00 Bharat Prasad Sharma Sarvesh Kumar Pandey Bishnu Prasad Marasini Sabita Shrestha Motee Lal Sharma <p>Schiff bases have been synthesized by the reaction of triazole containing primary amine with aromatic carbonyl compounds. The Schiff bases prepared, act as ligand when these are made in contact with oxovanadium (VO<sup>2+</sup>) ion. Some new mononuclear oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized by the reaction of Schiff base ligands with vanadyl sulphate (VOSO<sub>4</sub>.xH<sub>2</sub>O) &nbsp;and the complexes are analyzed by different spectroscopic methods; [fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis.), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)], X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, elemental analysis, and conductivity measurement. The complexes have been well characterized based on analytical data. The electrolytic nature of the complexes was determined based on the molar conductance values. The powder XRD pattern has been used to determine crystal size and type. The synthesized Schiff base ligands and oxovanadium(IV) complexes were found to be stable in air and moisture at room temperature. On the basis of the physicochemical data, the tentative geometry of the complexes has been proposed. Antibacterial sensitivity of the ligand and its metal complexes have been assayed <em>in vitro </em>against bacterial pathogens viz. growth inhibitory activity of ligands and complexes against pathogens has also been determined.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Screening of Azepine Derivative: 2-hydroxy-1,3-di(naphthalene-2-yl)-1H-benzo[b]azepine-5(4H)one 2021-03-11T16:14:44+00:00 Amit Sharma Ashok Kumar Singh <p>The synthesis of unsaturated heterocyclic compounds containing nitrogen atoms in the ring is very important due to its various biological application in the pharmaceutical industry. Azepine derivatives find numerous application almost every field in medicinal chemistry and some of its are commercially available as drugs. The two-component of azepine derivatives were synthesized by using the aniline and maleic anhydride as a starting material followed by condensation with sodium borohydride in presence of dry benzene, subsequently cyclization by polyphosphoric acid then, finally by an addition reaction with naphthalene-2-ol to form the desired derivative. The formation of the synthesized azepine derivative was confirmed by spectral techniques such as IR, <sup>1</sup>H-NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C-NMR. The antibacterial assay shows that the synthesized compound (<strong>2A</strong>) possesses the most highly potent activity in the <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> and moderate activity against other different strains of bacteria and fungi.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Genesis Exploration of White Clays Deposited in Thimi Area of Kathmandu Valley 2021-03-11T17:01:20+00:00 Madhusudan Dhakal Nirjan Duwal Narendra Mani Adhikari Susan Joshi Jagadeesh Bhattarai <p>The geological genesis of the Thimi-Sanothimi white clay deposits of Kathmandu Valley was explored employing mineralogical and chemical analyses in this research. For the study, two sample specimens of the clay having two types of particle size, i.e., about &lt; 63 µm (bulk) and &lt; 2 µm (fine), were separated with the help of standard sieve mesh which further modified using high-temperature heat, and 1 M HCl and 1 M KCl solution treatments. For the most part, both the clay fractions constituted of 2:1 type of vermiculite and mica (mainly of K-mica type) clay minerals with different feldspars and quartz phases as clay admixtures from the results of the mineralogical phase analysis. The chemical constituents of the clay particles with &lt; 63 µm, &lt; 2 µm, and the HCl-treated sample specimens confirmed the existence of a high quantity of SiO<sub>2 </sub>with comparatively low Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>which indicates the presence of fewer amounts of the vermiculite and mica minerals comparatively with feldspars and quart admixtures in the analyzed white clay samples. Moreover, the clay sample contained a considerable quantity of Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>and MgO chemicals which are not favorable raw material constituents for good quality porcelains and white-wares products without refining and chemical-modifications. The present work could be the first step to explore its potentiality in various industrial sectors like table-ware, sanitary-ware, brick and tile ceramics, paper and pulp, petrochemical, pharmaceutical including environmental pollution controlling agents in Nepal.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Silver(I) Ion Removal Efficiency of Activated Carbon Prepared from Terminalia-bellerica (Barro) Seed Stone 2021-03-11T17:03:55+00:00 Mandira Pradhananga Adhikari Sandeep Sharma Lamsal <p>Phosphoric acid-activated <em>Terminalia-bellerica </em>(Barro) seed stone powder was carbonized in a muffle furnace at three different temperatures (300, 400, and 500<sup>o</sup>C). The activated carbons (BAC-300, BAC-400, and BAC-500) were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), methylene blue number, and iodine number. The iodine number (357 mg/g) and specific surface area (537 m<sup>2</sup>/g) were a maximum for BAC-400. The BACs followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm and the maximum methylene blue adsorption capacity was 212.77 mg/g. The silver ion removal efficiency was a maximum at pH 6, 3 mg/L of adsorbent dose, and 20 mg/L of silver ion concentration. The BAC-400 could adsorb 40 % of silver ion within 5 mins with the initial Ag(I) ion concentration of 20 mg/L and an adsorbent dose of 1 mg/L. The percentage of adsorption enhanced to 100% with the increment of adsorbent doseto3 g/L.The adsorption kinetics of silver (I) ion on BAC-400 was well fitted to pseudo-second-order kinetics suggesting the chemisorption of silver ions. All the results attributed that low-cost viable adsorbent can be prepared from Barro seed stone for the efficient removal of silver ion from aqueous solution.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Recovery of Potassium from Incineration Ash of Chicken Dropping (IACD) by Sulphuric Acid Leaching Followed by Adsorption Using Orange Waste Gel 2021-03-11T16:14:48+00:00 Hari Paudyal Katsutoshi Inoue Bimala Pangeni <p>Two types of leaching solution namely; aqua-regia and 1MH<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> were investigated for the leaching of K(I) from incineration ash of chicken dropping (IACD), in this study. SOJR and Na(I)-SOJR adsorbents were prepared from orange juice residue for the adsorption of K(I) from IACD leached liquor, which was compared with READF-(PG) and 200CT resin. The characterization of IACD leaching was done in EDX and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. Aqua-regia solution completely dissolved IACD and all the adsorbents. One molar sulphuric acid (1MH<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) solution was optimized for effective leaching of K(I) from the IACD sample. SOJR, Na(I)-SOJR, and 200CT adsorbed K(I) from leached liquor whereas K(I) was insignificantly adsorbed onto READF-(PG). The desorption of adsorbed K(I) could be successfully done by H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>solution for recovery and adsorbent regeneration for further usage. From comparisons, Na(I)-SOJR investigated in this study was found to be equally effective with a commercially available cation exchanger (200CT resin). Therefore, a new method of H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4 </sub>leaching of IACD followed by adsorption using Na(I)-SOJR investigated in this work can be an economic, environmentally benign, and promising technique for the recovery of K(I) ion from leach liquor of IACD.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Utilization of Charred Water Hyacinth (Jalkumvi) as Biosorbent for Removal of Ca(II) Ion from Aqueous Solution 2021-03-11T17:05:59+00:00 Arun Bhujel Krishna Wagle Bishow Regmi Bibek Sapkota Bhoj Raj Poudel Surendra K Gautam <p>A promising adsorbent, charred water hyacinth (CWH) for the removal of Ca(II) from the aqueous solution was explored by heat treatment of water hyacinth followed by chemical activation with acidified zinc chloride (ZnCl<sub>2</sub>). The adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Batch adsorption techniques were conducted for Ca(II) adsorption to assess the adsorption isotherm, effect of pH, contact time, initial Ca(II) concentration, adsorbent doses, and adsorption kinetics. The SEM micrograph illustrates the rough and irregular surface morphology and EDX spectra confirm the successful adsorption of Ca(II) on the adsorbent surface. The equilibrium adsorption data better fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model having a maximum adsorption capacity (q<sub>max</sub>) of 319.75 mg/g. The highest percentage of adsorption was found at pH 1.5. The adsorption of Ca(II) by CWH decreased at the higher metal concentration and lower adsorbent doses. The adsorption of Ca(II) ions onto CWH followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. . Overall, these results suggested that the as-prepared CWH can be used as an eco-friendly, economical and efficient alternative for the removal of Ca(II)&nbsp; from the aqueous solution.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aerial Parts of Euphorbia hirta L. 2021-03-11T17:09:05+00:00 Deepak Basyal Astha Neupane Durga Prasad Pandey Shiva Pandeya <p><em>Euphorbia hirta</em>&nbsp;L (Euphorbiaceae) also called asthma herb has long been prescribed in traditional medicine because it exhibits diverse pharmacological actions due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpenoids, and saponins. The present study is aimed at the study of phytochemical and antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory screening of <em>E. hirta</em>.&nbsp;Extraction of dried powder was performed followed by phytochemical screening using color reactions. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of the extracts were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride method respectively. The antioxidant activity was studied by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method.&nbsp; Anti-inflammatory activity was studied by using protein denaturation in&nbsp;vitro&nbsp;bioassay. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenolic compounds. TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity (IC<sub>50</sub>) of the extract were found as 288.10 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g), 29.36 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) and 32.23 µg/mL (p&lt;0.05) respectively. Diclofenac sodium and <em>E. hirta </em>extract showed the maximum inhibition of 91.28% and 68.20% respectively at the concentration of 1000 µg/mL compared with control (p&gt;0.05). The phenolic compounds and flavonoids exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities because of their scavenging ability. The demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may be the rationale behind some of its folkloric uses and also may be responsible for some of its pharmacological effects. Thus, <em>E. hirta</em> can be considered a good source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory actions, which might be beneficial for combating oxidative stress.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Phytoconstituents and Biological Activities of Zanthoxylum armatum Fruit Extract 2021-03-11T16:14:52+00:00 Ishwor Pathak Shusma Rokaha Kiran Bahadur Bajracharya <p>The essential oil and methanol extract of the fruit of <em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> DC were extracted by hydro-distillation in the Clevenger apparatus and cold percolation technique respectively and their chemical and biological studies were performed. The chemical compositions of essential oil were analyzed by GC-MS analysis. The most abundant ingredient was Linalool (75.31%) followed by E-methyl cinnamate (11.73%) and limonene (9.45%). The nature of the functional groups present in the extract was analyzed by performing FTIR analysis. The methanol extract showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, polyphenols, terpenoids, volatile oils, tannins, and saponins. Biological activities of the oil and extract were evaluated by performing brine shrimp bioassay, antibacterial activity test, and antifungal activity test.&nbsp; Essential oil (LC<sub>50</sub> = 76.70 µg/mL) and methanol extract (LC<sub>50</sub> = 62.25 µg/mL) were found highly cytotoxic against brine-shrimp nauplii. The essential oil showed potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria <em>Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus leutus, </em>and<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em> with the zone of inhibitions 11 mm, 16 mm, and 17 mm respectively and moderate antibacterial activity against the gram-negative bacteria <em>Klebsiella pneumonia, </em><em>Enterobacter cloacae,</em> and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>with the zone of inhibitions 9 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm respectively. The methanol extract was found to be effective against gram-positive bacteria only. Both oil and extract showed moderate antifungal activity against bacterial strains.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society Chemical Constituents of the Essential Oil of Invasive Chromolaena odorata leaves in Central Nepal 2021-03-11T16:14:54+00:00 Lal B Thapa Seeta Pathak Khadka Bahadur Pal Tayer Mohamad Miya Tej Bahadur Darji Gunanand Pant Ramesh Raj Pant <p><em>Chromolaena odorata </em>is one of the widely distributed invasive alien plants in the tropical to subtropical regions of Nepal. It has the ability to impact native species in its invaded range by multiple modes such as allelopathy including volatilization. This study aims to identify volatile chemical components in the essential oil of <em>C. odorata</em>. The leaf samples of <em>C. odorata </em>were collected from the Radha Krishna Community Forest, Chitwan district of Nepal. The essential oil from the leaves of <em>C. odorata</em> was extracted and the chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A total of 19 chemical components from the oil were identified. The major components identified were linalool (21.64%); β-pinene (9.43%); 1,3-cycloheptadiene (8.92%); β-cubebene (7%); cinnamaldehyde (5.30%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.94%). O-methoxy cinnamaldehyde and isoeugenyl acetate were not listed by previous studies as the components in the essential oils of <em>C. odorata</em>. The components identified by this study have allelopathic effects on native plant species, anti-herbivory properties, and medicinal values. Therefore, this study could be important to understand plant invasiveness and utilization of the plant for the extraction of bioactive compounds may contribute to control and manage the plants in the invaded areas.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society An Overview of Synthesis Based Biomedical Applications of Hydroxyapatite Nanomaterials 2021-03-11T16:14:32+00:00 Netra Lal Bhandari Sunita Bista Tika Ram Gautam Kabita Bist Ganesh Bhandari Sumita Subedi Kedar Nath Dhakal <p>Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the mineral phase of animal bones embedded in a collagen-containing organic matrix. It is a naturally optimized material for the physical support of the bones. Synthetic Hydroxyapatite based biomaterials, hence, find wide applications in orthopedics, dentistry, and tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity, and similar chemical composition to that of HAp present in animal bones. Different physicochemical synthetic methods and natural biogenic sources have been reported for the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite. However, particle size, aspect ratio, and the distribution of HAp in biomaterials have significant effects to use as bone substitutes and implants. This paper has summarized some synthetic methods of preparing nano-HAp from different biogenic approaches. Further, it focuses on some facile synthetic routes of preparing nano-HAp with controlled particle size with higher crystallinity and native bone architectures. This review article aims to correlate some simplistic and cost-effective biosynthetic approaches of nano-HAp, their size-dependent properties characterization, and biomedical applications.</p> 2021-03-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Nepal Chemical Society