Journal of Nepal Chemical Society <p>The Journal of Nepal Chemical Society (JNCS) is a peer-reviewed chemistry journal published by Nepal Chemical Society (NCS), Kathmandu, NEPAL. JNCS publishes original research papers, review articles, short communications and research reports on topics related to different chemistry disciplines such as organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, nanochemistry and nanomaterials, polymer chemistry and polymer composites, biochemistry and bio molecules, environmental chemistry, geo-chemistry, and allied fields.</p> <p><strong>Authors Guidelines for the Journal of Nepal Chemical Society (JNCS)</strong></p> <p><strong>Aims and scope </strong></p> <p>The Journal of Nepal Chemical Society (JNCS) is a peer-reviewed Journal published by the Nepal Chemical Society. JNCS publishes original research papers, review articles, case studies short communications and letters related to several areas of chemistry and closely related fields.It is dedicated to provide original, most updated, well-designed and scientifically discussed research information in the several areas of chemistry. The JNCS is an open-access journal indexed in Nepjol ( Articles are published on a bi-annual basis and made available in both online and printed formats.</p> <p>Author (s) should declare that submitted work should not have been published elsewhere, accepted or under consideration by any other publisher.</p> <p><em>Authors are kindly requested to check the final paper thoroughly before submission.Make sure that all the requirements stated in the instructions are carefully fulfilled prior to submission.</em></p> <p><strong>Specific point to note </strong></p> <ul> <li>The manuscript should be written in grammatically correct English language (preferably British) using Times New Roman, font size 12 pt. line spacing 1.5, and paper size A4 with 2cm margin around. (Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin.) Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated.</li> <li>The length of the paper should preferably not exceed8-12 typed pages for the original article, 12-18 typed pages for the review article, and 3-4 pages for short communications including tables, figures and references,.</li> <li>Table(s) and figure(s) should be inserted in the main text in the appropriate position. However, high quality image file (in JPGE/TIFF) should be sent separately.</li> <li>Enter the page number on every page.</li> <li><strong>Title page:</strong> TITLE (14 pt. bold, sentence case). Authors’ names (11 pt. bold), with affiliations and corresponding address with email (11 pt. italics), Abstract (not exceeding 250 words and keywords (not exceeding 5 words)</li> <li><strong>Cover letter:</strong> Each manuscript should include separate cover letter with explaining the significance of the work and the problem that is addressed. It should not exceed more than one page. Consent from all co-authors must be taken prior to the submission.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Instruction for preparation of Manuscript</strong></p> <p><strong>Manuscripts</strong></p> <p>A full-length paper should normally be divided into the following parts: <strong>Title</strong>, Authors’ names with affiliations and corresponding address with email, <strong>Abstract</strong> followed by Keywords, <strong>Introduction</strong>, <strong>Materials and Methods</strong> (or <strong>Experimental</strong>), or <strong>Results and Discussion</strong>)<strong>Conclusions</strong>, <strong>Acknowledgements</strong>,<strong>Author (s) Contribution Statement</strong>, <strong>References</strong>, and <strong>Annexures/Supporting documents</strong>(if any).</p> <p><strong>Title:</strong>Titles should represent the content of the manuscript, serve as a guide to reference librarians, and facilitate communication. It should be concise, meaningful, and clear. Subtitles may be used whenever needed. Title should be centered, boldface, sentence case.</p> <p><strong>Author(s): </strong>The full name of the author(s) should be written in 11 pt. bold, center aligned just below the title. The authors’ list should include only those who have made a substantial contribution to the design and execution of the work and the writing of the manuscript. Authors’ affiliations represent the official institutional address of the authors. It should be typed in 11 pt., italics. Authors should identify the name and address of the author to whom correspondence should be sent.</p> <p><strong>Abstract:</strong>The Abstract should summarize and briefly explain the major findings of paper. It should contain an experimental question, method, major findings and conclusions not exceeding 250 words. The abstract must be followed by keywords (not exceeding 5).</p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The main purpose of the research should appear in the introduction section. It should define the purpose of the work and its significance, including specific hypothesis tested. Pertinent information on the research field should be carefully reviewed and key publications cited. </p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong>Provide sufficient information clearly to allow someone to reproduce the published results. A clear description of your experimental design, sampling procedures, and statistical procedures should be described. The methods already published should be indicated by a reference, and only relevant modifications should be described. Provide the source of the chemical used and the model number for equipment/instruments used (if any).</p> <p><strong>Resultsand Discussion</strong>: Provide a concise and precise description of the experimental results and their interpretation. Present the results logically in text, tables and figures.Discuss the results of your study from data obtained from other secondary sources. Interpret your results and relate them to the results of previous research. The findings and their implications should be discussed in the broadest context possible.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong>State the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of the importance and relevance.</p> <p><strong>Acknowledgements:</strong>Acknowledge only those who have made an important contribution to the study. Many contributions justify acknowledgments, such as technical help, financial support, and sources of materials, and persons who have contributed intellectually to the development of the manuscript.</p> <p><strong>Author (s)Contribution Statement</strong>: The authors should mention the contributions to the work by each author. For instance, the section should cover but not limited to: conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, data curation, visualization,writing-original draft preparation, writing-Review and editing, supervision etc. Please follow CRediT author statement (Elsevier) for the term explanation.</p> <p><strong>Conflict of Interest</strong>: The authors should declare if there is any conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest that should also be clearly stated as 'the authors do not have any conflict of interest pertinent to this work'.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Statement</strong>: The authors should state that it is their original work and has not been previously published or submitted for publication elsewhere. In addition, if human subjects and/or animals are part of the research work, the authors must provide ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board (or similar entity) to show that they obtained consent to carry out the research.</p> <p><strong>Data Availability Statement</strong>: The data availability statement should be clarified by mentioning the responsible author who has owned the raw data. For instance, one can state: 'The data that support the findings of this study can be made available from the corresponding author, upon reasonable request'.</p> <p><strong>Annexures/supporting documents:</strong>In special cases, if the article is too long to justify the results, then a few documents/results/files would be sent as supporting files to support the original article. The supporting files would not be visible in print or online</p> <p><strong>References:</strong>Author(s) take full responsibility for the accuracy of their reference.All publications cited in the text should be referred to in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. In the text refer to references by a number in square brackets on the line (e.g. [1]).</p> <p><strong>Reference Style </strong></p> <p><em>Journal article</em></p> <p>[Author name], [Title of paper (sentence case)], [<em>Full Journal name</em> (Italics)], [Year], [Volume No. (issue No.)], [page-to-page], DOI</p> <ol> <li>Khanal, Y. Lu, D. Jin, and S. Xu, Effects of layered double hydroxides on the thermal and flame retardant properties of intumescent flame retardant high density polyethylene composites,<em>Fire and Materials,</em>2022, 46(1), 107-116.</li> </ol> <p>(DOI:<a href=""></a>)</p> <ol start="2"> <li>Mogana, A. Adhikari, M.N.Tzar, R. Ramliza, and C.J. Wiart, Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds from <em>Canariumpatentinervium</em>Miq. against bacterial clinical isolates, <em>BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies</em>, 2020,20, 1-11<strong>. </strong></li> </ol> <p>(DOI: <a href=""></a>)</p> <ol start="3"> <li>Bhattarai, E. Akiyama, H. Habazaki, A. Kawashima, K. Asami, and K. Hashimoto, The passivation behavior of sputter-deposited W-Ta alloys in 12 M HCl, <em>Corrosion Science</em>, 1998,40(4-5), 757-779. (DOI:<a href=""></a>)</li> </ol> <p><em>BOOK: </em></p> <p>S.M. Khopkar, <em>Basic Concepts of Analytical chemistry</em>, 2<sup>nd</sup> ed., New Age International, Dehli, 1998.</p> <p><em>Edited book </em></p> <ol> <li>Kissinger, W.R. Heineman (eds.), <em>Laboratory Techniques in ElectroanalyticalChemistry, Revised and Expanded</em>, 2<sup>nd</sup> ed., CRC press, 2018, India</li> </ol> <p><em>Book Chapter</em></p> <p>P.T. Kissinger, C.R. Preddy, R.E. Shoup, W.R. Heineman, Fundamental Concept of Analytical Electrochemistry, In P. Kissinger, W.R. Heineman (eds.), <em>Laboratory Techniques in ElectroanalyticalChemistry, Revised and Expanded</em>, 2<sup>nd</sup> ed., CRC press, 2018, India</p> <p><em>Theses/Dissertations</em></p> <ol> <li>Bhattarai, <em>Tailoring of corrosion-resistant tungsten alloys by sputtering. </em>PhD Thesis, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan, 1998</li> </ol> <p><strong>Unit:</strong> All measurements and data should be given in SI units, or if SI units do not exist, in an internationally accepted unit. Please include an explanatory footnote the first time it is used for use of any symbol or unit that may not be generally recognized.</p> <p><strong>Math formulae </strong></p> <p>Equations and formulae should be typewritten using Equation editor/Math type wherever possible. Equations should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in parentheses on the right hand side of the page.</p> <p><strong>Tables, Figures/Pictures </strong></p> <p>The tables and figures should be marked with self-explanatory notes and figure legends. Figure and table captions should be given below and above, respectively. Figures and illustrations should be in JPEG/TIFF (at least 300 dpi resolution) format. Each figure and table should be linked with the text. Figure and Table number should be in sequence, using Arabic numerals – i.e., Fig. 1. 2., 3., etc., Table 1., 2., 3., etc. Table and figure caption should be in 10 pt., centered align.</p> <p><strong>Acronyms/Abbreviations</strong> should be defined the first time they appear in each of three sections: the abstract; the main text; the first figure or table. When defined for the first time, the acronym/abbreviation should be added in parentheses after the written-out form.</p> <p><strong>Manuscript submission </strong></p> <p>Chief Editor</p> <p>Journal of Nepal Chemical Society, GPO Box 6145, Kathmandu, NEPAL.</p> <p>Email: <a href=""></a>, <a href=""></a></p> <p>The Chief Editor's decisions about the publication of the submitted papers are final. The views stated in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the Editorial Board or the publisher. Furthermore, it is expected to suggest the full names and email addresses of three possible reviewers who are relevant to the manuscript's subject area.</p> <p><strong>Authorship Change</strong></p> <p>Authors should carefully consider the order and list of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive author list at the time of the original submission. If change of the authorship is required, including the order of the authors, during or after the review, corresponding author need to send the written confirmation (email, letter) to the Editorial Office. Confirmation letter should contain consent from all authors that they agree for change of authorship and the reason for the change the author list.</p> <p><strong>Peer review process </strong></p> <p>The JNCS editorial board evaluate all submitted articles to check whether submitted manuscript is appropriate for the journal or not. After initial screening, the manuscript will be sent to reviewers according to their expertise. Generally, the manuscript will be send to a minimum two reviewer; and third reviewer will also be assigned in particular situation.Double-blind peer review process is applied for the manuscript submitted to JNCS</p> <p><strong>Publication Charge </strong></p> <p>The JNCS does not charge a fee for submission, processing and publication of the articles.</p> <p><strong>Copyright Notice</strong></p> <p>© Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</p> <p><strong>Updated: May 2024</strong></p> en-US <p>© Journal of Nepal Chemical Society</p> (Mahesh Kumar Joshi) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 21 Feb 2024 09:03:53 +0000 OJS 60 Structural Equilibrium Configuration of Benzene and Aniline: A First-Principles Study <p>The present work describes the equilibrium configuration of aromatic compounds like benzene and aniline molecules using the first principle (ab initio) calculation method implemented by the Gaussian 98 programs. The ground state energy for benzene and aniline molecules obtained using the DFT (B3LYP) calculation is lower than that obtained with the HF+MP2 method which, in turn, is lower than that obtained with the HF calculation. The calculated values of bond length, bond angle, and dihedral angle for these molecules with HF, HF+MP2, and DFT (B3LYP) levels of calculation agree with each other within 2%. The calculated C-C and C-H bond lengths of the benzene molecule are 1.394 Å and 1.084 Å at DFT (B3LYP) calculation and these values agree well with the experimental value of 1.395 Å and 1.084 Å for C-C and C-H bond. Also, the calculated value of bond angles and dihedral angles for benzene molecule are 120° and 180° respectively. For aniline molecule, the C-N and N-H bond lengths are found 1.378 Å and 1.003 Å respectively at DFT (B3LYP) calculation, which agrees with the experimental value of C-N and N-H bond lengths with values of 1.475 Å and 1.008 Å within 7% respectively. For the benzene molecule, there is a symmetrical charge distribution. The total dipole moment of the benzene molecule is zero, indicating that the centers of positive and negative charge coincide with each other such that the benzene molecule is non-polar whereas aniline is a polar molecule with a dipole moment of 1.9828 Debye</p> Krishna Bahadur Rai, Rishi Ram Ghimire, Chandra Dhakal, Kiran Pudasainee, Bijay Siwakoti Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of pH, Amount of Metal Precursor, and Reduction Time on The Optical Properties and Size of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Rhizomes of Acorus calamus <p style="text-align: justify;">Nanoparticles possess various unique characteristics compared to the corresponding bulk materials. Large band gap, non-toxic nature, and multi-applicability are the worthwhile characteristics of zinc oxide to be synthesized and studied. The size of nanoparticles can be controlled by varying the different experimental conditions. This paper reports the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles by using an aqueous extract of rhizomes of Acorus calamus, where the bio-components present in aqueous extract acted as reducing agents. The size and band gap energy of zinc oxide nanoparticles were studied by varying different parameters such as pH, concentration of the metal precursor, and reduction time. The variations in the size of nanoparticles were studied by UV-visible spectroscopy. FTIR showed phenolic compounds, primary amines, and amides (proteins/enzymes) as the functional groups responsible for the reduction of metal precursors to form nanoparticles. The surface morphology of nanoparticles was studied by FE-SEM image. The FE-SEM image displayed the formation of various shapes and agglomeration of the nanoparticles. XRD pattern revealed that the average size of zinc nanoparticles is 10 nm. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles has been assayed against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The growth inhibitory activity of nanoparticles against different bacterial pathogens has also been determined</p> Melina Tamang, Kamal Prasad Sapkota, Sabita Shrestha Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Antimicrobial Activity of ZnO Nanoparticles Dopped Natural Hydroxyapatites <p>Bone replacements and repairs often encounter infections from diverse microbes, necessitating costly and painful secondary surgeries and treatments. Developing antimicrobial bone implants is crucial to mitigate these complications and enhance regeneration. Moreover, the biological synthesis of hydroxyapatite (Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO₄)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub>, a primary component of human bone, presents advantages over chemically synthesized alternatives due to lower impurity and cost. This study focuses on synthesizing hydroxyapatite powders from buffalo and goat femoral bones, with the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles. Analyzed via XRD and FTIR, the prepared powder exhibited potent antimicrobial properties against various bacterial strains. Specifically, the hydroxyapatite powder doped with ZnO nanoparticles displayed superior antimicrobial activity. Consequently, this synthesized material holds significant promise for applications in bone tissue engineering and related fields.</p> Dirgha Raj Karki, Sushant Bhujel, Kshama Parajuli, Ramesh Raj Pant, Motee Lal Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Bio-pesticidal, Antimicrobial, and Anti-inflammatory Potentials of n-Hexane Fraction of Zanthoxylum armatum DC and its Chemical Profiling <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Zanthoxylum armatum</em> DC, commonly known as toothache tree, is utilized for treating inflamed gums. The plant’s volatile constituent possesses a robust fragrance and contributes to its tangy taste. This study investigates the bioactivities, including bio-pesticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the chemical profiling of the n-hexane fraction based on GC-MS analysis. The evaluated activities involve contact toxicity, microplate alamar blue assay, against three different insects, five bacteria, and seven fungi, and oxidative burst assay. The NIST library serves as a standard reference database for constituent identification. Remarkable insecticidal activities comparable to the standard drug permethrin were observed, particularly against Rhyzopertha dominica (100%), <em>Tribolium castaneum</em> (60%), and <em>Sitophilus oryzae</em> (50%). The fraction exhibited significant antifungal activity against <em>Fusarium lini</em> (85%) and notable inhibition against <em>B. subtillis</em> (67.27%) and S. aureus (65.25%). Potent anti-inflammatory effects were noted with an IC50 value of 11.2±1.9 μg/ml, equivalent to standard ibuprofen at various concentrations. GC-MS analysis identified twenty compounds, with major ones including trans-13-octadecenoic acid (36.08%), cis-9 hexadecenoic acid (18.66%), and 2-propenoic acid 3 phenyl methyl ester (11.08%). The diverse bioactivities observed may be attributed to the varied nature of compounds such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and their oxides. This research revealed the potential of <em>Z. armat</em>um as a potential bio-pesticide, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agent.</p> Janaki Baral, Achyut Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of heavy metals in different brands of chocolates marketed in Kathmandu, Nepal, and their associated health risks <p style="text-align: justify;">Chocolates are among the sweet food items consumed by all age groups particularly children in Nepal. However, this foodstuff may be contaminated with heavy metals from the raw ingredients, production, and packaging methods, which could bring serious health issues. Therefore, this study aimed to determine cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS) in a total of thirty-seven different brands of milk-based, cocoa-based, and sugar-based chocolates available in local grocery shops of Kathmandu city, Nepal and to evaluate associated health risks in children and adults using USEPA deterministic approaches. The results revealed concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the range of 0.021 – 0.585, 1.90 – 7.24, and 0.57 – 4.29 mg/kg respectively in studied chocolates and an overall mean concentration of 0.199, 4.22, and 1.94 mg/kg respectively. The observed concentrations exceeded the maximum permissible limits set by FAO/WHO (2001). A higher concentration of all studied metals was found in cocoa-based chocolate compared to milk-based and sugar-based chocolates. The positive and significant correlations (p &lt; 0.05) among Cd, Ni, and Pb in studied chocolates indicate the possibility of contamination from common sources. Similarly, the estimated ADDing values were higher for all metals in cocoa-based chocolate for both children and adults. However, children were more prone to metals exposure than adults since their dietary intake was higher than adults. Cocoa-based chocolate in this study posed a non-carcinogenic risk to both children and adults since their hazard index (HI) values exceeded the acceptable limit (&gt;1.0). In addition, Cd and Ni posed carcinogenic risks to both receptor groups through the consumption of all three categories of chocolate. Therefore, this study suggested the use of less contaminated raw materials in chocolates as well as regular monitoring of the production chain as an attempt to ensure the quality and safety of the food products.</p> Jasana Maharjan, Pawan Raj Shakya Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Three Nepalese Plants <p>Nepal is rich in plant resources and holds the 49<sup>th</sup> spot in the world’s biodiversity. The variation in altitude, climatic conditions, and geographical features across Nepal make it a rich source of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs). The study was carried out to perform the preliminary phytochemical screening and assess antioxidant properties in <em>Ficus neriifolia</em>, <em>Rubus treutleri</em>, and P<em>eriploca calophylla</em>. Plants were selected based on their ethnomedical use and scant scientific research. Ethanol (70%) and aqueous extracts were prepared by using the cold maceration method and preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted using the previously established method to test the presence of biologically active phytoconstituent. In vitro, antioxidant activity was examined by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The results revealed the variation in phytoconstituents among the 70% ethanol and aqueous extracts of all three plant samples. Among the samples, the 70% ethanol extract of <em>P. calophylla</em> exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 94.36 μg/mL, while the aqueous extract of <em>F. neriifolia</em> showed the minimum antioxidant activity with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 902.23 μg/mL. This study indicates that these plant samples possess potent natural antioxidants capable of scavenging free radicals that cause cellular damage and contribute to various diseases in our bodies.</p> Samiksha Poudel, Sabina Adhikari, Anil Tiwari, Shiva Acharya, Sumit Bahadur Baruwal Chhetri, Rupesh Adhikari, Prakash Poudel, Deepa Khatri Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Acute Oral Toxicity Analysis of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Suspension in Albino Wistar Rats <p>Hydroxyapatite (HAp), a calcium phosphate-based bio-ceramic, was prepared from waste ostrich bone using the thermal decomposition method, and the nano-HAp was segregated by the water-in-oil microemulsion technique. A single acute dose of oral toxicity of nano-HAp in gelatin suspension was tested in eleven female Albino Wistar rats following the OECD 420 guidelines. The rats were divided into three groups: three for control, three for group I, and five for group II. The first group was given 300 mg of nano-HAp in gelatin suspension per kg of body weight, while group II was given 2000 mg per kg of body weight. Results show that no signs or symptoms of toxic effects were seen in the group during the 14-day study period. Furthermore, no significant change in their average body weight or other physical behaviors such as autonomic, respiratory, or somatomotor effects were observed in the rats. The macroscopic examination of internal organs and bodyweight observation have shown no symptoms of toxicity in either group. It could be concluded that the nano-HAp suspension in gelatin does not show any acute toxic effect. The lethal 50% dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) of the nano-HAp-Gel suspension has been estimated to be more than 2000 mg/kg of the body weight, suggesting that nano-HAp extracted from ostrich bone is safe to use for calcium supplements and other biomedical applications.</p> Komal Prasad Malla, Bindu Malla, Rajesh Pandit, Shanta Pokharel, Ram Jeewan Yadav, Rameshwar Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Design of Hydrogel for the Drug Delivery of Less Permeable Ursolic Acid Isolated from Rhododendron arboreum Flower in Animal Skin Membrane <p>Ursolic acid (UA) is a pentacyclic triterpene that has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. As it belongs to the biopharmaceutical classification system IV due to its poor water solubility and permeability restricts its use in clinical application. So, the research is focused on the development of hydrogel containing encapsulated liposomes of ursolic acid to increase its permeability. The ursolic acid liposomal gel was prepared with a 0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% mixture of carbopol 934P and HPMC K4M as gelling agents. The pH and spreadability of liposomal gel were found to be in the range of (6.93±0.035 to 7.12±0.03) and (15.41±0.36 to 24.47±0.90) respectively. The drug content was found to be in (19.77±0.02 to 20.11±0.02)%. The study of drug release kinetics showed Higuchi release followed by a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. The result of the permeation study by Franz diffusion cell showed 1.55 times higher compared to the plain gel at the 5<sup>th</sup> hour of the study with a flux value of 0.455(mg/cm<sup>2</sup>/hr). It resolved the fast and enhanced delivery of liposomal ursolic acid through the skin membrane.</p> Bigyan Joshi, Netra Lal Bhandari, Sajan Lal Shyaula, Uttam Budathoki, Rajendra Gyawali, Panna Thapa Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Microplastics in Hanumante River of Kathmandu Valley <p>Plastic debris is one of the most significant organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. Researchers are currently focusing on the impact of micro and nano-scale plastic waste on aquatic systems. In this study, we investigated the distribution of plastic pellets and fragments present in the freshwater ecosystem. The goal was to assess microplastic (MP) abundance in the Hanumante River, a tributary of the Bagmati River, and analyze their properties. Sample collection involved the bottle sampling method. Filtration, wet peroxide oxidation, density separation, gravimetric analysis, and microscopic examination were performed to study the characteristics of microplastics. The study was conducted by following the guidelines of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) protocol. Gravimetric analysis was applied to calculate the reduced mass of the sample after total organic carbon reduction. Results showed that the maximum amount of reduced sample was obtained from the sample taken from sample taken from Madhyapur Thimi area (~3.593g) and the minimum amount of reduced sample was obtained from the sample taken from the Shiva temple Jagati area (~2.130g). Microscopic inspection showed that samples taken from different locations were composed of an average of 14–23 microplastics per liter of sample. FT-IR analysis was performed to analyze the characteristics of microplastics and the type of polymers present in the sample which showed the abundance of polymer materials like polyethylene, polypropylene, and polycarbonates. The findings imply that appropriate plastic waste management measures be implemented in the communities to safeguard the ecosystem benefits derived from the river.</p> Khageshwari Bhatta, Gauri Devi Sharma, Khagendra Prasad Bohara, Mahesh Kumar Joshi Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Index Based Irrigation Suitability of Ramsar Sites (Rara and Ghodaghodi) in Western Nepal <p>The present study highlights the water quality of two important Ramsar sites of western Nepal (Ghodaghodi and Rara lakes) in terms of irrigation use. Based on land use patterns and location accessibility, 13 sites in Ghodaghodi and 18 in Rara were considered and the samplings were performed in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Different physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), major cations, and anion (Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, and HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) were measured. The calculated indices were permeability index percentage (PI), sodium percentage (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard ratio (MAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and Kelly’s index (KI). Major ions were analyzed using ion chromatography including field and procedural blanks to maintain quality standards, whereas on-site parameters were measured by using standard multi-meter probes. The studied irrigation water quality parameters (pH, EC, TDS, TH) and indices (PI, MAR, RSC, KI, SAR, and %Na) fall within the permissible limit in both lakes, indicating the suitability of such water for irrigation purposes. In addition, based on the SAR vs. EC plot, all the results from both lakes fall in the S1 category, signifying low sodium hazard. Concerning EC, most of the samples demonstrate the C1 category and few are in the C2 category (in Ghodaghodi) whereas the C1 category predominates for Rara. According to IWQI, all water samples in both lakes fall in the class I category, which supports the results of other indices indicating the suitability of water for irrigation purposes.</p> Rita Bhatta, Smriti Gurung, Rajendra Joshi, Shrija Tuladhar, Dikshya Regmi, Lekhendra Tripathee, Rukumesh Paudyal, Junming Guo, Shichang Kang, Chhatra Mani Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Herbal Antioxidant Tablets of Urtica Dioica Extract <p>This study explores the formulation and assessment of herbal antioxidant tablets derived from Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) extracts for arthritis and osteoarthritis treatment. Various extraction methods were compared, revealing that 100% dehydrated ethanol at 45 degrees Celsius for four hours in a Soxhlet apparatus resulted in an 89% phenolic extraction. Although ethyl acetate yielded the highest phenolic extract (187%), its toxicity led to the selection of ethanol for further extraction. The Folin-Ciocalteu method determined the total phenolic content. The DPPH assay demonstrated positive antioxidant activity of the Urtica dioica ethanolic extract, with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 37.5761201 μg/mL, compared to the standard ascorbic acid with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 21.23506 μg/ml. Herbal tablets were formulated using the direct compression method. The findings highlight the potential of Urtica dioica extracts as effective herbal antioxidants for arthritis and osteoarthritis treatment. This research enhances our understanding of natural remedies and their therapeutic applications. Future investigations should delve into the clinical efficacy and safety of these herbal antioxidant tablets, paving the way for their potential integration into clinical settings. This study contributes valuable insights into the development of alternative therapies for managing arthritic conditions, emphasizing the importance of exploring nature's remedies in healthcare.</p> Jony Timalsina, Sunena Dhukuchhu, Jina Dhukuchhu, Alisha Bhattarai, Rajan Shrestha, Rajendra Gyawali Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The interfacial tension at the liquid junction of petrol and Sodium dodecyl sulphate solution <p style="text-align: justify;">The precise measurements of petrol interfacial tension (IFT) in the presence of Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) at room temperature by Mansingh Survismeter are reported. The concentration of sodium dodecyl sulphate was varied from above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) to cover the minimum and maximum concentrations of the investigated surfactant. Petrol was taken from the dealer in Nepal and used without purification. Therefore, when surfactant is added to the system, the surfactant decreases its free energy, thus decreasing its surface tension</p> Ajaya Bhattarai, Man Singh Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Microwave-Accelerated Synthesis of Flavanones through Oxidative Cyclization of 2'-Hydroxychalcones Using Acetic Acid as a Sole Catalyst <p>Under microwave irradiation conditions, 2'-hydroxy chalcones <strong>1a-c</strong> underwent AcOH-mediated cyclization in an oxa-Michael addition manner to afford flavanones <strong>2a-c</strong> in acceptable yields (up to 82%). These reactions proceeded in a shorter reaction time (~ 30 min) through microwave activation; otherwise, the reaction would take several days and even weeks, if a conventional heating process was employed. For example, cyclization of (<em>E</em>)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (<strong>1a</strong>) has required 4 days of stirring with AcOH (0.25 M), under conventional heating at 100 °C, to produce 2-phenylchroman-4-one (<strong>2a</strong>), in 75% yield; while under microwave conditions, the reaction has yielded 82% of compound 2a, after 30 min. Thus obtained products <strong>2a-c</strong> were fully characterized by recording of melting point together with UV, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, and <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectra.</p> Gan B. Bajracharya, Rabina Dhakal, Sulochana Timalsina Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activities of Syzygium cumini Seeds <p>Bioactive compounds of plants have been used in treating various diseases from ancient times. In this study, <em>Syzygium cumini</em> seed extract was studied for its antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-diabetic potentials. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by DPPH assay. Whereas, the antibacterial feature was tested against<em> Staphylococcus aureus</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Salmonella typhi</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> by agar well diffusion method. The <em>in vitro</em> anti-diabetic potential was performed by the α-amylase enzyme inhibition method using CNPG3 (2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotriose) as a substrate. The methanolic extract showed a total phenolic content of 128.8 ± 1.44 mg GAE/g and a total flavonoid content of 115.6 ± 8.01 mg QE/g. The extract scavenged free radicals where strong antioxidant activity was observed with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 91.63 ± 6.54 <em>μ</em>g/mL in the concentration range of 50-6.25 <em>μ</em>g/mL. The DCM and EA fractions exhibited moderate antidiabetic potentials with IC<sub>50</sub> values of 92.1 ± 0.5 <em>μ</em>g/mL, 150.8 ± 0.8 <em>μ</em>g/mL, and 42.2 ± 4.6 <em>μ</em>g/mL in the concentration range of 400-25 <em>μ</em>g/mL against acarbose standard having IC<sub>50</sub> values of 6.02 ± 0.1 <em>μ</em>g/mL in the concentration range 50-1.6 <em>μ</em>g/mL. The methanolic extract having ZOI (19mm) showed antibacterial activity however standard neomycin demonstrated ZOI (22.5 mm) against <em>S. aureus</em> at the dosage of 50 <em>μ</em>g/mL. Methanolic extract having ZOI (20 mm) demonstrated effective antibacterial activity when compared to standard neomycin with ZOI (15mm) against <em>K. pneumonia</em> at the dosage of 50 <em>μ</em>g/mL.</p> Bidhya Bhattarai, Lekha Nath Khanal, Surya Kant Kalauni Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Anti-Corrosion Properties of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate and Cetyl Pyridinium Chloride <p>Surfactant is a surface-active agent. Surfactants have both hydrophilic (water-attracting) and hydrophobic (water-repelling) portions in their molecular structure, effective inhibitors for the protection of mild steel in an acidic medium, the weight loss methods were used at lab temperature to evaluate the effect of surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the corrosion protection behavior of Mild steel in 0.5 M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> solution. Inhibition efficiency, weight loss, corrosion rate, and surface coverage area of Mild steel in different concentrations of surfactant were studied. The results showed that the Inhibition efficiency of cetyl pyridinium chloride is 99.86%, which is greater than that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (99.85%) in the presence of 0.5 M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>.</p> Chandradip Kumar Yadav, Tulasi Prasad Niraula, Shova Neupane, Amar Prasad Yadav, Ajaya Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Composition, Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxicity Activities of Essential Oil of Leaf of Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) R.M. King and H. Rob. <p>Modern medicine recognizes the therapeutic applications of medicinal plants, which are utilized in indigenous therapies. <em>Ageratina adenophora</em> (Banmara) is an invasive plant growing in tropical and subtropical regions, traditionally used for treating wounds, sleeping disorders, jaundice, ulcers, etc. Using Clevenger apparatus for hydro-distillation, the essential oil was extracted, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine its chemical constituents. GC-MS analysis of essential oil showed 14 possible compounds in which α-Muurolol (24.56%) was found to be most abundant. The essential oil exhibited a total phenolic content of 53.42 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram of dry extract, while the total flavonoid content was determined to be 3.37 mg of quercetin equivalent per gram of dry extract. Essential oil of <em>A. adhenophora</em> showed a high antibacterial action against <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> of ZOI of 12 mm. The antioxidant assay revealed weak activity of essential oil of IC<sub>50</sub> 17.21 mg/mL, while the brine shrimp lethality assay revealed its LC<sub>50</sub> value to be 64.56 μg/mL.</p> Arjun Thapa, Binita Maharjan, Samjhana Bharati, Timila Shrestha, Puspa Lal Homagai, Deval Prasad Bhattarai, Ram Lal Swagat Shrestha Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 21 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000