Incidence, Risk Factors and Immediate Outcome of Preterm Neonates: A Hospital Based Study
Keywords:Morbidity, Mortality, Preterm, Risk factor
Introduction: Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation. It is one of the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality in the world.
Aims: The study was aimed to find out the incidence, possible risk factors and outcome of inborn preterm babies till they were discharged from the hospital.
Methods: This is a prospective hospital based study. A total of 100 preterm babies delivered in Nepalgunj Medical College Teaching Hospital, Kohalpur and admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were studied. Preterms were divided into 2 groups extremely to very preterm (<32 weeks) and moderate to late preterm (≥ 32 weeks). The preterm babies were evaluated for various morbidities sand mortality till they were discharged from the hospital.
Results: Data of 100 babies was analyzed. Out of 100 preterm babies 40 were extremely to very preterm babies (<32 weeks) and 60 were moderate to late preterm babies (≥32 weeks). Significant risk factors associated with preterm deliveries were inadequate antenatal visits (73%), primi gravidity (58%), preterm premature rupture of membrane (55%), urinary tract infection (54%), anemia (53%), teenage pregnancy (43%), antepartum hemorrhage (41%) and pregnancy induced hypertension (33%). The total mortality was higher in extremely to late preterm than in moderate to late preterm. The most common causes of mortality were Neonatal sepsis (NNS), Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) and Birth Asphyxia.
Conclusion: The hospital incidence of preterm neonates is still very high. The major risk factor seen in the study was inadequate antenatal visit. Preventive measures, early identification of risk factors will improve the outcome.
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