Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences <p>An official medical journal of the Universal College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Ranigaon, Bhairahawa, Nepal</p> Universal College of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2091-2846 <p>Authors have to give the following undertakings along with their article:</p> <ol> <li class="show">I/we declare that this article is original and has not been submitted to another journal for publication.</li> <li class="show">I/we declare that I/we surrender all the rights to the editor of the journal and if published will be the property of the journal and we will not publish it anywhere else, in full or part, without the permission of the Chief Editor.</li> <li class="show">Institutional ethical and research committee clearance certificate from the institution where work/research was done, is required to be submitted.</li> <li class="show">Articles in the Journal are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC License (<a href=""></a>)</li> <li>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and it is not used for commercial purposes.</li> </ol> Anaemia in Pregnancy, Severity and Outcome in Lumbini Province, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Anemia is common nutritional deficiency disorder in pregnant women. It is important cause of morbidity and mortality among pregnant women. We evaluated pregnant women presenting to UCMS-TH with hemoglobin level less than 9 gm/dl with reference to maternal and fetal outcome.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>Total of 255 women presenting with moderate to severe anemia at our hospital were evaluated. Demographic profile of patients, maternal outcomes and fetal outcomes were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Most of patients were from rural area (78%) of which majority (69.8%) were unbooked. Severe anemia was present in 16.5% cases. Maternal complications included preterm labor (23.1%), post partum hemorrhage (19.2%), wound infection (8.6%), ante partum hemorrhage (5.5%), intensive care unit admission (4.3%) and mortality (0.4%). Fetal outcomes included neonatal intensive care unit admission (29.8%), intrauterine growth restriction (9%) and neonatal death (7.5%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Severity of anemia associated with significant increase in PPH, preterm delivery, ICU admission and heart failure.</p> Deepanjali Sharma Manoj Lamsal Jigyasa Subedi Tara KC Hasina Banu Bekha Laxmi Manandhar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 3 6 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51245 Predictors of Low Birth Weight Neonates Delivered in a Hospital of Rupandehi, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Low birth weight has been defined by World Health Organization (WHO) as weight at birth of &lt;2500 grams (5.5 pounds). Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both cause low birth weight. It contributes to a range of poor health outcomes and it is closely associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth and cognitive development, and Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) later in life. Low birth weight infants are about 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A cross-sectional design was used to find out the prevalence and predictors of low birth weight among 327 singleton neonates delivered in a Universal College of Medical Sciences, Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal by using Enumerative sampling technique. Semi-structured, pre-tested interview and record report was used to collect data and analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics with SPSS version 16.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The study findings revealed that the prevalence of low birth weight is 28.5% and there is statistically significant association between parity (<em>p</em>= &lt;0.000), mode of delivery (<em>p</em>= 0.001), ANC visit (<em>p</em>= 0.016), iron supplement (<em>p</em>=&lt;0.000), tablet calcium (<em>p</em>=&lt;0.000), tablet albendazole (<em>p</em>=0.023), food taboos (<em>p</em>= 0.058), rest at night (0.000), alcohol (0.015) during pregnancy parity (<em>p</em>= &lt;0.000), mode of delivery (<em>p</em>= 0.001), ANC visit (<em>p</em>= 0.016), and low birth weight neonates.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>The study concluded that the factors those were associated with low birth weight, which can be prevented at pregnancy period through good prenatal care and intervention programs such as health education on diet, rest, time to time check up, taking medicines, early identification of complication.</p> Anuja Kachapati Kavita Lamichhane Saraj Gurung Nagendra Chaudhary Sharmila Bhandari Narayan Bahadur GC Deepanjali Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 7 11 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51291 Anthropometric Assessment of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Protein energy wasting is common in hemodialysis patients and is linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements such as skin fold thickness, mid arm circumference and mid arm muscle circumference are widely used to assess nutritional status in patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Subjective global assessment dialysis malnutrition score is used to classify patients’ nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status using anthropometry.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out from 1st October 2021 till 30th September 2022 under Nephrology unit, Department of Internal Medicine at Universal college of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal. Ethical clearance was taken. Subjective Global Assessment Dialysis Malnutrition score was calculated. Triceps skin fold thickness, Mid arm circumference and Mid arm muscle circumference was measured. Convenience sampling was used. The data were analyzed using the Statisti- cal Package for the Social Science version 17.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>In this study of 50 patients undergoing MHD for at least 3 months, the Mean age of population was 42.00 ±15.26 years. Nearly half of the study population 21 (42%) was having mild to moderate malnutrition using subjective global assessment dialysis malnutrition score and none had severe malnutrition.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>There is mild to moderate malnutrition in patients on maintenance hemodialysis at our center based on anthropometric measure- ment including subjective global assessment dialysis malnutrition score tool.</p> <p> </p> Krishna Kumar Agrawaal Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 12 14 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51247 Association Between Acne Vulgaris and Body Mass Index - A Cross Sectional Study in Tertiary Hospital of Western Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous duct mainly affecting adolescents. There is conflicting data regarding association between acne and body mass index (BMI). The main objective was to find the association between different grades of acne and BMI.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>We conducted a cross-sectional observational study involving 251 patients with acne vulgaris. Severity of acne vulgaris was assessed using simple grading system and WHO reference was used for classification of body mass index (BMI). Data was analyzed using SPSS, version 20. p value of less than 0.05 was considered statically significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The study included 149 females (59.4%) and 102 males (40.6%). Acne vulgaris is recorded in 47.8% in age group12-20 years, followed by 44.6% in age group 21-30 years and 7.6% in age group 31-40 years. Grade 2 acne vulgaris was the most common (47%), followed by grade 3 (24.7%), grade1 (16.7%), and grade 4 (11.6%). About 49.4% of acne vulgaris patient had normal BMI, 19.5% had obesity. There was no significant association between different grades of acne vulgaris and BMI (p=0.07).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>There was no signficant association beween severetiy of acne and BMI.</p> Pratistha Shrestha Sabhyata Gurung Meera Shrestha Rajeev Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 15 18 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51248 Impact of Covid-19 Patients with Diabetes Mellitus and its Association with Clinical Outcomes <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>COVID-19 is a debilitating disorder affecting lungs with multiple organs. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a common co-mor- bidity whose impact has not been fully understood. There is a hypothesis that patients with diabetes are at increased risk of severe disease or death due to COVID-19. The main objective of the present study was to find the the association of COVID-19 diabetes mellitus (DM) and non-diabetes mellitus patients with the clinical outcomes.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairahawa. Total of 200 patients were enrolled in the study period from July 2021 to January 2022 whose clinical profile, socio-demographic and biochemical variables were assessed. The study variables taken were symptoms, random blood glucose (RBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and their outcomes like High Dependency Unit/Intensive Care Unit (HDU/I- CU) or COVID ward admission, hospital stay and mortality.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>A total of 40% of the patients require HDU/ICU hospitalization with 20% requiring ventilator support. The findings revealed a strong link between diabetes mellitus and fatigue (p=0.012) as well as mortality (p=0.032). The difference in hospital stay between ventilator and non-ventilator groups was substantial (p=0.001). The hospital stay in the mortality group was significantly shorter (p=0.026). Likewise, RBG and HbA1c are higher than in the non-mortality group (189 vs 167; 5.7 vs 5.6 %).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Hypertension and diabetes are the most common morbidities associated with COVID-19 individuals. Diabetes mellitus was found to have a substantial link to fatigue, but there was no link between HbA1c and the length of hospital stay or the method of ventilation.</p> Manoj Karki Shatdal Chaudhary Niraj Kumar Jaiswal Bidhata Rayamajhi Narayan Gautam Jharana Shrestha Mahmud Alam Khan Pradip Chhetri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 19 22 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51249 Evaluation of Outcomes in Chest Trauma Patients using Chest Trauma Scoring System <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Chest trauma is a common surgical incidence all over the world. Chest Trauma scoring system (CTS) is found in many studies to be an effective tool to predict outcomes in chest trauma patients. The need for a universal system for thoracic trauma is justified to identify critical factors, to predict patient outcomes, urgent need for intervention, and requirement of intensive care and to communicate with the family. Therefore there is a need of study and scoring system which can predict possible outcome.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>This is a prospective, longitudinal, observational study conducted at Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa from October 2019 to March 2021. The chest trauma score was used to evaluate the outcome in patient admitted with blunt trauma chest. Duration of hospital stay, respiratory complications, need of ICU and Ventilators and mortality were noted as outcomes.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>In this study, 79 cases with blunt trauma chest were admitted with road traffic accident being major factor for admission. Most patients were in age group 45-65 years of age with male predominance (84.8%). The results showed that patient with high CTS ≥5 was associated with higher incidence of pneumonia and need of ICU. The ROC curve showed that CTS predict significantly mortality with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92.2% with cutoff value of 7.5. Similarly, mean duration of hospital stay of patients having CTS ≥5 was 6.57 days more than patients having CTS &lt;5.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Chest Trauma Score is a good predictor of outcome in patient with blunt chest trauma.</p> Rahul Mahaseth Santosh Shah Rajkumar KC Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 23 26 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51251 Clinical Profile and Echocardiographic Changes in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>The burden of type 2 diabetes is increasing in world and same is scenario in Nepal.The prevalence of T2DM in Nepal has increased from 2014 to 2020. T2DM is still a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, due to its complications. A strong correlation between cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) has been found. This study aimed to investigate echocardiographic features and clinical profile in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>Our study included 100 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, presented to Medicine Department of Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa from 1st May, 2019 AD to 30th April 2020. We included type 2 diabetes diagnosed as per American diabetes association 2018 criteria.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Males (52%) were more compared to females (44%). 28% were in age group 61-70 years, 26% in age group 41-50 years and 25% in age group 51-60 years. Abnormal thirst 42%, polyuria 38% and weight loss 32% were most common presenting symptoms with 23% having all 3 symptoms. Fifty two percent were smokers, 22% consumed alcohol, 48% had HTN and 23% cases had CAD. Fourty two cases (42%) had Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, 25 cases (25%) had Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), 16 cases (16%) had RWMA others had RA/RV dilated and dilated LV/LA.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>LVDD was most common echocardiographic finding in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.</p> Niraj Kumar Jaiswal Manoj Karki Pushpa Raj Dhakal Manish Dahal Sanjog Kandel Aakash Shahi Shatdal Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 27 30 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51252 Profile of Closed Globe Injury in a Secondary Eye Hospital <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Closed globe injury of the eye is the type of injury in which the eyewall (sclera and cornea) is intact or only partial thickness wound is present. Studies focused only on closed globe injury of eye are limited. So the aim of the study was to analyse the demographic pattern, modes of trauma, place of trauma, agent of trauma and impact of trauma in different ocular structures and in vision.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>It was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Details of 167 patients with closed globe injury attending Dr.Binod Neeta Kandel Eye Hospital, Nawalparasi from Aug 2017 to July 2018 were reviewed. Demographic profile, detailed history and examination findings were analysed.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Closed globe injury was more common in males (61.7%) than females (38.3%). The mean age was 30.76 ± 16.58 yrs, youngest being 3 years old whereas oldest 90 years old. Left eye was more involved. Domestic accident (38.92%) was the commonest. Conjunctival laceration (21.55%) and traumatic uveitis (21.55%) were the commonest sequelae of closed globe injury. Good vision (Visual acuity (VA) 6/6 -6/18) was seen in 79.64% cases whereas 7.78% cases were blind (VA less than 3/60).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Closed globe injury can occur from different modes of trauma. Anterior segment of eye was more involved than the posterior segment. Even a trivial ocular trauma can have a sight threatening impact.</p> <p> </p> Manita Sunam Godar Sushila Patel Nita Sunam Gamal Laxmi Devi Manandhar Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 31 34 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51280 The Relationship Between the Weight of the Placenta and Birth Weight of the Neonate <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Weight of placenta has long been associated with fetal growth and perinatal well-being. Low placental weight (standardized for sex and gestational age) is more common among stillbirths whereas high placental weight is associated with neonatal death, serious neonatal morbidity, low 5-min Apgar score, and respiratory morbidity. Low placental weight is believed to reflect an inadequate placental surface area for nutrient and gas exchange, leading to fetal compromise. However, it has also been proposed that the increased risk associated with high placental weight is the result of villous oedema, which may compress blood vessels and reduce transfer of gas and nutrients to the fetus.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study of the total, 798 subjects met the inclusive criteria. After consent, age, sex, prepregnancy weight, weight of mother at the time of delivery, neonatal weight and trimmed placental weight were recorded.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The mean birth weight was 2818±447.19 gm while the placental weight was 489.29±59 gm with mean placental-fetal weight ratio of 17.63. The mean birthweight of male was 2823.97±451.12 gm whereas female was 2811.69±442.93 gm. Similarly, mean placental weight of male was 490.37±57.7 gm and female was 487.98±60.58 gm. As gestational age increases placental and birth weight also increases whereas placental-birth weight ratio decreases.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>There is a positive relation between placental weight and weight of the neonate at the time of birth. However, the ratio of the placental and neonatal birth weights at term decreases with advancing gestational age. Thus, prolongation of pregnancy at term may adversely affect the fetus.</p> Laxmi Bhattarai Bishnu Gautam Pradip Chhetri Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 35 38 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51281 Psychosocial Influence of Malocclusion Among Nepalese Patients Seeking Orthodontic Treatment: A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Traditionally, orthodontic treatment focuses on normative criteria, though psychosocial dimension has equal importance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychosocial impact of malocclusion among patient seeking orthodontic treatment using psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ).</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted in Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, UCMS during the period of July 2021 to Dec 2021. The study was approved by Institutional Review Committee of UCMS (IRC/081/21). Sixty patients seeking orthodontic treatment of age group 18-30 years answered questions concerning self perceived psychosocial impacts of malocclusion using Nepali version of PIDAQ, desire of orthodontic treatment based on scale ranging from 0 to 4. Clinical examination was performed to assess the severity of malocclusion based on the basis of Dental Health Component of Index of Orthodontic treatment need (IOTN-DHC).</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Results showed no significant differences in total PIDAQ scores and its subscale (p&gt;0.05) among genders. There was signifi- cant difference in total PIDAQ scores and its subscale (p&lt;0.05) among patients with different desire of orthodontic treatment. Patient with very strong desire have the highest scores of total PIDAQ (42.27±11.40).Significant difference in total PIDAQ score and its subscale (p&lt;0.05) was seen among patients with difference grades of IOTN-DHC.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Equal self-perceived impacts of malocclusion were seen in both male and female. There was greater desire of Orthodontic treatment in patients with increased self-perceived psychosocial impact of malocclusion. Significant increase in PIDAQ score was also seen with increasing severity of malocclusion.</p> Raju Shrestha Hemant Kumar Halwai Sumit Kumar Yadav Sandeep Kumar Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 39 42 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51283 Prevalence of Triticeous Cartilage: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Triticeous cartilage is a small cartilage resembling a wheat grain, embedded in the lateral thyrohyoid ligament. It is believed to support thyrohyoid ligaments by adding strength to it. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of triticeous cartilage in cadavers.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>The study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy of College of Medical Sciences from February to October 2021 after taking an ethical approval from the Institutional Review Committee (Ref. No. COMSTH-IRC/2021-58). Thirty laryngeal preparations from formalin embalbed cadavers of both sexes were obtained. Presence or absence of triticeous cartilage was noted in the lateral thyrohyoid ligament.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>In the present study, triticeous cartilage was observed in 30% of cadavers. The occurrence of triticeous cartilage in male was 23.33% and that in female was 6.67%. Of nine cadavers with triticeous cartilage, three (10%) had unilateral triticeous cartilage while six (20%) had bilateral triticeous cartilage. Among unilateral triticeous cartilage, all three were present on the left side.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>The prevalence of triticeous cartilage is quite variable. The clinician must consider the existence of triticeous cartilage while making differential diagnosis of neck pathologies like the calcific deposits in the soft tissue of neck, carotid atheroma and fracture of superior cornu of thyroid cartilage.</p> Ruku Pandit Pranav Kumar Yadav Manjappa T Nitasha Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 43 45 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51285 Variation of the Bifurcation of Brachial Artery: A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Knowledge of variation in origin, course and bifurcation of brachial artery is significant for the vascular surgeons or radiologist for accurate diagnostic interpretation as well as while performing traumatic vascular repair, bypass procedures and constructive plastic surgeries. Therefore, the anatomical knowledge of the higher bifurcation of brachial artery is substantial for all cases of traumatic amputations and revascularization techniques. The present study aims to find out prevalence of variation of bifurca- tion of brachial artery in cadavers in the Department of Anatomy.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>An institutional based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 formalin fixed embalmed adult human cadavers in the Department of Anatomy (Dissection Hall) at Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal. The study duration was from July 2021 to 15th October 2021. The finer dissection was made, the brachial artery was exposed, the level of variation was noted as well as length of brachial artery was measured then it was photographed by using digital camera.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>In fifteen cadavers (right upper limb 15 and left upper limb 15), the site of termination was at the level of neck of radius 86.6% while, higher termination of brachial artery was observed in 2 upper extremities (6.7%) and, distal level of termination 2 (6.7%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Knowing anatomical variations of arteries are of mandatory requirement for planning invasive and surgical treatment since lack of knowledge can cause serious vascular lesions. However, the prevalence of variation of bifurcation of brachial artery in our study is less than other similar studies. Hence, it may cause difficulty in clinical and surgical procedures.</p> Ram Prakash Sah Nitasha Sharma Sanjit Kumar Kar Pranav Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 46 49 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51287 Psychosocial Problems Among School Adolescents in Rupandehi <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Adolescence is a crucial period for developing and demanding significant adjustment to the physical and psychological changes. Because of these changes occurring in their body during this developmental stage, they are more vulnerable to develop psychosocial problems. The main objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among school adolescents.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A cross sectional study was conducted to assess psychosocial problems among 217 school going adolescents in Rupandehi by using non-probability purposive sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data and collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics with Statistical Package for Social (SPSS) Software Version 20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The findings of the study revealed that 33.6% of the respondents had psychosocial problems. There was statistically significant association between both parents involvement in occupation, family income and family problems with psychosocial problems.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Based on the study findings, it is concluded that one third of the adolescents had psychosocial problems. Family factors were involved for the problems. Early identification and adequate counseling might help to prevent adverse consequences. So, family, school and health care provider combined effort plays an important role.</p> Sharmila Bhandari Sabitri Acharya Kavita Lamichhane Hari Gaire Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 50 54 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51296 Distribution of ABO and RH Blood Groups in Western Region of Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Determination of ABO and Rh blood group types are clinically important for various purposes including blood transfusion. There is a wide regional, racial, and ethnic variability among these blood groups. We aim to determine the ABO and Rh blood group patterns in patients attending a tertiary care center of Western Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>This hospital-based cross-sectional study involved 600 patients visiting Universal College of Medical Sciences (UCMS), Bhairahawa undergoing blood group determination. The study was conducted for six months from 1st January to 30th June 2017. Ethical clearance for the study was taken prior to the study. Written and verbal consent were taken from each participant before the study. Blood group was determined using open slide test method and reverse grouping was performed via tube method. Finally, Rh-DU test was performed in Rh-negative samples to test for weak D antigen.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Among the ABO blood group, most common blood group was O (34.2%) followed by B (29.2%) and A (25.3%). Sub-group analysis showed only one A2 sub-group, the remaining being A1. Majority of the patients were Rh positive (95.8%). All the Rh negative patients tested negative for Du as well. The overall distribution pattern of combined ABO-Rh blood group was O+ &gt; B+ &gt; A+ &gt; AB+ &gt; O-&gt; A- =B- &gt; AB-.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>In the current study, O positive was the most common blood group in Western Nepal followed by B positive, and A positive respectively. AB-negative was the rarest blood group. The study can provide insight for future hematological studies.</p> Satyendra Kumar Mishra Ojeena Shakya Buddhi Raj Pokhrel Anuj Poudel Manglesh Kumar Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 55 59 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51337 Study of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infection among MBBS Preclinical Students in UCMS, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Knowledge, attitude and behavior of a medical professional play an important role in the quality of care that an HIV/AIDS positive person receives and in shaping their attitude towards the disease. Thus, it is important that medical students, who would be treating such persons in near future, have the appropriate knowledge and attitudes. This study explores both these factors among pre-clinical medical students in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A cross sectional study was carried out among 200 first and second year MBBS students at Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Nepal. A pre-tested, structured questionnaire was used to evaluate respondents’ knowledge towards of HIV causes and transmission and their attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and people living with it.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>Knowledge among respondents was high overall and showed an improvement from first to second year. Some improvement areas regarding transmission from lactating mother to infant, transmission via sweat, kissing etc and infant’s BCG vaccination management were found. Respondent’s attitudes too were generally positive but with some significant stigmatizing notions such as isolation and entry bans of HIV positive people.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Knowledge of pre-clinical MBBS students is generally high though there are some improvement areas in HIV transmission. The attitude too is positive overall with a small minority holding stigmatizing views. Progression from first to second year has a positive impact on both knowledge and attitudes.</p> Suman Lata Srivastava Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 60 65 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51339 Antibiotic Resistance in Clinical Medicine <p>Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been a cornerstone in modern medicine and significantly improved global health. And while decades of overuse, misuse and abuse of antibiotics in hospitals, and in general population, at an ever increasing rate, both when they are needed and when they are not, in human beings and animals have accelerated the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in veterinary practice, and in animal feeds led to emergence of drug resistant strains, that are transferred to humans. This emergence of drug resistance is a major problem worldwide in antibiotic therapy. Infections caused by resistant microorganisms often fail to respond to the standard treatment, resulting in prolonged illness, longer hospital stays, higher healthcare expenditures, and greater risk of death. This article reviews and focuses on various aspects of development and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and preventive measures to fight the emerg- ing antibiotic resistance threat.</p> Santosh Shah Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Nikita Singh Yadav Anjita Shrestha Sadhana Gautam Sushil Kumar Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 66 71 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51343 Perception towards Online MCQ Test for MBBS and BDS Students’ As an Assessment Method during the Covid-19 Pandemic <p><strong>INTRODUCTION </strong>Universal College of Medical Sciences, Nepal conducted online multiple choice question test as a formative assessment method during COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the MBBS and BDS students’ perception towards online assessment test conducted during COVID-19 lock down period.</p> <p><strong>MATERIAL AND METHODS </strong>A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on medical and dental students by administering online Google Forms questionnaire among 1st year and 2nd year MBBS and BDS students at Universal College of Medical Sciences, and College of Dental Surgery, during 2 October, 2021 to 30 December, 2021. General information proforma that elicits the socio-demography and a questionnaire on the lines of Likert’s summated rating scale to assess the perception of MBBS and BDS students towards online assessment test was constructed. The collected data were entered into Microsoft excel and exported to SPSS version 22 for analysis. Simple frequency tables, cross tables and standard deviation have been used to analyze data.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS </strong>The overall mean and standard deviation for medical students’ perception of online assessments were 3.17 ± 0.65, respectively. Dental students’ perception of online assessment tests had an overall mean and standard deviation of 3.31 ± 0.77, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean perception score towards online assessment test between the MBBS and BDS students (p value 0.1401). The results indicate that both medical and dental students were satisfied with online assessment tests.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION </strong>Online assessment tests were well received by both MBBS and BDS students. The online assessment tests enhance student learning by allowing immediate feedback. Online tests should be conducted in MBBS and BDS colleges on a regular basis.</p> Rajeshwar Reddy Kasarla Naziya Khatoon Chet Kant Bhusal Nitasha Sharma Snigdha Shubham Laxmi Pathak Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 72 77 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51363 Regenerative Medicine's Current State of Affairs <p>The basic concept behind tissue engineering is to recreate existing surgical or mechanical device-related procedures, even if those procedures greatly reduced the rate of untimely death. The phrase "Tissue Engineering" (TE), coined in 1933 by Langer and Vacanti, refers to the time-on-demand of available organ donors and suitable complementary biological habitats.</p> <p>TE is the multifaceted product of researchers that have significantly modified and recreated the in vivo biological niche using a combination of synthetic biomaterials, cells of interest, and biochemical components, which are crucial for tissue growth. The disciplines of regenerative medicine have been transformed by the new generation of biomaterials, and the advancement of 3D architecture may allow us to replicate the perfect in vivo tissue organoid.</p> Hemant Kumar Halwai Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 1 2 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51395 Spontaneous Pneumothorax Associated with Covid-19 Infection: A Case Series <p>Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) virus, which mostly affects the respiratory system. As a result of the inflammatory response, mortality and morbidity are linked to fast clinical deterioration. Pneumothorax is a rare complication in COVID-19 patients that might exacer- bate the patient's hypoxia and necessitate rapid treatment.</p> <p>It is critical to evaluate alternate diagnosis and repeat imaging in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 who have seen an abrupt worsening. We present a case series of four individuals who had spontaneous pneumothorax despite having no other risk factors for pneumothorax other than recent COVID-19 infection.</p> Sanjog Kandel Manoj Karki Bidhata Rayamajhi Shatdal Chaudhary Niraj Kumar Jaiswal Narayan Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 78 82 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51364 Immediate Implant Placement in Aesthetic Zone: Crafting Smile with an Innovative Approach <p>Immediate implant placement is most commonly indicated when tooth extraction is performed owing to pathologies such as unrestorable caries or fractures. The primary advantage of this treatment modality is the diminution of healing time and reduced alveolar process resorption. Regenerative materials can be used as an adjunct with implants in order to triumph high implant survival rate and enrich good esthetic outcome. This case report illustrates treatment protocol and one-year clinical follow-up of a patient who underwent atraumatic extraction of his fractured mandibular central incisor, followed by immediate implant placement with bone grafts.</p> Soni Bista Bikash Kumar Baniya Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 10 02 83 86 10.3126/jucms.v10i02.51368