Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Nepal

  • R Thapa Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu
  • G Paudyal Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu
  • M K Shrestha Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu
  • R Gurung Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu
  • S Ruit Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu
Keywords: agriculture, dry macular degeneration, hypertension, illiterate, smoking, wet macular degeneration



The Age–related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a common cause of visual impairment and blindness worldwide in elderly.


This study aimed to explore the demographic characteristics, pattern and risk factors for AMD at a tertiary referral eye centre in Nepal.


This is a hospital-based prospective study, conducted at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Nepal from September 2008 to May 2009. All the consecutive cases of AMD diagnosed at the institute were included.


A total of 141 patients (266 eyes) with AMD recruited for the study. The mean age was 69.5 years (9.1SD) with three fifth males (58.9%). Housewives and occupations like agriculture comprised of 38.3% and 42.5% respectively. Three fourth (75.6%) of the patients were illiterate. The proportion of dry and wet AMD were found in 62.4% and 37.6% respectively. Bilateral involvement was seen in 88.7% of the subjects. Three fourth (71.4%) of the AMD eyes had presenting visual acuity less than 6/18. History of smoking was found in 69.9% of patients. Hypertension was the predominant systemic problem (45.4%) followed by diabetes mellitus (12.8%).


AMD is correlated with ageing in our study as well. Dry AMD is more in age groups 45-64 years and wet AMD at 65 years and older. Bilateral involvement with one eye dry and fellow eye wet AMD is more predominant (44%). Smoking and occupations like agriculture and housewife are significant risk factors for AMD. Likewise male sex, illiteracy and hypertension are other risk factors for AMD in hospital settings.


Kathmandu Univ Med J 2011;9(3):165-9


How to Cite
Thapa, R., Paudyal, G., Shrestha, M., Gurung, R., & Ruit, S. (2012). Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Nepal. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 9(3), 165-169.
Original Articles