Nepal Agriculture Research Journal <p>As far as we are aware, this journal is no longer being published.</p><p>The official publication of the Society of Agricultural Scientists, Nepal (SAS-N). Full text articles available.</p> Society of Agricultural Scientists Nepal (SAS-N) en-US Nepal Agriculture Research Journal 1029-533X Agro-morphological Variability Study of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Landraces in Jumla, Nepal <p>Barley is an important winter cereal crop in Jumla (2240-3000 masl), Nepal. It is grown in different cropping patterns in both <em>Khet </em>and <em>Bari </em>land conditions. A total of 207 accessions of barley landraces collected from various locations of Jumla were studied for agromorphological characteristics in Khumaltar and Jumla. Data on eight qualitative and five quantitative traits in 2-m row plot were recorded to assess diversity among the landraces. <em>Bhuwali, Chawali, Lekali </em>and <em>Pawai </em>were four farmer-named traditional barley varieties under cultivation in Jumla. A range of variability was observed among the accessions of barley landraces. All accessions are six-row covered barley possessing rough awns and whitish-brown grains. These landraces exhibit a range of variation in growth class, spike density and rachilla hair length. <em>Lekali </em>and <em>Pawai </em>are adapted to the high-altitude area of Jumla. Cluster analysis of measured data under on-farm and on-station conditions indicated five distinct clusters. Three principal components explained 84.3% and 60.2% of the total variation from on-station and on-farm, respectively.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</em></strong> pp. 1-11</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Salik R. Gupta Madhusudan P. Upadhyay Uma S. Shah Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 1 11 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11635 Participatory Crop Improvement of Nepalese Fingermillet Cultivars <p>A field study was undertaken on Nepalese fingermillet genotypes with the participation of the local community at pipaltar of nuwakot district during 2003 and 2004. The study included a) identification of superior fingermillet cultivars through diversity block management and mother set trial, b) seed Production of promising lines, c) farmers' field verification trial (diamond trial) And d) characterization and documentation of fingermillet genotypes. Results Revealed that mudke, chaure and jalbire are high yielding promising genotypes Suited to that area. From household surveys carried out among 46 samples (40%), 80 hh have revealed that mudke, chaure and seto kodo are preferred fingermillet cultivars. About 70% grow mudke, 46% grow chaure while 2% Grow Seto Kodo. The programme has successfully explored the potential of Local fingermillet cultivars by there evaluation and utilized them through Value added product development and market promotion.&nbsp;</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</em></strong> pp. 12-16</p><p>&nbsp;&nbsp;DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Sharad Bajracharya Ram C. Prasad Shiva K. Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 12 16 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11636 Evaluation of Hybrid and OPV Maize Varieties for Grain Yield and Agronomic Attributes under Farmer's Field Conditions at Dukuchhap <p>Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive years 2006 and 2007 in full season of maize (May-Sep) at Dukuchhap, Lalitpur to find out impact of growing hybrid and OPV maize in different rows combinations with respect to their pure stands in same environment of growing and to sort out non-lodging maize varieties. The experiments consisted of an open pollinated variety (OPV) 'Deuti' and hybrid 'Gaurab' in different row combinations (50% hybrid + 50% OPV, 75% hybrid + 25% OPV, 75% OPV + 25% hybrid plus their pure stands). The results showed that Gaurab (yellow, flint type) and Deuti (white, semi- flint type, selected from CIMMYT's material ZM 621) did not vary significantly in grain yield and yield components. There was no effect of mixed row culture between the OPV and hybrid for grain yield and yield attributes. A bivariate correlation coefficient between agronomic traits and ear traits indicated that there was a positive relation among these traits. However, a positive and highly significant (r = 0.766**) relationship between ear fill and ear length was observed while a very weak relation (r = 0.096*) between grain weight/ear and ear height was also noticed suggesting taller the ear height lower the grain yield/ear and vice versa. The findings of the study support that plant height and ear height were weakly related with other ear traits; nevertheless, these were highly related to grain weight/per plant. To cope with stalk lodging problem and to attain higher grain yield these varieties are equally potential and recommended to grow under Dukuchhap conditions.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9</em>, 2009,</strong> pp. 17-20</p><p>&nbsp;&nbsp;DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Min N. Paudel Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 17 20 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11637 Impact of Mulching on Wheat Yield and Weed Floras in the Mid-hills of Nepal <p>Studies on the effect of mulching and weed management strategies in wheat&nbsp; were initiated at Khumaltar during the winter season of 2000-2002. The&nbsp; treatments were weedy check, handweed alone, post emergence application&nbsp; of sulfosufuron, and NPK application together with or without mulching.&nbsp; Rice straw mulch was applied at the rate of 4 t/ha. <em>Phalaris minor,&nbsp; Alopecuros </em>sp., <em>Chenopodium album, Rumex crispus, Polygonum&nbsp; hydropiper, Stellaria media, Cannabis sativa, and Soliva anthemifolia </em>were&nbsp; the dominant species. Among them, <em>C. album, P. minor </em>and <em>Alopecuros&nbsp; aqualis </em>were the dominant species. The effect of mulching was seen six&nbsp; weeks after wheat planting. The weedy check with mulch suppressed the&nbsp; weeds about fifty percent compared to that of without mulching. Wheat&nbsp; yields together with yield attributing characters were also higher in the&nbsp; treatments with straw mulch.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</em></strong> pp. 21-26</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p>&nbsp;</p> Jagat D. Ranjit Robin Bellinder Julie Lauren John M. Doxhbury Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 21 26 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11638 Soil Fertility under Improved and Conventional Management Practices in Sanga, Kavrepalanchowk District, Nepal <p>A study was carried out to compare the fertility of soils under improved soil&nbsp; management practice with that of prevailing conventional practice and to assess the farmers&rsquo; perception on the improved practice in the upland&nbsp;&nbsp; farming system. The study was carried out in Nasikasthan Sanga of Kavrepalanchok district of Nepal. Soil samples were collected from fields under improved conventional practice. Samples were taken at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths and were analyzed for various physico-chemical properties to&nbsp; compare the fertility status of the soils under both the practices. Altogether 68 farmers were interviewed to have information on farming practices and information pertinent to improved soil management practice being adopted by them. Results from soil physico-chemical analysis showed higher fertility of soils under improved practice in terms of more favorable pH level, &nbsp;contents of exchangeable bases, available phosphorus and soil organic matter compared to prevailing conventional soil management practice. Moreover, majority of the farmers believed that soil fertility and physical condition of their upland soils had improved and that the productivity of major upland&nbsp; crops had also increased after the adoption of improved soil management practice. Improved practice could play an important role in the sustainable management of upland soils in the mid hills of Nepal. It is however, desirable to conduct long-term research to further ascertain the effect of the practice on soil fertility of different soil types and land uses.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</em></strong>, pp. 27-39</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p>&nbsp;</p> Ram K. Shrestha Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 27 39 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11639 Wheat Production under Long-term Application of Inorganic and Organic Fertilizers in Rice-Wheat System under Rainfed Conditions <p>Under rainfed rice-wheat cropping system, experiments were conducted on wheat variety Annapurna-2 from 1998 to 2002 to study the effect of continuous application of inorganic and organic fertilizers in longer run on wheat production and soil properties in alluvial soil of Khumaltar, Lalitpur at 1365 msal. Eleven different fertilizers combinations comprised of inorganic&nbsp; and organic fertilizers were used. The results of the five-year experiment &nbsp;indicate that the applications of optimal level of inorganic fertilizers could&nbsp; supply the plant nutrients to wheat crop to produce sustainable yield. On the other hand, organic fertilizers could help to increase the crop yield and maintain soil fertility at the same time. Residual effect of available&nbsp; phosphorus applied in previous rice crop had significant response on wheat yield. For maintaining soil fertility, application of FYM and incorporation of&nbsp; crop residue into soil are worth practicable.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</strong></em>, pp. 40-48</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Suresh K. Rai Yajna G. Khadka Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 40 48 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11640 Study on the Effects of Vermicompost on the Nodulation and the Yield of Chickpea <p>Pot experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replication and six treatments in the screenhouse of Soil Science Division, Khumaltar during the year 2003 and 2004. The objective of the experiment was to find out the effect of vermicompost in combination with or without soil and mineral fertilizers on the yield and other attributes of chickpea. The results showed an encouraging effect of vermicompost application on the plant height, root length and biomass dry weight of chickpea when vermicompost was applied in equal ratio with soil (5 kg each/pot) and 10:20:15 kg N: P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Vermicompost with equal ratio of soil (5 kg each/pot) also produced the highest mean grain yield of 10.6 gm per pot. However, no significant treatments effects were observed for root length and straw weights of the chickpea.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</strong></em>, pp. 49-55</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Sanu K. Bajracharya Suresh K. Rai Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 49 55 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11641 Response of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Botrytis) to the Application of Boron and Phosphorus in the Soils of Rupandehi District <p>A field experiment was conducted at Paklihawa Campus of the Institute of&nbsp; Agriculture and Animal Science, Rupandehi, Nepal, during Oct 2004 to Feb&nbsp; 2005 to study the effects of boron and phosphorus on the soil nutrient status,&nbsp; nutrient uptake by plant and yield of cauliflower (<em>Brassica oleracea </em>var.&nbsp; <em>botrytis </em>L.) variety <em>Snowball-16</em>. Sixteen treatment combinations, including&nbsp; four levels of boron (0, 0.65, 1.3, 1.95 kg boron ha-1) and four levels of&nbsp; phosphorus (0, 30, 60, 90kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>) were included. The soil was loamy&nbsp; with very low in boron. Curd yield, harvest index, boron and phosphorus&nbsp; uptake by plant and available boron in soil were significantly increased by&nbsp; the application of boron and phosphorus in soils. Available phosphorus in&nbsp; soils after the crop harvest was significantly increased by phosphorus&nbsp; application. The highest curd yield, boron and phosphorus uptake by plant as&nbsp; well as available boron and phosphorus in soils after the crop harvest were&nbsp; obtained from the application of 1.3 kg boron with 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>. The&nbsp; boron uptake by plant was decreased by the application of more than 1.3kg&nbsp; boron ha<sup>-1</sup> while the phosphorus uptake was increased with increased&nbsp; application of phosphorus upto 90 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>. There were quadratic&nbsp; responses of curd yield, harvest index and plant boron uptake to the applied&nbsp; boron; quadratic response of plant phosphorus uptake to the applied&nbsp; phosphorus, while responses of curd yield, and harvest index to the applied&nbsp; phosphorus were linear. Highly significant positive correlations between&nbsp; curd yield and leaf boron content (r = 0.68**) as well as curd yield and plant&nbsp; phosphorus content (r = 0.79**) were observed. In conclusion, the combined&nbsp; application of 1.3 kg boron and 60 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup> was found to be the best for&nbsp; cauliflower production under Paklihawa soil conditions of Rupandehi district&nbsp; and can be recommended to the growers of this region.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009, </strong></em>pp. 56-66</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Dhruba Dhakal Shree C. Shah Durga M. Gautam Rama N. Yadav Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 56 66 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11642 Effect of NPK on Vegetative Growth and Yield of Desiree and Kufri Sindhuri Potato <p><span>A field experiment was carried out to assess the effect of NPK on vegetative growth and yield of potato cultivars; Kufri Sindhuri and Desiree at different nutrient levels (</span><span lang="NE">0:0:0</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">50:50:50</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">100:50:50</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">100:75:50</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">100:75:100</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">100:100:100</span><span> and </span><span lang="NE">150:100:100</span><span> N, P</span><sub><span lang="NE">2</span></sub><span lang="NE">0<sub>5</sub></span><span> and k</span><sub><span lang="NE">2</span></sub><span lang="NE">0</span><span> kg ha<sup>-</sup></span><sup><span lang="NE">1</span></sup><span lang="NE">) </span><span>in sandy loam soils at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during </span><span lang="NE">1999/2000. </span><span>The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with </span><span lang="NE">4</span><span> replications. Plant height, number of stems, fresh weight of stem and leaves were recorded at </span><span lang="NE">15</span><span> days interval during crop growth period and tuber yield at maturity stage. Kufri Sindhuri was taller than Desiree at all the stages of plant growth. Increasing levels of NPK increased the plant height by </span><span lang="NE">15-42</span><span> percent. The levels of NPK imparted to a significant effect on fresh weight of leaves and stems at each successive&nbsp;&nbsp; stages of crop growth. Kufri Sindhuri responded nitrogen up to </span><span lang="NE">150</span><span> kg ha<sup>-</sup></span><sup><span lang="NE">1</span></sup><span lang="NE"> </span><span>while Desiree yielded higher at </span><span lang="NE">100:100:100</span><span> kg NPK ha<sup>-</sup></span><sup><span lang="NE">1</span></sup><span lang="NE">. </span><span>The yield increase of potato tuber was associated with increase in the plant height, fresh weight of leaves and stems as a result of applied NPK.</span></p><p><span><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</strong></em>, pp. 67-75</span></p><p><span>DOI: <a href=""></a><br /></span></p> Ram C. Adhikari Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 67 75 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11643 Influence of Long-term Use of Organic and Inorganic Nutrients on HLB Disease of Wheat under Rice-Wheat Cropping Pattern <p>Helminthosporium leaf blight (HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat in terai (plain) region of Nepal. This study was conducted to&nbsp;&nbsp; determine the effect of long-term application of various levels of nitrogen&nbsp;&nbsp; (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and organic nutrients on HLB disease of&nbsp; wheat. The experiment was superimposed on long-term fertility experiment conducted in RCB design with three replications under rice-wheat cropping pattern at National wheat research program (NWRP), Bhairahawa, Nepal. The treatments include various combinations of nitrogen 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, phosphorus 0 and 60 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>, and potash 0, 50 and 100 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> with or without Sesbania (<em>Sesbania cannabina) </em>and farm yard manure (FYM). Area&nbsp;&nbsp; under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated using the disease scores and yield parameters were recorded. Among the inorganic nutrients, long-term deficiency of potash in the field markedly enhances the HLB disease. Application of phosphorus in various doses increased the HLB severity in absence of potash. Regular application of at least potash 50 kg ha<sup>- 1</sup> in wheat noticeably reduced the HLB disease. Regular use of FYM 10 ton&nbsp;&nbsp; ha<sup>-1</sup> for long-term considerably reduced the HLB disease but long-term use of Sesbania as green manure did not show any impact on HLB severity.&nbsp;&nbsp; Inclusion of potash in nutrients considerably increased the yield and&nbsp;&nbsp; thousand grain weight (TGW) of wheat. In long term, balanced use of&nbsp;&nbsp; inorganic and organic nutrients with special attention on regular inclusion of&nbsp;&nbsp; potash and FYM in the nutrient combinations is vital in suppression of HLB disease under rice-wheat cropping pattern.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</strong></em> pp. 76-84</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Deepak Bhandari Anant P. Regmi Copyright (c) 2014-11-30 2014-11-30 9 76 84 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11644 Controlling Foliar Blight of Wheat through Nutrient Management and Varietal Selection <p>Helminthosporium leaf blight, a complex of spot blotch caused by <em>Bipolaris &nbsp;sorokiniana </em>and tan spot caused by <em>Pyrenophora tritici-repentis</em>, is one of&nbsp;&nbsp; the most important foliar diseases of wheat in Nepal. It appears in almost all wheat growing areas and causes severe yield loss every year. A study was&nbsp;&nbsp; conducted at Regional Agriculture Research Station (RARS), Tarahara, Sunsari during 2004-05 and 2005-06 wheat growing seasons to elucidate role of nitrogen in wheat genotypes for management of the disease. Field experiment was laid out on split plot design with three replications. Four doses of nitrogen in six different promising genotypes were tested. Nitrogen&nbsp;&nbsp; levels higher than 50 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> significantly reduced disease severity and increased grain yield in all genotypes but there was no significant differences in grain yield in the first year. In the second year, grain yield difference&nbsp;&nbsp; among the genotypes was significant. Area under disease progress curve(AUDPC) was not significant between two doses 100 and 150 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. The wheat genotypes showed different reactions to disease. Genotype BL 2047&nbsp;&nbsp; had the lowest incidence of disease followed by BL 1887, whereas BL 2217 had the highest incidence of the disease. Genotype BL 2196 produced the highest grain yield (2172 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and the lowest grain yield was obtained in Bhrikuti followed by BL 2089. These results suggested that fertilizer should be applied in soil at balanced dose 100:50:50 N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O kg ha<sup>-1</sup>. Growing relatively resistant genotypes with the balance dose of fertilizers can reduce foliar blight severity in wheat.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</strong></em> pp. 85-93</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Yuba R. Kandel Jaya P. Mahato Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 85 93 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11645 Digestibility of Ficus roxburghii, Castanopsis indica and Ficus cunia on Growing Buffalo from Western Hills of Nepal <p><span>Nine buffalo calves were subjected to three fodder tree species namely; Nimaro (Ficus roxburghii), Dhalne Katus (Castanopsis indica) and Rai Khanyu (Ficus cunia) for digestibility trial during November </span><span lang="NE">27</span><span> and December </span><span lang="NE">3</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">2005</span><span> in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal. Animals were kept </span><span lang="NE">7</span><span> days for adaptation for these fodders. Weighed&nbsp;&nbsp; amount of fodder tree leaves including twigs and small branches were fed&nbsp;&nbsp; two times a day and observation on fodder offered, refused and faeces voided&nbsp;&nbsp; were recorded daily. Chemical composition of fresh matter and faeces voided&nbsp;&nbsp; were carried out for dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), lignin, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). The mean DM content and their dry matter digestibility </span><span lang="NE">(</span><span>DMD) of these three fodder tree species were found </span><span lang="NE">27.86</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">46.02</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">34.72</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">73.21</span><span>, </span><span lang="NE">65.93</span><span> and </span><span lang="NE">71.28</span><span> percent, respectively. Strong negative correlations&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><span lang="NE">(</span><span>r=-</span><span lang="NE">0.75</span><span> to &ndash;</span><span lang="NE">0.78</span><span>; p&lt;</span><span lang="NE">0.05) </span><span>were observed between Ca and CP with fiber fraction (NDF and ADF). A weak correlation was also observed between P and other constituents with respect to digestibility. From the results, if there&nbsp;&nbsp; could be provision of low fiber content in dry season, the three main nutrients (Ca, P and CP) may easily be absorbed by the animals.</span></p><p><span><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</strong></em>, pp. 94-98</span></p><p><span>DOI: <a href=""></a><br /></span></p> Netra P. Osti Purna B. Chapagain Megh R. Tiwari Chet R. Upreti Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 94 98 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11646 An Empirical Analysis of Resource Productivity of Wheat in Eastern Tarai Region of Nepal <p>Different types of resource conservation technology (RCT) in wheat cultivation have been recently introduced and use of seed cum fertilizer zero till drill machine is one of them which was used in eastern terai region in wheat season of 2006/2007. A survey was carried out to study the productivity of wheat and compare the production between traditional and RCT method of cultivation. Altogether 31 farmers were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaires. Model used to estimate the productivity for both the methods was significant (p &lt; 0.01) which explained 96 and 97 per cent variation due to independent variables under study in wheat production of traditional and RCT method, respectively. Farmers used 160 kg seed/ha in traditional method while in RCT method it was 122 kg/ha. Similarly, they applied 148 and 137 kg nutrients as a total of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in traditional and RCT method, respectively. Average production of wheat grain in traditional and RCT method was 2456 and 2714 kg/ha giving average gross margin of Rs 16750.00 and Rs 23301.00/ha, respectively. This revealed 10 per cent reduction in total costs and 29 per cent increase in return by RCT method.</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</strong></em> pp. 99-108</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Ram B. Bhujel Ram N. Jha Bindeshwar Yadav Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 99 108 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11647 Prevalence of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 in Poultary Feed <p>A total of 65 poultry feed samples were examined for the detection of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> and aflatoxin B<sub>2</sub>) using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Samples were collected from Chitwan and Kavrepalanchock districts. Out of those samples examined a total of 49 (75.38%) samples were found positive. Out of 49 (75.38%) samples positive, 42 (85.71%) samples were found positive both with aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> and B<sub>2</sub> where as five (10.20%) samples were positive only with aflatoxin B1 and two (4.08%) samples were positive only with aflatoxin B2. Among them 13 (20%) samples were found positive having aflatoxin above permissible level. The concentration of aflatoxin in positive samples ranged from trace to 366 ppb (366 &mu;g/kg). Likewise, out of 52 samples examined in rainy season, 40 samples (76.92%) were found positive where as out of 13 samples examined in winter season 9 (69.23%) were found positive.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</em></strong> pp. 109-112</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Sita R. Aryal Durga Karki Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 109 112 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11648 Use of Ethephone and Indigenous Plant Materials in Ripening Banana in Winter <p>Post-harvest handling of banana is a crucial activity to get good quality fruit&nbsp; to the consumers. A post-harvest study on ripening of banana was carried out&nbsp; at Regional Agriculture Research Station, Khajura during winter season of&nbsp; 2005 to find out the effect of different materials in ripening of banana and&nbsp; study about shelf-life period. Dipping fruits in Kripone 2.56 ml per liter of&nbsp; water (ethephone 1000 ppm) for five minutes was found effective for banana&nbsp; ripening. Those fruits treated with ethephone 1000 ppm started to soften in&nbsp; three days and became ready to consume in five days with shelf-life of eight&nbsp; days. Fruits treated with 'Asuro' (<em>Adhatoda vesica</em>) started to become soft in&nbsp; five days where as fruits treated with 'Koiralo' (<em>Bahunia veriagata</em>) became&nbsp; soft in four days. By using these indigenous plant materials, we can prolong&nbsp; shelf-life of fruit by 2-3 days more than the Kripone-treated fruits. Use of&nbsp; ripe banana fruit also found effective to hasten ripening the banana with&nbsp; excellent taste. However, the shelf-life was relatively short (8 days). It is&nbsp; difficult to ripen the banana in winter without using any ripening materials.&nbsp; In untreated control, only 33% fruits started to become soft after 7-9 days of&nbsp; storage and were ready to consume in nine days. Rest 66% fruits were&nbsp; remain as such up to 11 days then after fruit started uneven softening ie some&nbsp; portion became soft and other portion remained hard. After 14 days fruits&nbsp; became black without softening and got spoiled. Overall percent weight loss&nbsp; was found 6.0 to 10.7 from initial to end of shelf-life period.</p><p><strong><em>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009</em></strong>, pp. 113-117</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p> Ram B. K.C. Durga M. Gautam Sundar Tiwari Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 113 117 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11649 Hybridization Technique in Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) <p>N/A</p><p><em><strong>Nepal Agric. Res. J. Vol. 9, 2009,</strong></em> pp. 118-128</p><p>DOI: <a href=""></a></p><p>&nbsp;</p> Bal K. Joshi Hari P. Bimb Kazutoshi Okuno Copyright (c) 2014-12-01 2014-12-01 9 118 121 10.3126/narj.v9i0.11650