Journal of NELTA <p>Official journal of the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association, Kathmandu. Full text articles available.</p> <p>All issues and articles prior to 2009 have been removed from NepJOL (20/08/2012) because they were not peer-reviewed. In an effort to improve the quality of the Journal of NELTA, only peer-reviewed articles are available here.</p> Nepal English Language Teachers' Association en-US Journal of NELTA 2091-0487 <p>© Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA)</p><p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association (NELTA)</p><p>The Journal of NELTA is copyright by Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA). Apart from citing/referencing in academic works, no part of any materials may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from its copyright owner – NELTA. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights may be addressed to NELTA or the editorial board at <a href=""></a>.</p> Story-based teaching: Activities for young learners <p>Not available.</p> Samikshya Bidari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 233 236 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27695 Variations in English: Attitudes and awareness <p>Not available.</p> Ram Ashish Giri Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 237 240 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27696 Students’ and parents’ attitude towards the SEE English test <p>This paper reports on a study that explored students’ and their parents’ attitudes towards the fairness and accuracy of the Secondary Education Examination (SEE)English test- a high stakes test in the Nepalese context. It is most probably the first empirical study that has extensively explored this area. The data generated through a longitudinal survey among 247 SEE candidates and semi-structured interviews with six students and their parents in both the pre-test and post-test contexts indicates that students had mostly positive attitudes towards the test fairness and its accuracy in the pre-test context but mostly negative attitudes in the post-test context. However, parents had mostly negative attitudes towards the test in both contexts. Both students and their parents raised questions regarding the accuracy and fairness of the listening and speaking test in the post-test context. Having collected both the qualitative and quantitative data, this study has gained a comprehensive picture of the complexity of the test impacts within the Nepalese educational context, as perceived by students and their parents. The implications of the study have also been highlighted.</p> Saraswati Dawadi Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 1 16 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27677 Teaching and testing of English listening and speaking in secondary schools in Nepal: Pretend for praxis? <p>Secondary English course requires testing of four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing independently. Secondary Education Examination (SEE) board conducts a written examination, which includes reading and writing skills, through different centres and English teachers are responsible to test students’ listening and speaking tests in their own schools and submit grades to District Education Office. Semi-structured interviews with secondary English teachers in private schools and school graduates investigated how the teachers practice listening and speaking skills in the classrooms and administer aural-oral tests. Findings indicate that private schools in the capital city have mandated <em>English-only </em>for communication in school premises with an expectation to develop students’ English language proficiency. Teachers focused on centre-based written examination and less emphasised the teaching and testing of listening and speaking skills. Teachers’ random assessment of students’ aural-oral skills without formal tests supported in declining the teaching of these skills. This article suggests that for realizing the examination effective, sustainable system needs to be developed for teachers to teach all language skills equitably.</p> Kesh Rana Karna Rana Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 17 32 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27678 A systematic analysis of a two-word concgram in Nepalese policy documents: A corpus-driven approach <p>Corpus linguistics can inform language teaching in various aspects from syllabus designing to creating exercises based on the real use of language. However, its use in language teaching is still rare. In the context of Nepal, though corpus linguistics forms a part of the University Curriculum in English Education, the students are rarely offered a practical experience of corpus analysis. The same is the case with teacher training courses. This paper followed an analytical procedure for identifying phraseological variation within a two-word ‘concgram’ that is a set of co-occurring words. In this paper, a two-word concgram, make/effort, is analyzed to identify concgram configurations, the most frequently used form, and its meaning by using concordance lines. Lastly, the paper presents the implications of corpus analysis in English language teaching.</p> Madhu Neupane Bastola Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 33 51 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27679 Contents and the language used in graffiti: A case of Kathmandu Valley <p>Graffiti is prevalent in modern cities across the world. It represents a range of issues and ideas, and its meaning can be interpreted socially, culturally, and politically. It features distinct forms of language. Using Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) approach, this study analyses the contents, language and linguistic features of 44 graffiti arts found in the Kathmandu Valley to interpret the meanings of the graffiti. The results of this study reveal multiple issues such as culture, politics, gender discrimination and violence against women. The use of language and linguistics in the graffiti seems distinct in terms of word choice, syntactic structure, and rhetorical devices. It was found that the graffitists used multiple modes such as sign, symbol, color, words with images and stylish writing structures. The study will be of great importance to the researchers who want to analyze the language of graffiti and interpret the meanings they denote and to contribute to the body of existing literature on linguistic studies of graffiti. It is also useful for course designers and educators as they can incorporate graffiti in the courses and use them as resource materials in the classroom.</p> Jagadish Paudel Pratiksha Neupane Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 52 76 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27680 Barriers to ICT use in EFL teacher education courses in Nepal: An activity theory perspective <p>The effectiveness of pre-service teachers’ ICT training during teacher education course is often linked with the teacher educators’ (TEs’) practices. TEs’ digital practices, however, are under-studied, thus, are not fully understood. This study, which draws on the theoretical tenets of Activity Theory, reports on the factors that limit TEs’ digital practices in a context where technology use has just begun to evolve. Using a multi-method case study, this study collected data from EFL TEs and policymakers. The analyses of the policy data and interviews reveal that multiple factors constrain TEs’ digital practices. A key finding of the study is that factors related to ICT policies, training for TEs and resources hindered the use of technology by TEs. Implications of these are discussed.</p> Suman Laudari Damian Maher Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 77 94 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27681 Students’ perspectives on technology integration in ELT <p>Technology integration in English language teaching (ELT) has changed the mode of classroom instruction at school. The use of modern technologies at public secondary schools within Nepal is a big challenge. This study explores students ‘perspectives on technology integration in English language teaching at public secondary schools in Nepal. The study was framed under qualitative research design that used focus group discussion to gather data from the six groups of students in the Kathmandu valley. The thematic analysis of their views under different categories revealed that the ELT with technology integration is a dire need for developing students’ language proficiency. Additionally, the results show that the learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) are aware of the advantages of teaching with technology but the insufficient ICT infrastructure at school and the lack of EFL teachers’ professional skills and knowledge of integrating technology into their daily pedagogical practices are main obstacles of technology integration. The study points out implications for ELT practitioners, researchers, policy makers of ICT in education along with stakeholders.</p> Renu Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 95 106 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27682 University teachers’ attitudes towards English language curriculum of M.Ed. semester system <p>A curriculum changes as per the concurrent philosophical and methodological changes of a country. This study investigates the Tribhuvan University (TU)teachers’ attitudes towards the current Masters level English language (semester system) curriculum. In order to achieve this goal, explanatory sequential mixed research design was employed. Forty-five English language teachers from both constituent and affiliated campuses of Tribhuvan University, Nepal, were purposively selected. The research shows that the university English teachers had positive attitude towards the current curriculum for its input and process. However, they did not like the context of its design and the implementation process. This implies that the policy maker and curriculum designers should make an analysis of the context in terms of situation and the needs of the stakeholders before selecting the courses and their contents so that the curriculum can be effectively implemented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pitamber Paudel Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 107 125 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27683 Bridging conceptual gaps for smooth teaching and learning <p>This paper primarily aims to reflect on the majority of my students’ inadequacies of using ‘remembering’, ‘understanding’, ‘analyzing’ and ‘evaluating’, four major levels of the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy (2001), a helpful reading and writing technique included in Kathmandu University’s first year first semester undergraduate compulsory English and professional communication course, of course for the benefit of all the concerned ones—especially for those from the Asian regions whose communication in English reveals a number of linguistic and technical problems. The focus is more on the level of analysis, because the students had more problems regarding this level. My purpose is to make the level of analysis simpler, more systematic and practical, outlining its nature and various forms, and the inadequacies involved on the part of(the) students, analyzing alongside an analysis part of an assignment submitted by one of my students and a short, well known-about text taken from elsewhere. In doing so, I resort to certain assumptions of a body of theories, namely that of social support theory, reader response theory, and Gestalt theory, apart from my (experimental) experiences of teaching the Taxonomy. These assumptions and experiences gave me insights into how contextually analytical responses are safer when compared to shallow critical responses. I found that shorter texts are more helpful in introducing students to the Taxonomy. I also came across realizations about the importance of balance between textual contexts and extensions of mind, about the effectiveness and beauty of heuristic as well as holistic approaches with emphasis on bridging upon the basic conceptual gaps because of which inadequacies and difficulties arise.</p> Haris C. Adhikari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 126 146 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27684 Language hybridity among Nepali Twitter users: Trend and possible implications <p>In Nepal, Twitter has recently been one of the fastest means of communication and information sharing app. This social networking site is used to express ideas, communicate messages, dispute opinions and expression of others and vent frustrations. What is striking is the use of hybridity or bilingualism in tweets in which Nepali and English are used freely and almost inseparably not just in chitchats but also in communicating information of public importance. Curious to see if such ybridity has the potential to contribute to changing perspectives on teaching and learning English, a brief study was undertaken in November-December 2018 as wells in June 2019. The study included selection of random tweets within the specific period of time and their analysis in terms of the currency and diversity of opinions expressed. The results show that hybridity is popular among Nepali tweeters not just in casual expressions, but also in serious communications, such as in formal complaints/notices, advertisements and commentaries on issues of public concern. The result also indicates that the ELT community cannot remain aloof of the language pattern.</p> Ganga Laxmi Bhandari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 149 161 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27685 Status of English language teaching in secondary level under different school interventions <p>Language is the primary medium of communication and expression of thoughts and ideas. In India, there are two official languages- Hindi and English. English has-been occupying a dominant position since independence. There have been serious attempts to integrate English language in the school curriculum since 1980s. In the schools of West Bengal, English is taught either as a first language or second language. The present study intends to find the status of teaching English language in the secondary schools of Siliguri (West Bengal) where the schools with three different boards, ICSE, CBSE and state boards are chosen. The sample consisted of 50 teachers and 50 students from a total of 25 schools. A survey method and observation inventory was used for collection of data. The conclusion is that English language teachers need to abreast themselves with the latest developments in the context of language teaching. The co-operation from the school, teachers, parents and students yield fruitful results in improving the status of English language teaching.</p> Deepika Adhikari Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 162 177 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27686 Veracities of teaching listening in Nepal <p>This study explores realities, problems and their solutions of teaching listening in English in secondary level education in Nepal. As it is a narrative inquiry, I chose three English teachers and six students from three different secondary level community schools of Kamalamai Municipality of Sindhuli district, Nepal as the participants of the study using purposive sampling procedure. The findings demonstrated that the listening skill is the neglected skill in our school education. The teachers do not pay much more attention to teach this skill in our community school by thinking teaching listening is not important for examination purpose. There is scarcity of audio-visual devices, the classroom is not techno-friendly, teachers are not dedicated and trained, monitoring strategies of concerned authority is not effective for teaching listening. Recommended solutions include - the students should be proactive and the school administration has to be responsible for making availability of listening equipment and materials. Similarly, the teachers should use various interactive and cooperative activities such as role-play, pair work, group work and communication games using authentic materials such as English films, favourite songs, funny short stories, some exciting programmes on radio, TV or the internet for the effectual teaching of listening.</p> Nanibabu Ghimire Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 178 190 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27687 Code-Mixing and literal translation in Nepal’s English newspapers <p>This study examines the texts published in English newspapers in Nepal to find out the code mixing and literal translation of Nepali language. For the study, the data were taken from the secondary sources. Mainly two English newspapers, The Himalayan Times and The Kathmandu Post published in Nepal were taken as the sources of the data purposively. Code mixing is the use of code from one language into another language in the course of using it in communication. Similarly, literal translation is translating the source language text into the target language text with the equivalence of structure, lexicon and morphology. Such code mixing and literal translation brings variation into target language. The study found out that the codes, which are associated with religion, particular culture, local context and situations are mixed with English language. Similarly, the popular expressions among the Nepalese context were found literally translated.</p> Sagar Poudel Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 191 203 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27692 Students’ preference for electronic and printed academic reading texts <p>Students’ preference for the medium of academic reading texts has been diversified in the modern era. Some students’ preference for attaining information and knowledge has been confined only to print media, some are found to be attracted to electronic media and some prefer to use both electronic and print media for their academic purposes. This article is based on the cross sectional survey carried out at nine campuses across Makawanpur district, Nepal in the Academic Year 2018-2019.The purpose of this study is to investigate the Bachelor of Business Studies students ‘preference regarding electronic and print media of reading texts. The researcher adopted simple random sampling to select 526 students from the population of 798students. To collect data, the researcher used a questionnaire regarding the students ‘preference for electronic and print medium of the reading texts. Frequency and percent statistics of students who preferred print medium of reading texts; and the frequency and percent statistics of students who preferred electronic medium of reading show that more students in the research study preferred the print medium of reading texts versus the electronic medium. The chi-square test of independenceÇ2 (1) = 0.631, critical value = 3.841 and p &gt; .05 show that statistically, there was no significant association between gender and the preferred medium of the academic reading texts.</p> Lok Raj Sharma Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 204 219 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27693 English language teachers’ perspectives on learner autonomy <p>This study explores the perceptions and practices of the English language teachers to create autonomous learning environment in the context of Nepalese secondary EFL classroom. The study further unpacks the role of the teachers in creating better learning opportunities for learners so as to promote learner autonomy. The research is based on interpretive paradigm to look into kaleidoscopic view of variety of perspectives, classroom practices and emerging dilemmas of the teachers. Based on the findings, the research showcases the deep rooted social practices and myths to bring tensions in the relation between teachers and students. The school environment has to be homely and autonomy supportive. It seems pertinent to think over the concept of learner autonomy globally and act locally adapting the global trends and issues of teaching and learning, and at the same time, there is a dire need to remain mindful of the translated concept of learner autonomy thinking contextually and pragmatically.</p> Chetnath Panta Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 220 232 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27694 Right strategies enhance professional development of language teacher <p>Not available.</p> Yogendra Kharel Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 241 244 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27697 A colorless sequence of structural analysis in Seto Dharatee <p>Not available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bipana Koirala Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 245 248 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27698 Editorial Vol.24(1-2) <p>Not available.</p> Ram Ashish Giri Copyright (c) 2019 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 24 1-2 10.3126/nelta.v24i1-2.27676