Journal of NELTA <p>Official journal of the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association, Kathmandu. Full text articles available.</p><p>All issues and articles prior to 2009 have been removed from NepJOL (20/08/2012) because they were not peer-reviewed. In an effort to improve the quality of the Journal of NELTA, only peer-reviewed articles are available here.</p> Nepal English Language Teachers' Association en-US Journal of NELTA 2091-0487 <p>© Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA)</p><p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association (NELTA)</p><p>The Journal of NELTA is copyright by Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA). Apart from citing/referencing in academic works, no part of any materials may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from its copyright owner – NELTA. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights may be addressed to NELTA or the editorial board at <a href=""></a>.</p> Editorial Vol.23(1-2) <p>Not available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ram Ashish Giri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23343 New varieties of English: Issues of incomprehensibility and unintelligibility <p>The present article discusses new varieties of English with reference to intelligibility and comprehensibility. It has been observed that new varieties of English display deviant phonological features. Speakers of these varieties insert a sound, delete a sound, substitute a sound, and rearrange sounds when they pronounce certain words. Moreover, they use deviant word stress patterns. These things affect the intelligibility of their speech. The new varieties differ at the level of discourse as well; the content and language used to perform certain speech acts such as coaxing, responding to questions, etc., may result in miscommunication. Thus, unintelligibility is a result of mother tongue interference and incomprehensibility is a result of mother culture interference. The article illustrates unintelligibility and incomprehensibility using examples from non-native varieties of English.</p> Z. N. Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 1 13 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23344 The need for ESP in Burundi: What do tertiary English teachers say sbout it? <p>This study examines the views that tertiary English teachers hold on the need for&nbsp;English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in Burundi higher education. To do so, it investigates the extent to which they are familiar with the theory and practice of&nbsp;ESP. For this study, 32 English teachers were contacted to participate in it. They&nbsp;were all requested to complete an online questionnaire, but only 17 proved willing to do so. The findings revealed that the majority of teachers are familiar with the practice of ESP. Although many of them reported to have high familiarity with the field of ESP, a few of them conduct a Needs Analysis (NA) before teaching ESP courses. Results also indicated that tertiary English teachers highly acknowledge the importance of teaching ESP in Burundi higher Education and, therefore, would&nbsp;encourage the ministry of education to fund an ESP project.</p> Arcade Nduwimana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 14 24 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23345 Should teachers use L1 in EFL classroom? <p>English language teachers customarily rule out the use of mother tongue for teaching English. Reflecting on the theoretical underpinnings and empirical research on the use of mother tongue (L1) in English classroom and its ongoing debate the present study aims to explore teachers’ and students’ perceptions of it. A mixed method approach using questionnaire and interview is employed to analyze Bangladeshi university teachers’ and students’ belief and perceptions of teaching English with the help of L1. The study also attempts to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of using L1. Results indicate that both teachers and students perceive the necessity of judicious use of L1 to facilitate learning and acquisition of English as a foreign language (EFL).</p> Shahnaz Mahmud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 25 39 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23346 Retention of English language tension in multilingual communities of Nepal: A review of teachers’ narratives <p>This article discusses the voices of teachers about shifting from Nepali to English&nbsp;medium in community schools in Nepal and suggests ways to solve some of the problems of the English language in schools of multilingual communities. The article is based on previously published teachers’ narratives in several issues of ELT Choutari web magazine in the past ten years. The teachers’ narratives, which are discussed in this article, focused on English language teaching pedagogies in Nepali government schools. The article analyses the problems, which several teachers raised in their narrative articles, and offers some suggestions to overcome them. The article begins with a discussion about the multilingual context of Nepal, language policy and the English language in schools. Moreover, the article discusses community schools’ interest in the English language, teachers’ perceptions of English as a medium of instruction and schools’ expectations of improving educational quality.</p> Karna Rana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 40 53 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23347 Turn-taking and gender differences in language classroom <p>The study aims at studying gender differences in the ways male and female students take turns and participate in a mixed-gender classroom. Two groups of first-year English compulsory classes held at two different departments (Geography and Economics) at the University of Karachi took part in the study. The results revealed that in the Geography Department, where there was a female teacher, male students were more dominating as compared to the female students who hardly participated in the class. They took more turns and participated better in the classroom discussion. In addition, they also interrupted the teacher and the female counterparts when they tried to contribute to the discussion. On the other hand, at the Department of Economics, female students had more number of turns. They dominated the classroom as compared to the male students. Besides, the study revealed that the gender of the teacher played an important part in shaping the discourse taking place in the classroom.</p> Kaukab Abid Azhar Nayab Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 54 67 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23349 Boosting students’ creativity in the EFL class through higher order thinking activities <p>This article is a depiction of my concern in the implementation of higher order thinking activities in the EFL classroom. The article has explored the idea of higher order thinking along with its impact on students. Most importantly, it has given the scenario of how competent the teachers have to be in order to plan the lessons with higher order thinking activities. The article has picked up the real classroom scenarios where students came up with better output with higher order thinking activities. The content, the process and the product were all made the major concern in the article. Overall, the article develops an awareness on the exercise of higher order thinking activities in the EFL classroom.</p> Vidhya Pokhrel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 68 75 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23351 IELTS Writing Test: Improving Cardinal Test Criteria for the Bangladeshi context <p>International English Language Testing System (IELTS) has become a widely used and globally accepted test for non-natives. It is conducted at more than a thousand centres in at least 130 countries (British Council, 2016), including 12 centres in Bangladesh (“Take IELTS test in or nearby Dhaka”, 2018). It also encompasses all four independent skills of the English language. Due to its popularity and effectiveness as a test, it is important to focus on assessment procedures of IELTS Writing tasks in the Bangladeshi context which is inconsistent with cardinal test issues. Thus, this article provides critical commentary on the IELTS writing test based on five cardinal issues for a proper test: reliability, validity, practicality, authenticity, and washback in connection with Bangladeshi as well as other similar ESL contexts. The documentary analysis of this article may help further research to enhance the utility of the IELTS writing test to measure ESL writing competence in a global context as an international test.</p> S M Akramul Kabir ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 76 89 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23352 Pre-service English language teachers’ perceptions towards teaching grammar <p>This article explores the perceptions of pre-service English language teachers studying at Master’s level under Education faculty at Tribhuvan University Nepal towards grammar and grammar teaching employing a qualitative research design. Three pre service English teachers were involved in this study, out of which two were females and one was male. The research participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview technique to collect relevant information to fulfill its purpose. The finding several that pre-service English teachers are in favour of teaching grammar. However, they believe that grammar should not be taught giving rules directly. All of the participants favour the use of inductive method of teaching grammar though they were taught through the use of deductive method at school.</p> Mohan Singh Soud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 90 104 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23353 Teacher education courses: Are they germane to classroom practice for novice teachers? <p>The article analyses novice teachers’ perception on the pre-service teacher education courses of English at Tribhuvan University (TU) and to describe their beliefs and satisfaction on teaching profession. It also aims to describe novice teachers’ practice to implement the acquired knowledge and skills of these courses in their teaching field. Narrative inquiry was adopted as a research method and three novice teachers of community school of Sindhuli were selected as informants following purposive sampling technique. The semi-structured interview was used in order to elicit in depth data from the participants. Content analysis framework was used to analyse data by developing main themes into codes and using them to look for relevant features in the text. The findings divulge that pre-service teacher education courses are supportive and satisfactory for novice teachers as it provides methodological skill and theoretical knowledge to them to teach in the classroom. The novice teachers, who strongly believe in the teaching profession, also think that the contents are theoretically appropriate but they lack some practical applications.</p> Nani Babu Ghimire ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-30 2018-12-30 23 1-2 105 115 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23354 Incorporating EFL websites in class: Bangladeshi teachers’ perceptions <p>Incorporating Information-Technology in classes is revolutionizing English language teaching (ELT) practices. Since teachers are the key personnel, their attitudes towards the process determine its success. This study presents the results of a study investigating Bangladeshi university level English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ perceptions of incorporating EFL websites in their classes. The findings revealed that private university teachers’ have more positive attitude than public university teachers do. In addition, both private and public university teachers reported of logistic limitations and systematic complications in their respective institutions. Following this, the study proposes enhancing administrative collaborations, arranging teacher-student skill development programmes, and creating customized websites for Bangladeshi ELT contexts.</p> Nousin Laila Bristi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 116 128 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23356 Voice Recording in second language outside the classroom: Process and product <p>In Vietnam, English is a foreign language. Therefore, students do not have many opportunities to practise speaking outside the classroom. Inside the classroom, teachers focus on teaching grammar explicitly. To enable students to practise their speaking skills, Facebook closed groups were employed as a learning platform. Seventeen students were asked to record their speech on suggested topics, post them on Facebook closed groups and comment on their friends’ works within six weeks. The first and final recordings were employed to analyse in terms of fluency and complexity. These students were also interviewed after the course. They supposed that voice recording enabled them to have opportunities to practise their speaking skills. The first and final recordings showed that students improved their fluency and lexical complexity but not for syntactic complexity.</p> Thinh Le ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 129 141 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23357 Using technology in teaching English at the S.S.C. level <p>In this an era of technology, new technologies particularly computer, multimedia, mobile phone and the internet offer possibilities for overcoming geographical and cost barriers in teaching and learning. This study attempts to trace the use of technology in teaching English at the S.S.C. (Secondary School Certificate) level in Bangladesh. It also focuses on the impact of using technology in teaching and learning English. Eight teachers and 60 students from four private schools in Dhaka city were selected to survey the use of technology in teaching the English Language. The researchers employed the mixed methods research to carry out the study where two sets of questionnaires for the teachers and the students and a semi-structured interview only for the teachers were used to collect data. The findings showed that using technology in teaching has both the positive and the negative impacts. Teachers like to use technology in their classroom but limited time and lack of training and technical support from the authority hamper the mode of teaching. The students also feel comfortable in technology affiliated classroom, but sometimes they fail to catch the concept clearly as they become inattentive due to the lack of proper engagement of the teachers in the classroom.</p> Sifat Ullah Quazi Farzana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 142 152 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23358 Exploring the utilization of technology in teaching English: Practices and impediments <p>The utilisation of technology into classroom practices basically promotes studentcentered instructions that require teachers to be professionally well trained and confident enough to use various technology tools and resources. This study was conducted to explore secondary school EFL teachers’ experiences and practices of modern technology usage into their classroom pedagogy and possible impediments of utilizing technology tools. Eight EFL teachers were purposefully selected from public secondary schools of the Kathmandu valley. A semi-structure interview was administered to collect the required data. The thematic data analysis revealed that the EFL teachers employed different pedagogical strategies for the effective integration of technology; however, some impediments were identified such as insufficient professional ICT skills and knowledge of EFL teachers, inadequate ICT infrastructure at school, teachers’ workload and time constraint, and digital device among students. This study suggests that EFL teachers need professional development trainings particularly designed on the TPACK framework, adequate ICT infrastructure at school, revised teachers’ workload and time constraint, and supportive school environment to promote technology utilization into EFL pedagogy.</p> Renu Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 153 168 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23360 Content, Language and Technology: Perspectives and Prospects <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Language learning is probably as ancient as human kind. Man has been communicating in one form or the other since the time he evolved. Such means of communication has undergone a process of evolutionary changes to stabilize as language and provide an identity to its user.</p> <p>With language becoming the principal source of interaction, the man in his curiosity and wisdom, began to analyse it to facilitate teaching/learning of the same easily. The present article is a conclave of such attempts (researches) and takes into account a historical perspective. While doing so an attempt has been made to discuss topics such as Second Language Acquisition (SLA), Continuing Professional Development (CPD) and Information Communication Technology (ICT).</p> S Mohanraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 169 173 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23362 Teaching a five-paragraph essay <p>Writing an essay requires usto think through whatwe are going to do. Every essay has a beginning, middle, and an end (Levin, 1997). In a five-paragraph essay, the first paragraph is generally understood as <strong><em>introduction. </em></strong>An effective introduction demands readers’ interest and give them a sense of the topic and purpose (Gardner, 2005). The next three paragraphs consist of the <strong><em>body of the essay. </em></strong>The body of the essay explains and supports the thesis with details; further develops ideas in a clear sequence. The fifth paragraph is <strong><em>conclusion</em></strong>. It incorporates the importance of the thesis statement, reflects on the larger significance of the topic, and brings the essay to a logical manner (Gardner, 2005).</p> Ganesh Kumar Bastola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 174 178 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23365 Teaching communication skills: Getting things done (Requesting and responding) <p>Making communication meaningful in English as a foreign language (EFL) context like Nepal is very essential. This lesson focuses on socializing, where students make requests and respond to the requests made.</p> Rajendra Joshi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 179 181 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23366 Interactive Teaching and Learning Techniques <p>Many teachers still follow the traditional method of lecturing to teach English as a foreign language rather than making students actively engage in learning processes. This lesson focuses on different activities to engage beginners actively to learn English language.</p> Manita Karki ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 182 184 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23367 Is transmission of knowledge more important than child-centeredness in early grades? <p>Hirsch, E.D., Jr. (2016) <em>Why Knowledge Matters: Rescuing Our Children from Failed Educational Theories</em>. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. Pages: 269, Price: $29.50 (paperback), ISBN-13: 978-1-61-250952-5</p> Madhu Neupane ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 185 188 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23368 A method does not deskill teachers, rather it empowers them <p>Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000, second edition). <em>Techniques and Principles of Language Leaching</em>. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, Pages: 189. Price- U$ 80. ISBN: 9780194423601</p> Gobinda Niroula ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 23 1-2 189 192 10.3126/nelta.v23i1-2.23369