Journal of NELTA <p>Official journal of the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association, Kathmandu. Full text articles available.</p> <p>All issues and articles prior to 2009 have been removed from NepJOL (20/08/2012) because they were not peer-reviewed. In an effort to improve the quality of the Journal of NELTA, only peer-reviewed articles are available here.</p> en-US <p>© Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA)</p><p>Authors are required to transfer their copyright to the Nepal English Language Teachers' Association (NELTA)</p><p>The Journal of NELTA is copyright by Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA). Apart from citing/referencing in academic works, no part of any materials may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from its copyright owner – NELTA. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights may be addressed to NELTA or the editorial board at <a href=""></a>.</p> (Dr Ram Ashish Giri) (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 07 Jun 2022 08:40:35 +0000 OJS 60 Poetry in the Language Classroom: Humanizing Teaching Material <p>Not Available</p> Samikshya Bidari Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.26(1-2) <p>Not Available</p> Ram Ashish Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 But How Am I Doing? Autoethnographic Reflections of a Beginning English Language Teacher <p>Beginning English Language Teaching (ELT) brings many issues teachers experience that questions one’s teaching confidence and abilities. Seeking feedback from teaching peers can be invaluable, but self and student feedback can quell fears and doubts. Sharing such experiences with others involves risk, but can assist others on their journey to becoming confident ELT teachers. To reflect on my experiences as a beginning ELT teacher, an autoethnographic account is presented. It displays my fears, the need for constant feedback and the eventual acceptance that I did not need constant reassurance to evaluate my teaching performance. This account also demonstrates the usefulness and contributions that an autoethnographic account of me as a beginning teacher may bring. First, it discusses the field of beginning teaching and challenges doing ELT may bring. This is followed by an explanation of writing an autoethnography, ethical considerations and background details on this account. The autoethnographic account is written using constructed vignettes to demonstrate moments of crisis and resolution. This account closes with a discussion and some conclusions about the value of using autoethnography in the ELT field.</p> Michael Nycyk Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Online Teaching during COVID-19 in Bangladesh: Challenges Faced by the EL Teachers <p>The study explored the challenges faced by secondary and higher secondary English language (EL) teachers in Bangladesh while teaching their learners online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Like teachers in most countries across the world, Bangladeshi EL teachers had to abruptly switch to online mode of teaching from in-person classes without much preparation. Following the constructivist research paradigm and a qualitative multiple case study approach, four secondary and four higher secondary EL teachers were interviewed to gather in-depth data on the challenges they encountered. The findings showed that the main challenges for the teachers included: unavailability of devices, falling interest, poor attendance of learners, less interaction in classes, lack of technological skills and training, financial hardship, unstable internet connections, almost no practice of language skills, lack of online testing schemes, negative mental and physical impacts, and the overall perceived inefficacy of online EL classes. The paper also discusses the implications of the main findings and proposes some recommendations for the teachers and other stakeholders concerned.</p> Md Abdur Rouf, Harun Rashid Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 High-Stakes Test Pressure and Anxiety in the Nepalese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Learners <p>Despite a growing body of research on language test impact, little is known about the impacts of a high-stakes test on students in the Nepalese context. This paper reports on a study that explored the impact of an English as a foreign language (EFL) test on students in Nepal. The data generated through a student survey (n=247), oral diaries (n=72) and semi-structured interviews (n=24) with students and parents indicate severe impact of the English test on students. The majority of students reported that they were under tremendous pressure to perform well on the test and they had a high level of anxiety associated with the test. There were several indications that students had test related anxiety mainly because of their perception that poor performance on the test has negative effects on their social prestige and on career prospects. Additional reasons of their anxiety included high expectations from their parents and teachers. Finally, some of the pressing policy, pedagogical and research implications of the findings are discussed.</p> Saraswati Dawadi Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Language of Dramatic Monologue in Poe’s “The Raven” <p>Dramatic monologue had been used as a powerful tool to express emotions and feelings through the characters in the ancient Greek drama. It received the proper recognition in the Victorian era as a new form of literary device when the various poets and writers started using it in their works. Edgar Allan Poe was not an exceptional. This article explores the language of dramatic monologue in Edgar Allan Poe’s poem “The Raven”. It aims to look at the poem through the three perceptible features of the dramatic monologue: speaker/narrator, audience/listener, and occasion. It examines how the speaker’s soliloquy speech–moaning for the loss of his wife–changes into a powerful dramatic monologue. Obsessed with pain and agony, the speaker’s dramatic monologue escalates finding a listener, ebony raven inside the room. Throughout the poem, the occasion of the cold December becomes the vital point to bestow cryptic feelings to readers. In addition, the article provides an analysis of poetic structures through figurative languages which have made the poem pedagogically rich and their impact has taken the speaker’s dramatic monologue in different level.</p> Motikala Subba Dewan Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Addressing Problems with Reading in English: A Case Study of Five Bangladeshi Teachers <p>Reading is generally considered as one of the essential language learning skills. Unfortunately, in most Bangladeshi government secondary schools, reading is not given its due respect. Recent research indicates that reading is as much important a skill as speaking or writing and therefore, Bangladeshi teachers need to change their mindset towards the significance of reading in classroom, to make the L2 learning a helpful experience for students. Five Bangladeshi teachers from three different schools took part in the study. This study is aimed to see Bangladeshi teacher’s analysis of reading problems of their students and the teaching strategies they use in classrooms for teaching reading skills by using questionnaire and interviews as research tools. The research found that teachers recognise students’ reading problems and sincerely try to address these but their biggest impediment is the class size for which students are left alone with their reading difficulties. If this skill is not aptly addressed at this level, learning the other three language skills will be difficult for the second language learners. Hence this research suggests that teachers’ analysis of the reading problems should be given importance to ensure students’ maximum L2 learning.</p> Syeda Tabinda Sadaf Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Differentiated Reading Instruction: Teacher Beliefs and Strategies <p>With an increasingly diverse student population in the classroom, it is imperative that teachers feel confident about their ability to teach reading to children who have varied reading proficiency to read. This study has explored in-service teacher beliefs on learner differences in reading instruction in school classrooms that instigated teacher strategies in meeting learner needs. Data were collected from classroom observation and interviews from two experienced teachers. Transcripts and field notes were coded and analyzed thematically. The result indicated that the teachers had high expectations for their students, however, they lacked sufficient skills to differentiate reading instruction to address the needs of students on a regular basis. Classroom instruction was mostly dominated by lecture methods and the materials and activities were limited to textbooks. The teachers saw reading differences as a classroom reality, recognized students reading differences in the classroom, and felt the need to grow every learning potential in reading. Some of the teaching strategies that aligned with differentiated reading instruction were: flexible grouping, library lesson and choice in reading, differentiated support, multisensory presentation of lessons, extension activities for high achieving readers, activating background knowledge and making connection, peer tutoring, exploratory activities, curriculum compacting, ongoing assessment and feedback, differentiated questioning, differentiated assignment, repeated instruction, and using technology.</p> Basanta Raj Dhakal Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Unpacking Teachers’ Experiences of Teaching Writing at the Undergraduate (Bachelor) Level in Nepal <p>Teachers’ experiences prove that second language writing (L2 writing) is a challenging task. Embracing a phenomenological approach to research, this study unpacks teachers’ lived experiences of teaching English as a second language (ESL) writing at the undergraduate (bachelor) level in Nepal. Specifically, it explores how teachers teach writing, what kind of assignments they assign to their students, what they feel comfortable and uncomfortable with teaching writing, what they want to improve in their teaching, and what their students struggle with in carrying out their assignments. For collecting data, I used a written open-ended questionnaire as a research tool and I analyzed the resulting data thematically. The study reveals that, out of nine teachers, only four strove to embrace a process approach to writing. The findings show that, as reported by the teachers, students most often react negatively to writing assignments and struggle in their writing. The teachers assign several long and short assignments, and, by their responses, it can be understood that all intended to improve their teaching, ranging from coherence and cohesion to contextualizing their teaching.</p> Jagadish Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Japanese University Students <p>One of the many recent research interests in English language teaching in Japan is to develop student’s language skills through vocabulary learning, especially focusing on vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs). Our study examined the different vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs) that proficient and non-proficient Japanese university students used to accomplish the learning tasks in the English language classrooms. It also sought to find out the significant difference between the two groups of students in vocabulary learning strategy use. The findings revealed that as many non-proficient students as proficient students used the same various VLSs in their English language classes. There were significant differences found between the two groups of students in their use of VLSs, specifically in four kinds of VLSs. These differences in VLSs use included social, memory, cognitive and metacognitive VLSs. In fact, there were instances when non-proficient students used VLSs more than proficient students. Implications for EFL as well as further research directions are discussed.</p> Shotaro Ueno, Jonathan Aliponga Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Written Noun Pattern Sequences among Secondary School Students in Malaysia <p>The following research work aimed to investigate the language change of learners through their usage of noun pattern in order to identify which words occur with which patterns and then create a repertoire of the three learners’ particular ways of using them. In order to do so, like previous studies, the study relied on the theoretical framework of Hunston’s Pattern Grammar Approach (1997) and the conceptual framework of Larsen-Freeman’s Complexity Theory (2006). This mixed method study adopted a longitudinal research approach into Chau (2015) students’ data to observe the commonly occurred noun pattern sequences within their writing tasks over three years. This helped to understand the changes on the noun pattern about language learning by associating meaning production via noun pattern sequences. Data collection and analysis method was adopted from Tashakkori &amp; Teddlie, 2010. The codification of noun patterns were done quantitatively and then its frequency was quantified. The five nouns have been identified from the analysis at keyness cut-off of 25 via Keywords Extractor followed by a codification of noun pattern sequences done via the framework by Collins Cobuild English Dictionary and Francis et al. (1998). The result of the analysis shows that students do follow noun patterns yet they also tend to produce structures in their very unique ways. Likewise, the repetition of pattern over the years observed in learners suggests language could be both regressing and progressing simultaneously, unlike the developmental leader metaphor applied in most educational settings. In other words, the study suggests that students should be acquainted with patterns instead of words in isolation because their association with different words makes them a natural accompaniment to a lexical approach. This paves the way for unorthodox scoring or marking system, shifting the focus from error analysis to meaningful production of language.</p> Shafinaz Sikder, Nur Filzah Ahmad Nadzri, Laneesha Karunagaran Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Teaching and Learning English in a ‘Non-textbook’ Environment <p>This research paper aims at exploring the non-textbook environment in English classrooms. This study has portrayed the limitations of textbooks highlighting the effectiveness in learners’ achievements when teaching English in a non-textbook environment. With an ethnographic inquiry, the study reflects the author’s experience of being in the non-textbook environment through the portrayal of her subjectivity. The methods to collect data were participant/field observation and interview. The exploration of students’ learning while in the non-textbook environment has been depicted in the paper. Overall, the paper anticipated to extend the mindfulness upon the teachers who can think of including activities in an English language classroom without textbooks.</p> Vidhya Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Global Englishes and their Impact on Teaching <p>English, a means of global communication for international diplomacy, trade, work, media, and academics, has been inclusively recognized as Global Englishes (GE). This paper reviews the wider spread of English throughout the world from GE perspective and examines its impacts on the teaching of English. Moreover, it argues for the significance of GE informed pedagogy, which incorporates codeswitching, polylanguaging or translanguaging, with due respect to the diversity of English in Nepal’s context. By reviewing and analyzing related literature, it reports that GE perspective, as a paradigm that also includes World Englishes, English as Lingua Franca, English as an International Language and translanguaging, provides a new perspective for teaching English against the monolingual ‘Standard English Model’ pedagogy. Researchers have developed the teaching strategies incorporating the major themes of GE and reported positive as well as negative attitudes of the stakeholders in various contexts. This article has research and pedagogic implications as it provides useful insights for teachers and researchers for further research in this area.</p> Gobinda Puri Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Continuous Professional Development of Woman English Language Teachers <p>This study explored woman English as a Foreign Language teachers’ perceptions and practice of professional development. In this research, semi-structured interviews were used for data collection from purposefully selected participants. The participants were three secondary level woman English language teachers of Rupandehi district, state no. 5, Nepal. These teachers had a proper understanding of professional development and were found to put significant personal effort into their professionalism including the training given by the Ministry of Education. In this study, I used the theory of Liberal Feminism. Jaggar (1983) advocates that society as whole benefits from the public contributions of woman in general and educated woman in particular. The study contributes to all concerned stake holders including, teachers, students, teaching institutions, training centers and associations, and trainers to understand the value of professional development for woman EFL teachers, plan and provide more opportunities, and take it into the main stream of ELT discourse to improve the status of woman English language teachers in academia in Nepal.</p> Kamala KC Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Languages in Education: A Critical Ethnography of a Micro-level Policy <p>This article explores the language policy in education (henceforth, LPE) at the local level. Adopting the critical ethnography study for 6 months at Vyas Municipality, I reveal what ideological awareness the policymakers and arbiters have on LPE and how do they interpret and appropriate it in multilingual school setting. The information collected through in-depth interviews, FGD, participant observation, and document reviews have been analyzed, interpreted, and triangulated critically. The study shows three major findings regarding LPE in local government; first, LPE has created a public debate and ideological discrepancy in multilingual school contexts; the second, the local LPE has diverse interpretation, appropriation, and practices; and the last, the English language policy (ELP) appears as a ‘black hole’, which has been gradually swallowing other local and indigenous languages. However, the language policymakers and arbiters have been gradually raising critical awareness for appropriate LPE and its practices that seems a positive advancement at the local level.</p> Basanta Kandel Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 University Teachers’ Strategies in Dealing with Disruptive Classroom Behaviours in Nepal <p>Unwanted behaviours of students that impede the normal functioning of the classroom has become a centre of concern of the majority of the teachers and university teachers are also no exception to this matter. This paper is an attempt to explore teachers’ approaches and strategies in dealing with “disruptive” behaviour in Nepalese university classrooms. Using non-random sampling, 15 university teachers who have more than five years of teaching experience in the corresponding fields were chosen as the participants of the study. The tools for data collection were an open-ended questionnaire and a semi structured interview and they were administered following all ethical considerations. The study, based on Dreikurs’s mistaken model for classroom management (1968), found that teachers divided teachers’ talking time (TTT) and students’ talking time (STT), minimized their talking time, played an instrumental role in not allowing students to divert the academic discussion into non-academic ones. Then, the teachers and students collectively formulated dos and don’ts before the semester began and whenever there was a disruption in most of the contexts, those rules and regulations were acknowledged and stopped students from monopolizing classroom discussion.</p> Parmeshor Baral, Kabita Khadka Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Textese and its Impact on the English Language <p>The growing interests of college students towards using Facebook (FB) features have invented newer texts for a faster online communication. Such unique textese and digitalese reside in their minds and hearts. Many scholars, therefore, currently advocate for exploring a new avenue to adapt certain linguistic contents (LCs) of FB in promoting and developing a language. Amidst, the LCs of such social networking sites allow users to entertain better interactions. Nevertheless, their indiscriminate use exerts threats to the existing body of the English Language (EL). In this context, this qualitative study tries to reconnoitre typical characteristics of textese based on purposively selected observation data from FBs of 20 college students and documentary data from published journals or books. It further analyzes how such contents affect phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels of the EL. The study concludes that the LCs impose problems to the EL; however, they require integrations into current form of the EL without causing serious problems because of their influences on netizens.</p> Rameshwar Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of English as a Medium of Instruction Policy in a Private School in Nepal: An Examination <p>English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI) has become an important academic issue for further discussion in the context of Nepalese education system. Many parents and community members believe it gives children a viable route toward Socio-economic mobility and global citizenship, although researchers have mixed opinions about its effectiveness. In south Asian countries such as Nepal, EMI has been adopted as a mandatory practice as early as possible, particularly in the private schools and also increasingly in government schools. Based on a small-scale action research on teachers and students of a private school situated in the Western Nepal, this article examines the conditions in which the school level decision-makers are forced to adopt EMI as a school’s language-of-education policy. In this article, I analyze both students’ and teachers’ views and reflections on EMI to argue that it can be effective and relevant if conducted in a way that suits the local context and enables participants to recognize its value.</p> Prakash Chandra Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Nepal English Language Teachers’ Association (NELTA) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000